FLSmidth Emissions Solutions Presentation
Good. Afternoon and welcome to FL Smith's emission. Solutions webinar. I'm. Michael sebast, Oh emissions, technology, district sales manager for FL Smith and I will be your host today. I'm. Going to go through the, agenda for this afternoon's, presentations. Going. To provide a quick overview and, then I'll do the speaker introductions, for. Our two presenters, we'll, have a question and answer sessions, at the conclusion, of the presentations. And then, a brief summary. Our. Objective, today is, to transfer. Knowledge to, offer. Recommendations. For. Methods to reduce emissions in order. To achieve compliance. With. Neeshub regulations. We've. Prepared two presentations. The. First will touch. Upon, baghouses. And. Filter. Media technology, and step. Through a few, other items. That. Allows you to evaluate, your, existing. Pollution, control equipment and. Determine. Whether or not you, will be able to achieve PM. Limits. And. Recommendations. Possibly. For new PM. Control, equipment. The. Second presentation. Will. Be. Describing. Ice orbit injection, technology for. So2 control, HCL, and mercury, mitigation. Again. During the presentation. I encourage. You to submit. Questions, in the. Chat box and send, those to us we. Will be accumulating. Those questions, and then we. Will have a brief Q&A, at. The conclusion. Of the. Second, presentation. Our. First presenter is Luis Castagna, Luis. Has been in the air pollution control industry, for more than 20 years he's. Had many roles including, design of new new, bag houses. Troubleshooting. Existing, equipment and, designing. Rebuilds. And conversions. Least, earned a mechanical, engineering degree from, Arizona State University, he. Joined Ethel Smith in 2007. And since, 2009. Luis. Has led the rebuilds, and retrofits, group based. Here in Bethlehem, Louise. Welcome, and. If you will please begin your presentation. Thank. You Mike hello everyone this is Lucas time you're speaking thank, you for joining us in this webinar I did. See some familiar names on the sign up list as of yesterday so. Welcome. Upset. The less engineers, that gets the chance to visit plants, continuously. And many, questions come, up repeatedly hey. What's new with Nisha what, options do I have what. New technologies, are available what about my equipment, will, comply, with the new Nisha regulations, etc, so. With this in mind we, have prepared this presentation which. Is. Such. As on seven topics and. We'll try to do this in about 20 minutes the. Topics involved in Nisha itself, we, got issues on filter bags we're going to cover some design basics, options, for compliance and more. At the plant level installation. Operation, and some personnel, issues. Because. Of the time constraints, we're going to go a little superficial. In each one of these subjects, but. We we, welcome your questions that, will be generated, and we'll, try to address them in this webinar but I do remind, you that you. Conversation. Doesn't have to end today we. Are available, all. The time we, are, going to share contact information, after the presentation. And we'd. Be happy if you contact, us directly and discuss specifics, questions. Or or specific, issues, with your equipment so let's, move on to the first question what's new what's, going on with Nisha and let. Me tell you there's a lot of stuff going on with. A new. In the internet for. One there's two new bills that, are being discussed, that extends, modify, ensure there's. Some, House Majority Leader, that says this and that compliance. Regulation. Whatever, there's. A new, legislation. That says, that maybe this will be delayed but maybe maybe not, and the, PCA comes in and says well, we did a study about the impact on the industry. There's. A PC 81 and the USA Today also. Published, an article not. Long ago about, well. Whatever. Legislation. Did nothing in summary. We can say that this is all noise and the, update is that there, is no update as, of now it. Is passed in September 2010. And we do have a compliance, date of, September. 2013. That still, stands. So. Even, though there may be a delay it's. Something we're going to have to confront and let's. Get right on with it to begin let's. Look at a review of the, regulation, Nisha, Patel what. Is Nisha national. Emission standards, for hazardous air, pollutants, and, it is something. Established. By the EPA. These. Are the limits for basically. Covering the kilns, and clinker, cooler. Stack. And, if you notice, this. Is a function. Of production. Not. Based, on, amount. Of dust per. Airflow so we need to do. Some math to find that output in general if, you have an older plant. You. Your.
