Green Revolution (Agriculture) | Wikipedia audio article
The. Green Revolution or. Third, agricultural. Revolution is. A set, of research, technology. Transfer. Initiatives. Occurring, between. 1950. And the late. 1960s. That increased, agricultural. Production. Worldwide, particularly. In the developing, world beginning. Most markedly. In the late 1960s. The. Initiatives. Resulted. In the adoption of new technologies. Including. High yielding, varieties. Hy. Vees, of cereals. Especially. Dwarf wheats, and Rice's, in, association. With chemical. Fertilizers and, agro, chemicals and, with controlled, water supply. Usually, involving. Irrigation. And new methods, of cultivation. Including. Mechanization. All. Of, these together, were seen as a package. Of practices. To supersede. Traditional. Technology. And to be adopted. As a whole both, the Ford Foundation and. The Rockefeller. Foundation. Were heavily, involved. One. Key, leader was Norman, Borlaug, the father. Of the Green Revolution. Who. Received, the Nobel, Peace Prize in. 1970. He. Is credited with saving over, a billion, people from starvation. The. Basic, approach, was the development. Of high yielding, varieties of, cereal. Grains. Expansion. Of irrigation. Infrastructure. Modernization. Of, management. Techniques. Distribution. Of hybridized. Seeds, synthetic. Fertilizers. And pesticides to. Farmers. The term Green. Revolution. Was. First, used, in a speech, on the 8th of March. 1968. By, the administrator. Of the US Agency, for, International Development. USAID. William. S God who, noted the spread of the new technologies. These and other developments. In the field of agriculture, contained, the makings, of a new revolution, it. Is not a violent, red revolution. Like that of the Soviets, nor is it a white revolution. Like that of the Shah of Iran, I call. It the green revolution. Topic. History. You. Topic. In Mexico. It, has been argued that during. The 20th, century two, revolutions. Transformed. Rural, Mexico the. Mexican, Revolution. 1910. To, 1920. And the Green Revolution. 1950. To 1970. With. The support of, the Mexican, government the, US government, the United, Nations, the food and agriculture, organization fao. And. The Rockefeller. Foundation. Mexico. Made a concerted. Effort to transform. Agricultural. Productivity. Particularly. With, irrigated. Rather than dryland, cultivation. In its Northwest, to, solve its problem, of lack of food, self-sufficiency. In. The, center, and south of Mexico. Where, large scale, production faced. Challenges. Agricultural. Production. Languished. Increased. Production, meant, food, self-sufficiency. In, Mexico. To feed its growing, and urbanizing. Population. With the number of calories, consumed. Per Mexican, increasing. Technology. Was seen as a valuable way, to feed, the poor and would relieve, some pressure of. The land redistribution. Process. Mexico. Was the recipient, of, Green Revolution, knowledge. And technology. And it was an active, participant with. Financial, support. From the government, for agriculture. As well as Mexican, agronomists. Although. The Mexican, Revolution had. Broken the back of the Hacienda. System, and land reform in Mexico had. By, 1940. Distributed. A large expanse. Of land in, central, and southern Mexico. Agricultural. Productivity. Had, fallen. During. The administration. Of Manuel, ávila, Camacho.