Calculations, Will show that you're, older less efficient, plant will, be. A little tougher to meet emissions regulations because, being less efficient, requires a lot more airflow so. Bottom, line how does this translate, well. Ethel asses built plants from, you know for a long time we, have plants built into 50 60 70 s and some, new ones too so we can kind of blend all this information, and come up with some, real values, and this is more. Or less where most. Plants will fall we've. Got an emissions, in actual. Air flow of 10 around for normal cubic meter for existing, plan and the. Point oh one translates, to about two point five milligrams for normal cubic meter this. Is tough it's. Hard to visualize but when I came into the industry 20 years ago 60, was a fair, number and why 50 because, it, is said depending, on the weather conditions in the situation. Above. 50 you start to see emission so bottom, line this is way, below visible. Range. But. Let's put it into perspective how, much is two point five milligrams per cubic meter well we can translate the units for those of you that are not using. The metric system it's, about triple. S oh eight grains. For DRI standard cubic foot well. Still doesn't. Work out who for visualization, and, to do that let's, picture the Superdome. Down in New Orleans I won't. Go through the details of the dimensions, of this building but it's huge, well. How much dust is allowed in this large X volume, of air we're, talking less than a jug of of, gallon. Of milk is. This person, right here is holding that, we. Probably wouldn't pick it up in this picture so again. It's very very little amount of stuff but a different perspective since, most of us haven't been in the Superdome this, is something we all see every day there's a semi-truck. Big. Box you can fit several cars into this big box well, how much dust is allowed in this huge box. Population. Show about half a teaspoon and that's peaceful not tablespoon, so again, it is a very very, low amount of dust. Now. It. Doesn't seem fair that Mother Nature it gets to do this this is a tough storm it's not a fire and it, is not meeting Nisha as you can see because we have visible, emissions.
Unfortunately. We can not get away by, doing this so what, do we do what, technology, is available and, that brings us to. Solutions. I know. Many of you may be a little disappointed, I have nothing magical, or new. That. Will solve all problems. This. Solution, is actually very, likely installed, in many of your plants already. But. It's because, it's important, now it's it's. Necessary, to get to know us a little better, what. Is this we're talking about it says PTFE. Membrane on, filter. Back what's, PTFE, is Teflon better, known as Teflon but cut when I guess the registered, trademark what, we're looking at this here is that it. Is a membrane and a. Support, of the, membrane this is the filter and. This. Is the support what, we're looking at in this picture is the little square. Magnified. Greatly. To show you that. This actually, looks like a spider. Web so. Again, it is a, support. Of the filter and the filter and the openings are so small that water does not go through it this is the same fancy, stuff that's used in hiking boots so that people can have breathable. Shoes and still, not get their feet wet when they step into a bubble. Now. Cigarette, smoke represented. Here by this dot, it's. A very small particle but it's still seen as a particle it will get trapped in this web, which. Obviously. Makes it an excellent dust filter this is a simulation. Of a cement particle, at, two-and-a-half microns, it's, way too big to go through the holes and that's what makes this a very very, efficient, filter a continuous. Question or very, often asked. Well will, your filter bags meet Nisha the, answer is yes if everything goes right and, that's. Where this. Discussion takes, a PTFE. Membrane I would like to tell you that it's tough and it's foolproof but. It's not it. Is elegant, and. When. It's laminated to won't go in fiberglass there. Is a possibility, of running into this we. Already said we have the filter and the support for the filter while. This damage, was it's, real damage, on a real, photograph, done. With my, fingernail, which, by the way is real too so. We. Can damage it easily, meaning, it's delicate, so what's going on here why is that, here's, cross-section, of the fabric, this, is a woven material and. This is without any, membrane, which a lot of filter bags are installed, as such this. Is the dust these. Are the niche app violators, here they. Airflow. Coming this way they, can go through the filter. Back so. When. We put two pcs a membrane, on this. PTFE. Membrane is, right here. And. It's laminated, on this fabric what, happens here is that, we, get these bridges and, that. Makes it delicate. You can scratch it off fairly easy why, am I saying all this because it is extremely, important, that we take. Care of this of, this, filter so that it doesn't fail on us because we, said that the membrane is a filter well, practically, no filter, in this middle section articles. Can go through the weaving fairly, easy. Next. Issue is unburned, hydrocarbons we'll, plug it you can, picture with such small openings, a drop, of oil wolf plugging, pretty, quickly and that happened in the plants in Central America where something went wrong during startups and some. Oily, spray went under, ways to the bag and the. 7000. Bags were instantly, closed for, good, that's not a fun thing for it to happen and that's just something that it's. The characteristic, of the of. The PTFE, teflon now. Another, issue is well it's a higher investment what we underlined. The word investment, because it's it's. Actually an investment that will pay back for, itself it cleans very easy and, it. Can increase filter. Back light now. If. It's so fragile or delegate. How can increase how can it increase ultra bag light the. Answer is that it can allow us to clean a lot less every. Pulse every reverse, air cycle will, get rid of dust a lot, easier than without it so, if that happens, that means we can clean a lot less and that, translates. Into longer. Bag life. Now. Let's go into the, theory. Should we run and just put, membrane and forget about the problem in a way yes but we need to check the numbers basically. The theory behind it the, cook is a technical. Evaluation will, first issue so.
To Filter back lies if. You can tell me that you've got, five. Seven, year back lies well, we don't need to do the math you've got a very healthy unit. And we, can probably retrofit. It if it doesn't already have membranes. Should. Be working quite well but. The first step in running the mask behind, the design of a back house is to do air. To cloth ratio, calculations. Well Eric loss ratio sounds, a little too technical, well. In reality says, velocity, instead of a lot city of the gas. Flow going, through the filtering, media there, across doesn't sound like filtration Eric, loss is actually, CFM. Per square foot but if you do some basic dimensional. Analysis, these square feet cancels, out and you get units, of velocity. Now. What, is the limit it's available I have designed systems, in auxilary applications. To six to one but. With knee shafts and in process, applications, at high temperature, with fiberglass, membrane, etc, we. Are looking at a very, conservative numbers, of three feet, per minute in English and metric, units, were under one one. Was the rule of thumb for most, recent. Installations. But, when customers, want five your bag lies and meeting Nisha we got to still be, a little more conservative and I know I may get calls about these numbers that there are too conservative but, I know also, in the audience there is a colleague, that, is asking for 2.5 why. Well. To, lower the better is. The bag house just runs better if, they had some extra capacity, what. Are the velocities, well we have inlet. Velocity I, was allotted either there's a lot of other things that we need to check that just to, go through the basics, we, get the insert official, velocity, the. Velocity going. Up through. The bags and that, is important, because the well, we don't want to break and we also want stuff to fold down to the hopper when, we clean and what, is the limit on that again, rules of thumb only, we. Can, calculate it easily, Phi's as we. Got a flow which. Is Q, what. Is the area the, area would be by the. Cross-sectional, area of, the housing, -. The bags. Which is pretty. Much the same as. The. Area of the two sheets so. These books flow. Over area, and that. Should. Be limited, to 200. Feet per minute or. Less, than 1 meter per second, yes. That is conservative, and for. Maybe clinker, cooler applications, it's too conservative. But. Again it's based on specific, application. But again. We go, more conservative, the better but, one thing we can say is that the, membrane even, though it's high-tech stuff will, not fix, undersized. Poorly designed or improperly operated, equipment that's why we want, to go through the math now. Continuing, on the technical, evaluation. Physical. Condition of equipment well as the visual inspection see, if everything's, ok there's no cracks in the housing etc failed. Bag charts, if you have repeated, failures, on filters, and they, are in specific areas well, maybe that's telling us something can, guide us to a solution and. A lot of times it's a hit and miss to. Avoid that hidden means and miss and be a little more accurate. Even. Though the theoretical, numbers, match as far as their tu quoque ratio, an, interstitial, velocity, we. May have a situation with, a flow unbalanced, in, this system it was on paper designed, properly, we. Conducted. A CFD analysis, and and saw that there is some very. Uneven, flows in this case air, flow comes in the. Bag house on. The same side as the outlet. So. There. Is some. Uncertainty, about what, was going on but doing, the CFD, analysis, which, is a modeling. The bank housing the computer and running air flow through it we. See that the back here, are not, seeing the, same air flow as, the banks over. Here. It. Was traded by the colors red is bad blue, is good so, in this case what, can we do well we can try to get. At a solution but, again with the CFE we can test different, solutions, in, this