1942. 46, the government, put resources, into, developing new. Breeds of plants, and partnered, with the Rockefeller, Foundation. In. 1943. The, Mexican, government, founded, the International maize. And wheat Improvement, Center. CIMMYT, which became, a base for international. Agricultural. Research. Agriculture. In Mexico. Had been a socio-political. Issue. A key, factor, in some regions. Participation. In the Mexican, Revolution. It. Was also, a technical. Issue enabled. By a cohort. Of trained, agronomists. Who were to advise peasants. How to increase, productivity. In. The, post-world. War 2 era the, government, sought development. In agriculture. That bettered. Technological. Aspects. Of agriculture, in regions, that were not dominated. By small-scale. Peasant, cultivators. This. Drive, for agricultural. Transformation. Would have the benefit, of keeping Mexico. Self-sufficient. In food and. In the political, sphere with, the cold war potentially. Stem unrest, and the appeal, of communism. Technical. Aid can be seen as also, serving, political. Ends, in the international. Sphere in. Mexico. It also served political. Ends, separating. Peasant, agriculture, based, on the ejido, and considered. One of the victories, of the Mexican, Revolution from. Agribusiness. That requires. Large-scale. Land ownership. Irrigation. Specialized. Seeds. Fertilizers. And pesticides. Machinery. And a low wage paid, labor force. The. Government, created, the Mexican. Agricultural. Program, map to be the lead organization, in, raising, productivity. One. Of their successes, was, wheat production, with, varieties. The agency's. Scientists. Helped create, dominating. Wheat production. As early, as, 1951. 70%. 1965. 80 percent. In. 1968. 90 %. Mexico. Became, the showcase, for extending, the Green Revolution to, other areas, of Latin, America. And Beyond into Africa. And Asia. New. Breeds, of maize beans, and, wheat, produced, bumper, crops with, proper, inputs, such, as fertilizer. And pesticides. And careful, cultivation. Many. Mexican. Farmers, who had been dubious, about the scientists. Or hostile, to them often, a mutual, relationship of. Discord, came to see the scientific. Approach to agriculture. As worth adopting. Topic. In rice. Ir8. And. The Philippines. In. 1960. The government of, the Republic of the Philippines with. The Ford Foundation and. The Rockefeller. Foundation. Established the. International Rice. Research, Institute. Erie a. Rice. Crossing. Between dgo. Wujin. And PETA was done at Erie in. 1962. In. 1966. One of the breeding lines became. A new cultivar. Ir8. Ir8. Required. The use of fertilizers and. Pesticides, but. Produced.
Substantially. Higher yields, than the traditional. Cultivars. Annual. Rice production, in, the Philippines increased. From three point seven to seven, point seven million, tons in two decades. The. Switch to ir8, rice, made, the Philippines. A rice exporter. For the first time in the 20th, century. Topic. Start. In India. In. 1961. India. Was on the brink of mass famine. Norman. Borlaug, was invited, to India, by the adviser to the Indian, Minister, of Agriculture, dr.. MS Swaminathan. Despite. Bureaucratic. Hurdles imposed. By India's, grain monopolies. The Ford Foundation and. Indian, government, collaborated. To import, wheat seed from the International. Maize and wheat Improvement, Center. CIMMYT. Punjab. Was selected. By the Indian, government to be the first site to try the new crops because, of its reliable. Water supply, and, a history, of agricultural. Success. India. Began, its own Green Revolution programme. Of plant breeding, irrigation. Development. And financing. Of agro, chemicals India. Soon adopted, ir8, a, semi-dwarf. Rice variety. Developed, by the International. Rice Research, Institute. Eery that, could produce more grains. Of rice per, plant when grown with certain, fertilizers. In irrigation, in. 1968. Indian, agronomist. Sk, da. Dada published. His findings that, ir8, rice, yielded, about 5 tons per hectare, with no fertilizer. And almost, 10 tons per hectare, under optimal, conditions. This. Was 10 times the yield of traditional. Rice. Ir8. Was. A success. Throughout Asia and dubbed the miracle. Rice. Ir8. Was, also, developed, into semi-dwarf, IR, 36. In the. 1960s. Rice yields, in India, were about two tonnes per hectare, by the mid-1990s, they. Had risen to six tonnes per hectare, in. The. 1970s. Rice cost, about. $550. A tonne in, 2001. It cost, under. $200, a ton. India. Became, one of the world's most successful rice. Producers. And is now a major, rice, exporter. Shipping, nearly. 4.5. Million tonnes, in, 2006. Topic. Consultative. Group, on International. Agricultural. Research. CGIAR. In. 1970. Foundation. Officials. Proposed, a worldwide, network. Of agricultural. Research centers. Under a permanent. Secretariat. This. Was further supported, and. Developed, by the World Bank on the 19th, of May, 1971. The, consultative. Group, on International Agricultural. Research. CGIAR. Was. Established. Co-sponsored. By the FAO. IFA. D and, UNDP. CGIAR. Has. Added, many research, centers, throughout the world. CGIAR. Has. Responded. At least, in part to criticisms. Of Green Revolution. Methodologies. This. Began, in the 1980s, and, mainly, was a result, of pressure from donor, organizations. Methods. Like agro-ecosystem. Analysis. And farming, system, research, have been adopted, to gain a more holistic, view of agriculture. Topic. Brazil's. Agricultural. Revolution. Brazil's. Vast, inland, cerrado, region. Was regarded. As unfit, for farming, before, the 1960s. Because, the soil was too acidic. And poor in nutrients. According. To Norman Borlaug. However. From, the, 1960s. Vast quantities. Of lime, pulverized. Chalk, or limestone were. Poured, on the soil to reduce acidity. The. Effort, went on for decades by, the late 1990s. Between. 14, million, and 16. Million tons, of lime were being spread, on Brazilian. Fields, each year, the. Quantity. Rose to 25. Million tonnes in, 2003. And 2004. Equalling. Around 5 tons of lime per hectare, as a. Result. Brazil, has become the world's, second-biggest, soybean. Exporter. Soybeans. Are also widely used in animal, feed and the large volume, of soy produced, in Brazil, has contributed, to Brazil's, rise to become the biggest exporter. Of beef and, poultry in, the world. Several. Parallels. Can also be, found in Argentina's. Boom in soybean, production, as, well. Topic. Problems. In Africa. There, have been numerous, attempts. To introduce the, successful. Concepts. From the Mexican. And Indian projects. Into Africa. These. Programs. Have generally. Been less successful. Reasons. Cited, include, widespread. Corruption, insecurity. A, lack of infrastructure. And a general, lack of will on the part of the governments. Yet. Environmental. Factors, such as the availability of. Water for irrigation the. High diversity, in, slope, and soil types, in one given area, are also reasons.
Why The Green, Revolution as. Not so successful. In Africa, a recent, program in, western, Africa, as attempting. To introduce a new high yielding, family, of rice varieties. Known as new. Rice for, Africa. An e. RI CA, n, e. RI CA. Varieties. Yield about 30 percent more rice, under normal conditions and. Can double yields, with small amounts, of fertilizer, and very basic, irrigation. However. The program, has been beset, by problems, getting. The rice into the hands of farmers and, to date the only success. Has been in Guinea where it currently, accounts, for 16%. Of. Rice cultivation. After. A famine, in 2001. And years of chronic hunger and, poverty, in, 2005. The small African, country of, Malawi launched. The. Agricultural. Input, subsidy. Program. By. Which vouchers. Are given to small holder, farmers to. Buy subsidized. Nitrogen. Fertilizer. And may seeds. Within. Its first year the, program was reported. To have had extreme. Success. Producing. The largest, maize harvest of, the country's, history enough, to feed the country, with tons of maize left over. The program, has advanced. Yearly, ever since. Various. Sources, claim, that the program has. Been an unusual, success. Hailing. It as a miracle. Topic. Agricultural. Production. And food security. You. Topic. Technologies. The, Green Revolution spread. Technologies. That already existed. But had not been widely implemented. Outside. Industrialised. Nations. Two. Kinds, of technologies. Were used in the Green Revolution an. Aim at cultivation. And breeding area. Respectively. The. Technologies. In cultivation. Are targeted. At providing, excellent. Growing, conditions. Which included. Modern irrigation. Projects. Pesticides. And synthetic, nitrogen fertilizer. The. Breeding, technologies. Aimed at improving, crop, varieties. Developed, through the conventional. Science-based. Methods. Available at. The time, these. Technologies. Included. Hybrids, combining. Modern genetics. With selections. Topic. High-yielding. Varieties. The, novel. Technological. Development. Of the Green Revolution was, the production, of novel, wheat cultivars. Agronomists. Bred cultivars. Of maize wheat, and rice, that are generally, referred to as hy. Vees or, high, yielding. Varieties. Hy. Vees, have, higher nitrogen, absorbing. Potential. Than other varieties.