case we. Suggested. Modifications to. Get rid of the red and come. Up with a more, even, flow. So. With, this technical, analysis, we can pretty, much define, what. Changes, need to be made and. And. Come up with a plan of action. One. Possibility, which is the one we would like to see always is just we. Have a backgrounds, of the hips well and it's doing well, so. Maybe it's, a little old but, it's still a workhorse, and we, can rebuild it and make it run. Like like, it's like a new equipment back. To original condition by, replacing seals anything, that's rubber might be old might be needed. To change corrosion, issues replacing. Old bowels, or dampers, expansion. Joints etc that's, that's called pretty much a rebuild. Or, a refurbish. We. Also have upgrades. As an option. The. First one is a PTFE, membrane, sistahs and already have it monitoring. Equipment like, failed bag, detectors.
Different. For pressure gauges, and, maybe new controllers, or, flow distribution plates, etc all these falls under, the upgrade. Category. Now, if the numbers don't match and we need to do something a little more drastic, we. May look at a conversion this. Is a very. You. Know an example, of, situation. Where there is no room to make this back house bigger yes it was a little, too small so the. Original unit, had the inlet down the middle and the outlets down the middle what, we've done here is we. Are extending, the bag length and using. Some of the middle area for, bag, installation. With. The outlets, coming out at the end I mean this, is one example of some, creative solutions that we have been faced, with to. Solve a capacity, problem bring down those aircrafts. Numbers. To more reasonable, levels and be able to meet nisha. Another. Example is a bag. House with. Societal. Needs a little more cloth aria it is a restrictive. Application. This is a walk-in plenum, there. Is a maintenance, man in, here changing. Bags so. You guys can put back, well. We, analyzed the situation it, came up with a solution to make this longer, and put. Into these cages I know some people don't like to be caged ins but it's it's, still an option to, explore to, bring down that air to cooperation, number and these are only, two examples of, options. That we can look at now, there's some bad houses that have no hope either. There are almost a too old to say or, they're way too small for what's required and then, we may look at replacing, the whole unit in some of these cases though we have built new units, reusing. Just, the structure, of, the old unit, which, may, be in good shape but that's where this. Analysis, comes in. Now. We're not done yet let's that takes care of the equipment part of it let's. Look at the plant level particular. Installation. Issues. Bag. Handling, and cage fit are very important. Here, we're seeing that the folds. On a bag that can cause leaks if, you've seen this pattern it, may be that the bag is too loose or. Even if it fits okay we have, gone with its star design, on the cage to avoid this double fold which. Kills filter, bags. Now. As far as membrane, let's, look at installation. Always. Use the protection skirt, that's, a wire, with. A with, a skirt. Going. Down here. Basically. To avoid contact. Between the membranes, and the tube sheet so, we recommend, using the protection, skirt. Every. Time you use you install. Membrane. Filter bag as. Well. As feeding, the bag through the hole it's, not clear here but this man is feeding. The bag through the hole gently. It's, quite common to see in the field that people come in with a folded, up bag straight from the box feed. The hole folded, up bags through the hole and then release that, flaps, the bag around and, causes contact with the, the wall or with, adjacent bags and can damage, the membrane as we already saw that it is very delicate. Now. Third. Thing we really, need to watch for we've. Got the cold. Snap band because, of the noise it makes when you put it in it should snap and. If it snaps I can't. Do it loud another, that. If you get that sound it means that it's done correctly what we want to avoid and. That's what we want to hear this now this. Is you get a bag Pink's, up or sideways, you'll. Very likely have. A leak, through there worse. Yet the, facts in Fault smoochie which have happened on importantly. Installed, bag so we, need to pay attention to these details and, really train our people a little more, diligently. Than we've. Done historically especially. Those guys that come in as contractors, they want to get the job done and get out as fast as they can we, need to slow them down and emphasize, that this is important, especially, with, Nisha now. Not to leave reverse airbag houses behind because there's still a few out there filter. Bank handling is very important, we emphasize that but. As far as the insulation basics, we. Need to bring the facts, in at, the two chief level and raise, it to the hanging assembly, carefully, there's been cases where bags are brought in at the upper level and then dropped down again. That bangs up the membrane and can cause leakage. You know when you lose the membrane you lose your filter, now.