Since. Cereals, that absorb, extra, nitrogen, would typically, lodge or fall, over before harvest. Semi, dwarfing, genes were bred into their genomes, a. Japanese. Dwarf, wheat cultivar. In, ten developed. By a Japanese. Agronomist. Ganguro, inuzuka. Which, was sent to Orville, Vogel, at Washington. State University by. Cecil, salmon, was instrumental, in, developing, Green Revolution wheat. Cultivars. Ir8. The, first widely, implemented. Hy-vee. Rice to be developed, by Erie was, created. Through a cross, between an Indonesian. Variety. Named PETA, and a. Chinese, variety. Named, dgo. Wu Jan, in the. 1960s. When a food crisis. Happened, in Asia the, spread of hy-vee. Rice was, aggravated. Intensely. Dr.. Norman. Borlaug who. Is usually, recognized. As the father. Of the Green Revolution. Bred. Rust resistant. Cultivars which. Have strong and firm stems, preventing. Them from falling, over under, extreme, weather at high levels, of fertilization. CIMMYT. Centro. Internacional. De mejor amigo. De Moz white, rego. International. Center for maize, and wheat, improvements. Conducted. These breeding, programs. And helped spread high yielding, varieties in. Mexico. And countries, in Asia like India, and Pakistan. These programs. Successfully. Led the harvest, double, in these countries plant. Scientists. Figured, out several, parameters, related. To the high yield and identified. The related, genes which controlled, the plant height and tiller number. With. The advances. In molecular, genetics. The mutant, genes, responsible. For a rabid, abscess, thaliana, genes, got 20, oxidase. Gaw 1 gaw, 1 2 3, wheat reduced, height genes. Rht, and a rice semi dwarf gene, sd1. Were cloned. These. Were identified. As gibberellin. Biosynthesis. Genes, or cellular, signaling. Component. Genes. Stem. Growth, in the mutant, background. Has significantly. Reduced, leading to the dwarf phenotype. Photosynthetic. Investment. In the stem is reduced, dramatically. As the shorter, plants are inherently, more stable, mechanically. Assimilates. Become, redirected. To grain production. Amplifying. In particular. The effect, of chemical, fertilisers. On commercial. Yield. Hy-vee. Significantly. Outperformed. Traditional. Varieties. In the presence, of adequate.
Irrigation. Pesticides. And, fertilizers. In. The absence. Of these inputs. Traditional. Varieties. May outperform, hy. Vees. Therefore. Several, authors have, challenged, the apparent. Superiority. Of hy, Vees, not, only, compared, to the traditional, varieties. Alone, but, by contrasting, the mono cultural. System, associated. With hy, Vees with, the poly cultural. System, associated, with, traditional ones. Topic. Production. Increases. You. Cereal. Production more. Than doubled, in developing. Nations between. The years. 1961. To, 1985. Yields. Of rice maize, and wheat increased. Steadily, during, that period the. Production. Increases. Can be attributed. Roughly, equally, to irrigation. Fertilizer. And, seed, development. At least, in the case of Asian rice while. Agricultural. Output, increased, as a result, of the Green Revolution the. Energy, input, to produce a crop has increased, faster, so, that the ratio of crops produced, to energy, input, has decreased, over time. Green. Revolution techniques. Also heavily. Rely, on chemical. Fertilizers pesticides. Herbicides. And. Defoliants and. Rely, on machines, which, is of 2014. Rely, on or are derived from crude oil making. Agriculture. Increasingly. Reliant, on crude, oil extraction. Proponents. Of the Peak Oil Theory, fear, that a future, decline. In oil and gas production, would, lead to a decline, in food production. Or even a Malthusian, catastrophe. Topic. Effects. On food security. The, effects, of the Green Revolution on. Global, food security are, difficult. To assess because, of the complexities. Involved, in food systems. The world, population. Has grown, by about five, billion, since, the beginning of the Green Revolution and. Many believe, that without, the revolution, there would have been greater, famine. And malnutrition. India. Saw annual, wheat production, rise, from, ten million tonnes in the 1960s. To 73. Million in, 2006. The. Average person. In the developing. World consumes. Roughly, 25%, more. Calories per. Day now than, before the green revolution. Between. 1950. And, 1984. As the Green Revolution, transformed. Agriculture. Around the globe world, grain, production. Increased, by about. 160. Percent the production. Increases. Fostered. By the Green Revolution are. Often, credited with having helped, to avoid widespread. Famine. And for feeding billions. Of people, there are also claims, that the Green Revolution has, decreased. Food security, for, a large number of people. One. Claim, involves. The shift of subsistence, oriented. Cropland, to cropland. Oriented. Towards, production, of grain for export. Or animal, feed for. Example. The Green Revolution, replaced. Much of the land used, for pulses, that fed Indian, peasants, for wheat which did not make up a large portion, of the peasant, diet. Topic. Food, security. You. Topic. Malthusian. Criticism. You. Some. Criticisms. Generally. Involve, some variation. Of the Malthusian, principle. Of population. Such. Concerns. Often revolve, around the idea that the Green Revolution is. Unsustainable, and. Argued, that humanity. Is now in a state of overpopulation. Or, overshoot. With regards, to the sustainable. Carrying, capacity. And ecological. Demands, on the earth. Although. 36. Million people die. Each year, as a direct or, indirect. Result, of hunger, and poor nutrition, malthus's. More, extreme, predictions. Have frequently, failed to materialize. In. 1798. Thomas. Malthus made, his prediction of, impending, famine. The. World's, population. Had doubled by, 1923. And, doubled, again by, 1973. Without. Fulfilling, malthus's. Prediction. Malthusian. Paul R Ehrlich, in his, 1968. Book the Population Bomb. Said. That India. Couldn't, possibly. Feed 200. Million, more people, by 1980. And, hundreds. Of millions, of people, will starve, to death in, spite of any crash, programs.
Erlik's, Warnings, failed to materialise. When, India, became. Self-sustaining. In cereal production in. 1974. Six, years later as a result, of the introduction, of Norman, Borlaug's, dwarf, wheat varieties. However, Borlaug. Was well aware of the implications. Of population. Growth, in. His Nobel, lecture, he repeatedly, presented, improvements. In food production, within, a sober, understanding. Of the context. Of population. The, Green Revolution has. Won, a temporary. Success in, man's war, against, hunger, and deprivation, it. Has given men a breathing. Space. If. Fully. Implemented. The revolution. Can provide, sufficient, food, for sustenance, during, the next three, decades. But. The frightening, power of human, reproduction. Must, also be, curbed, otherwise. The success, of the Green Revolution will. Be ephemeral, only. Most. People. Still fail to comprehend. The magnitude, and Menace, of the. Population. Monster. Since. Man is potentially. A rational. Being however, I am confident. That within the next two, decades he. Will recognize, the, self-destructive. Course, he steers along the road of irresponsible. Population. Growth. You. You. Topic. Famine. To, some modern Western. Sociologists. And writers, increasing. Food production as. Not synonymous. With increasing. Food security, and as only part, of a larger equation. For. Example Harvard. Professor. Amartya, Sen wrote that large historic. Famines, were not caused by decreases. In food supply, but by socio-economic. Dynamics. And a failure of public, action. Economist. Peter bobrick, disputes, Sens theory, arguing. That sin relies, on inconsistent. Arguments, and, contradicts. Available, information. Including. Sources, that send himself cited. BAU. Brick further, argues. That sends, views coincide. With that of the Bengal, government at, the time of the Bengal, famine of, 1943. And. The policies. Sent advocates. Failed to relieve the famine. You. Topic. Quality. Of diet. Some. Have challenged, the value, of the increased, food production of. Green Revolution, agriculture. Miguel. Al thierry a pioneer. Of agroecology, and. Peasant, advocate. Writes that the comparison. Between traditional. Systems, of agriculture. And Green, Revolution, agriculture. Has, been unfair, because Green, Revolution, agriculture. Produces. Monocultures. Of cereal. Grains, while traditional. Agriculture. Usually. Incorporates. Polycultures. These, monoculture. Crops are. Often, used for export, feed for animals or, conversion. Into biofuel. According. To a meal frisson, of Bioversity. International. The. Green Revolution has. Also led, to a change, in dietary. Habits. As fewer, people are affected by hunger and die from starvation but. Many are affected, by malnutrition, such. As iron or vitamin, deficiencies. Frisson. Further asserts, that almost, 60%, of. Yearly deaths, of children under. Age 5, in developing. Countries, are related, to malnutrition, the. Strategies. Developed, by the Green Revolution, focused. On fending, off starvation. And was very successful in. Raising overall. Yields, of cereal, grains, but did not give sufficient relevance. To nutritional. Quality. High-yield. Cereal, crops, have, low quality proteins. With essential. Amino acid. Deficiencies. Are high, in carbohydrate and. Lack balanced. Essential. Fatty acids. Vitamins. Minerals. And other quality. Factors, high-yield. Rice hyr. Introduced. Since. 1964. To poverty-ridden. Asian, countries, such, as the Philippines was. Found to have inferior. Flavor, and be more glutinous. And less savory than their native varieties. This. Caused its price to be lower than the average market. You in the Philippines. The introduction.