Another Issue you see this picture this, is exactly, how you shouldn't, do it we've. Got the clamp here we've. Got a beat we've. Got a cord and, we've got a double cuffs here all, those, things are get there for a purpose and the purpose is that this. Cord. Locks. Mechanically. With the clamp and the, feed. So. Even. If the clamp is loose this, bag has nowhere to go in this. Case the. Clasp is, it loosens up the bag will move you'll lose tension and will, cause accelerated. Wear so. Those are things that that we need to watch out for and, as. Far as installation now. Let's look at. Operation. The, most important, thing is in the operation, of baghouses at the plant level is, differential, pressure differential. Pressure is your steps. Of scope into the, SAG house operation, it tells you how the back house is doing how, does it do that here. You have a very simple illustration of a bank house we're missing the inlet duct so here you, got air flow going through here got. It going through the bags going on to the fact, it's. Quite obvious that you've got more of a negative pressure here, than. Here because. Of the restriction, on the. Bags and the thumps builds up on the back and. That's. Exactly, a measurement of differential, pressure because this negative is bigger than this one and. You're monitoring both you. Get from this water, u-tube, manometer you, get it different that's called differential. Pressure. Now. That's a water, manometer which, is a little, old water. It evaporates, and it gets dirty etc, so highly. Recommend, using Magna helix that will give you an accurate reading long term without reliability. Problems. Now. There's no excuse not to have this at every bag house and that goes for a jewelry units also yes. A lot of them simply, don't have it and that's. Again, no excuse, we highly recommend the, habit, now, let's go all the way to. The other side. Of the discussion. Modern. Plants. There. Are modern plants that have all kinds of monitoring. Devices. And, sensors, that, give us a lot, of information. This. Is good it's. Good information. We. Can check compartments. And etc and go, down the list the. Problem, is that this may be overwhelming. This. Amount of information which, we see in new plants. Does. Not replace. Good. People and knowledge. On people which, brings us to the next. Next. Slide which is a. Personal. Training and nisha back. In the old days 20 years ago I. Used. To go to plants, and I would always run into mr. bag house mr.. Bag houses this, guy here that knew. How the bank house were and how. They operated, and what was happening in, etc well, he, was downsized sometime in the 90s and it. Has been replaced in large. Part with. Information. With, his high-tech screens, in the control room but as we saw in the previous screen there's, a lot going on in the control room and some. Of the guys if. They see for instance this.