Of Heavy pesticides. To rice production, in the early part of the Green Revolution. Poisoned. And killed off, fish, and weedy, green vegetables. That traditionally. Coexisted. In rice paddies. These. Were nutritious. Food sources. For many poor, Filipino. Farmers, prior to the introduction, of pesticides. Further, impacting. The diets, of locals. You. Topic. Political. Impact. A major. Critic. Of the Green Revolution, US. Investigative. Journalist. Mark Dowie, right. The. Primary, objective. Of the program, was, geopolitical. To provide food for the, populace, in undeveloped. Countries. And so bring social, stability and, weakened, the fomenting, of communist. Insurgency. Citing. Internal, foundation. Documents. Dowie states, that the Ford Foundation had. A greater, concern than Rockefeller, in this area, there is significant. Evidence that, the Green Revolution, weakened. Socialist. Movements, in many nations, in. Countries. Such as India. Mexico. And the Philippines. Technological. Solutions. Were sought as an alternative. To expanding. Agrarian, reform. Initiatives. The latter of which were, often linked to socialist. Politics. Topic. Socio-economic. Impacts. The, transition. From traditional. Agriculture. In which inputs, were generated. On farm to Green Revolution, agriculture. Which. Required, the purchase, of inputs, led to the widespread. Establishment. Of rural credit, institutions. Smaller. Farmers. Often went, into debt which in many cases, results. In a loss of their farmland. The. Increased, level, of mechanization. On larger, farms made possible. By the Green, Revolution, removed. A large source, of employment. From the rural economy the. New economic. Difficulties. Of smallholder, farmers. And landless, farm, workers, led to increased, rural, urban migration. The. Increase, in food production, led, to a cheaper, food for urban dwellers, and the increase, in urban, population. Increased, the potential, for. Industrialization. According. To a 2018. Paper, a 10%. Increase in the use of high yielding, crop varieties. In developing. Countries, in the period. 1960. To 2000. Led to increases. In GDP. Per capita of. Approximately. 15%. Topic. Environmental. Impact. You. Topic. Biodiversity. The, spread, of Green, Revolution, agriculture. Affected. Both, agricultural. Biodiversity, or. Agri, diversity. And wild. Biodiversity. There. Is little, disagreement that. The Green Revolution, acted. To reduce agricultural. Biodiversity. As. It relied, on just, a few high-yield. Varieties of, each crop. This, has led to concerns, about the, susceptibility. Of a food supply to pathogens, that, cannot, be controlled by agro, chemicals as, well as the permanent, loss of many valuable, genetic. Traits bred, into traditional, varieties. Over thousands. Of years, to. Address these concerns, massive. Seed banks, such as consultative. Group on International, Agricultural. Researches. CGIAR. International. Plant, genetic, resources. Institute. Now Bioversity. International. Have. Been established. See Svalbard. Global Seed. Vault. There. Are varying, opinions about, the effect of the Green Revolution on. Wild, biodiversity. One. Hypothesis. Speculates. That by increasing, production, per, unit of land area. Agriculture. Will not need to expand. Into new uncultivated. Areas. To, feed a growing human, population. However. Land. Degradation and. Soil nutrients. Depletion. Have forced, farmers to, clear up formerly, forested, areas. In order to keep up with production a. Counter. Hypothesis. Speculates. That biodiversity. Was. Sacrificed. Because, traditional. Systems, of Agriculture. That were displaced, sometimes. Incorporated. Practices. To preserve, wild, biodiversity, and, because, the Green Revolution. Expanded. Agricultural. Development. Into new areas where, it was once, unprofitable. Or to arid. For. Example. The development, of wheat varieties. Tolerant. To acid, soil, conditions. With high aluminium. Content. Permitted, the introduction. Of agriculture, in sensitive. Brazilian, ecosystems. Such as cerrado. Semi-humid. Tropical. Savanna and Amazon. Rainforest. In the geo-economic. Macro, regions, of Centro, Siouxland, Amazonia. Before, the Green Revolution other. Brazilian. Ecosystems. Were also, significantly. Damaged, by human, activity. Such as the ones first or second, main contributor.