Discharge. Valve activation. Alarm, going. Off which, happened recently in a modern plant on, a 10 compartment, bag house four compartments, children. Alarm went. Out in the field and saw that they were in fact stopped. So. Thus was going up in the hopper and yet nobody was doing anything, and sure, enough I mean in because that, this guy that guy in the control room really, is. That's not his main responsibility. So this was going on, the bag house is screaming for help yet. Enough nobody's, doing anything so mister. Bag house should be properly, trained know, exactly what to do in case of a lead, in damper, or a discharge, valve, malfunctioning. And address. It properly but most important, needs. To establish a preventive, maintenance, plan, such. That we. Proactively, do, things before things, fall apart. We. Cannot afford to have failed. Bags. Give. Us the indication that they need to be changed now, it has to be proactive hopefully, we have five seven year bag wise but. If not if it's, only tied to last three or four years we need to change them before they, become a problem. So. We need to bring mr. maintenance bag, house back. Into the plant and train him properly. So. As a wrap-up. Epaulettes. Has a lot of tools in our toolbox to help you comply my. Group, is. Epileptic, we. Focus on bag houses which. Is only one component in this, big. Machine called. Your plant. But. We have the expertise, of our, colleagues, in epileps and the, production. System knowledge as in some cases we have found that looking. At it at the bag house and how to fix problems in the bag house. Bring additional, discussions, that will relieve the back out a little bit so having that knowledge, in art with my colleagues at ILS helps out a lot we, can do audits, evaluations we. Can replace your bags we have all the accessories, CFD. Analysis, etc to, address your, needs and get. You to meet chip compliance. That. I wrap up my side. Of the presentation, Mike excellent. Thank You Lois you've had a lot of great points. We. And we have received a number of questions that continue to come in I encourage. You to send. Those messages via chat, and, Louise. Will address those questions at, the, end of the next presentation. Dave. Escott, will present our second. Subject. Matter today which, is dry sorbets injection. Technology, Dave. Is a market manager in FL Smith's pneumatic, transport, division he. Is responsible for sales and technical advancement, in the, emissions field for utilities, industrial. Boilers and cement. They've. Earned a Bachelor of Science degree and. Chemical engineering from the University, of Delaware. They've. Joined Apple Smith in 1989, to the process engineer, and during. His early career he. Worked in the process design department, and contributed. To commissioning. And process, optimization, projects. Throughout. The world, Dave. With that and, turn it over to you.
Well. Thank you Michael I appreciate it as. Michael. Had mentioned, what. I'd like to talk to you about for. The next few minutes is. One. Of FL Smith's solutions, for mitigation, of acid, gases and, of. Mercury and to a limited extent hydrocarbons. As well both. In, permanent, installations, and in trials. Specifically. Looking, at talking about sorban, injection, systems, and the lessons that we've learned over the past few decades and, then. I'll wrap up talking, with about. The, development, and the evolution, of our. Micro feeder injection, system. We. Had been working. Over. 20 years ago with some early calcium. Hydroxide, injection, in, dry. Dry. Format. Hydrated. Lime in cement. Kilns with a number of trials back in the 1990's. And early Clean Air Act days and we. Also. In. The 1990s did, a lot of work trying, to resolve, some blue klum issues small. Levels. Of emissions. That were quite visible, and created, quite a public. Stir because they're so visible, so, we did a number of, trials. Using a transportable. Skid, that we developed, and that we, had tested, in this case we're looking at acid gas mitigation as. The. Reason for these plumes and. As. A result of the trials the information, that we gathered, we. Were able to install. Dozens, of permanent, alkali. Sorban injections, by alkali amine calcium, and sodium based, sorbents. Installed. Permanently, to. Reduce, these emissions and, the effect in the environment. Around. That same time parallel. Wise we were working, with, activated, carbon conveying, and injection, trials, in order, to mitigate mercury, as mercury became, a hot topic about. Five. Years ago or so was when we started working in. Earnest, on that we installed a number of permanent systems. Conveying. Powdered, activated carbon. And then. That brings us to this decade, where. The new regulations. That Luis and Michael have talked about neish at MACT rules for cement but, also in industrial, boilers and utilities, the. Levels. Of emissions, reduction. That are required and sometimes, the size of these installations. In the various industries. Vary very. Much and so as a result when we saw the size. Of these installations we developed a micro injection, technology. The. Micro feeder. Do, during these trials and during these permanent installations. We worked with a number of Zorba's just to give an idea of some. Of the sorbents we've used I won't read them all but they've been calcium, based sodium. Based and magnesium, based so called alkali, sorbents, and when. We started, work, with mercury we were working with activated. Carbons, treated, activated, carbons and other novel. Sorbents. Overall. We have about 40, 43, permanent, installations. That are in place either operating, or under contract, right now with these various, orbits and I don't, want to shock you with that picture I realize, that it's a larger installation, than what you're anticipating and it's larger than what most, of you listening will need it's a lot. Of storage that was designed, into the system at the customer's, request for, a relatively, high rate of injection that we. Won't see in this case but it's an illustration. Of why we developed, this micro feeder. The. Two sorbents, that are really, important. And relevant to what we'll be doing our hydrated. Lime calcium, hydroxide, and, powdered. Activated carbon. And, each. Material. Has its own special. Handling concerns, that. Need to be addressed and in, particular these two are both a light fluffy very low density material. On the, order of 0.25, to 0.5, tons per cubic meters sometimes the density can vary based. On who's supplying it and particularly.