To Brazilian, mega diversity. Atlantic. Rainforest, above. 85%. Of deforestation, in. The 1980s. About 95. Percent after, the 2010s. And the important, xeric, shrublands, called cod inga mainly, in northeastern. Brazil about. 40%. In the 1980s. About. 50%. After the 2010s. Deforestation. Of the Codding, de biome, is generally. Associated, with, greater risks, of desert if ocation, this. Also caused, many, animal, species to, suffer, due to their damaged, habitats. Nevertheless, the. World community. Has clearly, acknowledged. The negative, aspects. Of agricultural. Expansion, as the, 1992. Rio treaty, signed. By. 189. Nations, has generated. Numerous, national. Biodiversity. Action plans which, assigned, significant. Biodiversity, loss. To Agriculture's. Expansion. Into new domains. The. Green Revolution has. Been criticized. For an agricultural. Model which, relied, on a few, staple, and market, profitable. Crops and pursuing. A model, which limited, the biodiversity. Of, Mexico. One. Of the critics, against, these techniques. And the Green Revolution as. A whole was Carlos, our a geography. Professor, at the University. Of California. Berkeley. According. To Sauer, these, techniques. Of plant breeding would result, in negative effects, on the country's, resources, and, the culture. A good, aggressive, bunch, of American. Agronomists. And plant breeders, could ruin the native, resources for. Good and all by pushing, their, American. Commercial, stocks. And. Mexican. Agriculture, cannot. Be pointed, towards. Standardization. On a few, commercial. Types without upsetting native. Economy. And culture, hopelessly. Unless. The Americans. Understand. That they better keep, out of this country entirely. That. Must, be approached, from an appreciation. Of, native, economies. As being basically. Sound. You. You. Topic. Greenhouse. Gas, emissions. According. To a study published in. 2013, in. PNAS. In the absence, of the crop germ plasm improvement. Associated. With the Green Revolution, greenhouse. Gas, emissions, would, have been five point two to seven point four GT. Higher, than observed in. 1965. Took, 2004. High-yield. Agriculture. Has dramatic. Effects, on the amount of carbon cycling, in, the atmosphere. The. Way in which farms, are grown in tandem. With the seasonal, carbon, cycling of, various, crops could, alter the impact, carbon, in the atmosphere has. On global, warming. Wheat. Rice, and soybean. Crops account, for a significant. Amount of the increase, in carbon in the atmosphere over. The last 50, years. You. Topic. Dependence. On non-renewable. Resources. Most. High-intensity. Agricultural. Production. Is highly reliant, on, non-renewable. Resources. Agricultural. Machinery, and, transport. As well as the production of pesticides. And nitrates all, depend, on fossil fuels. Moreover. The, essential. Mineral, nutrient. Phosphorus, is often, a limiting factor, in crop cultivation, while. Phosphorus. Mines are rapidly, being depleted worldwide. The. Failure, to depart, from these non, sustainable. Agricultural. Production. Methods, could potentially. Lead to a large-scale. Collapse, of the current, system of intensive. Food production. Within this century. Topic. Health, impact. The, consumption. Of the pesticides. Used, to kill pests, by humans, in some cases maybe increasing. The likelihood, of cancer, in some of the rural villages. Using them. Poor. Farming, practices. Including. Non-compliance. To usage, of masks, and over usage, of the chemicals, compound. This situation. In. 1989. W-h-o. And unep estimated. That there were around 1, million human. Pesticide. Poisonings. Annually. Some. 20,000, mostly, in developing, countries. Ended, in death as a result, of poor labeling. Lose safety, standards, etc. You. Topic. Pesticides. And cancer. Contradictory. Epidemiologic. Studies, in humans, have linked phenoxy. Acid, herbicides or. Contaminants. In them with soft tissue, sarcoma. STS. And malignant. Lymphoma. Organochlorine. Insecticides. With STS. Non-hodgkins. Lymphoma and, HL. Leukemia. And less, consistently. With cancers, of the lung and breast. Organophosphorus. Compounds. With NHL, and leukemia. And triazine. Herbicides. With ovarian cancer. You. Topic. Punjab. Case. The, Indian, state, of Punjab, pioneered. Green revolution among. The other states. Transforming. India, into, a food, surplus, country. The. State is witnessing, serious. Consequences. Of intensive. Farming, using, chemicals. And pesticides a. Comprehensive. Study conducted, by. Postgraduate. Institute. Of medical, education, and research PG. Imer, has, underlined. The direct, relationship. Between, indiscriminate. Use of these chemicals. And increased, incidence. Of cancer, in this region, an. Increase. In the number of cancer, cases has.
Been Reported. In several villages including, Jarah Walla qohor. Walla pakka. Bhima Wally and Carra. Environmental. Activist. Vandana, Shiva, has written extensively about. The, social, political and. Economic, impacts. Of the Green Revolution in. Punjab. She. Claims that the green revolutions. Reliance. On heavy use of chemical. Inputs and, monocultures. Has resulted, in water scarcity. Vulnerability. To pests. An incidence. Of violent, conflict. And social, marginalization, a. Greenpeace Research. Laboratory's. Investigation. Of 50, villages, in Muktar Bhatinda. And Ludhiana, districts. Revealed, that 20 percent of the sampled, wells had, nitrate, levels, above, w-h-o. Limits, for drinking, water, the. 2009. Study, linked, the nitrate, pollution. With high use of synthetic nitrogen. Fertilizers. You. Topic. Norman. Borlaug's. Response. To criticism. Borlaug. Dismissed, certain, claims of critics, but also cautioned. There, are no miracles, in, agricultural. Production. Nor. Is there such a thing as a miracle. Variety. Of wheat, rice, or maize, which, can serve as an elixir, to cure all, ills of a stagnant. Traditional. Agriculture. Of. Environmental. Lobbyists. He said. Some. Of the environmental. Lobbyists. Of the Western, nations, are the salt of the earth but many of them are elitists. They've. Never. Experienced. The physical. Sensation. Of hunger, they. Do their lobbying. From comfortable. Office, suites, in Washington. Or Brussels. If. They lived just one month amid, the misery, of the developing. World as I have for 50, years they'd be crying out for tractors, and, fertilizer. And, irrigation, canals. And be outraged. That, fashionable. Elitists. Back home, were trying, to deny them these things. Topic. The new Green Revolution. Although. The Green Revolution has, been able to improve. Agricultural. Output, in some regions, in the world, there was an as still room for improvement as a. Result. Many, organizations. Continue to, invent new ways to improve the techniques, already, used in the Green Revolution. Frequently. Quoted, inventions. Are the system, of rice intensification. Marker-assisted. Selection. Agroecology. And, applying, existing. Technologies. To agricultural. Problems. Of the developing, world. Current. Challenges. For nations trying, to modernize their agriculture. Include, closing, the urban, rural income, gap, integration. Of small holders, into value, chains and maintaining. Competitiveness. In the market. However. In low-income, countries. Chronic. Problems. Such as poverty. And hunger caused, agricultural. Modernization. Efforts, to be constrained, it, is. Projected, that global, populations. By, 2050. Will increase, by one third and as such will require, a, 70%. Increase in, the production, of food. Therefore. The second, Green Revolution will. Likely focus, on improving. Tolerances. To pests. And disease, in addition to technological. Input. Use efficiency. Equals. Equals, see also.