With Hydrated, lime we've seen some recarbanation, issues. That can cause problems in the conveying system and we've learned a lot of lessons on those. Points and with activated carbon we've had a lot, of issues with flushing, and with. Dust, carryover. As. We look at. Injecting. Materials. Into a pressurized, convey line as needed for sorban injection it's no easy task, there, are really three delivery, methods that are typically used the adductor feeder. Airlocks tack up and tank. Over feeder system which will, wrap, up with, if. We look at the adductor, system in general we. Start with a storage silo, up here material, is discharged, into an either volumetric, bin, or, gravimetric. Bin materials. Withdrawn with a some, sort of screw device, hopefully. Loss in weight sometimes volumetric. Down into a feed bin into. The adductor, there convey. Blower providing. The mode of air many of these components. Of the system you'll see in the other two as well but what we'll focus on in this cases the adductor itself. The. Adductor has at one end the high-pressure convey, Aeromotive, air that's coming into the adductor, and in, this point it's narrowed, down so, that the, velocity. Increases. And the velocity, pressure increases. And by the, Bernoulli, effect an increase in velocity pressure, here creates, a lower, static. Pressure here and, therefore. Actually. Causes. A little bit of suction that will draw the material. In whether it's hydrated. Lime or activated, carbon draw the material, into the air stream where. It's mixed here and then expanded, back to the convey a pipeline. Briefly. Go over the pros and cons but we'll look at it in more detail. When we compare it to our micro, feeder but it, is very simple system, it's got low headroom, and it's. Relatively, inexpensive. On. The negative side we'll go into you can see there's a lot of wear because of the velocities, and the power consumption, is higher, therefore.
The Convey distances, can be shorter and I mentioned that risk of flushing there's. Also some, condensation, issues. With evaporative, cooling but what, we want to focus on here is the. Practical. Conveying limit distance was for an adductor, we, look at the blue curve we're. Looking at distance, along the x-axis and, the. Pressure drop associated, just with the air of, moving, it through that eductor and associative, pipeline whereas if we add a little bit of material activated. Carbon in this case we. Have an increased pressure drop and if we look at this line of the practical, pressure drop at two-and-a-half psi, for an adductor. Then, we can see our distance, is about, 500, feet above. That we start really multiplying. The amount of pressure we need on the conveyor and effectively. Limits how far we can move with. An adductor, so, that takes us to the second. Type. Which is the feeder / airlock again you see the bin with truck unload system, here. Our stack up consists, of a bin on load cells with a variable speed feed, or underneath, and. That'll meter the material, and then to get it into the pressurized convey line we have an airlock with a vent hopper which allows the air from the convey line to, come back through the pockets, of the, feeder and is bent it off. With the feeder over a lock system it's still simple, in terms of controls the velocities, are lower because you don't have that acceleration. And the narrowing down of the adductor, and you're. Able to convey for longer distances, however. In this case with the wave in and other equipment, the height of the stack up is a bit higher we. Have some internal venting, that's required a little bit more moving equipment and still. Even with this system it becomes difficult to inject, especially. At low flows these. Light fluffy materials, into the convey line so. That brings us to our tank / feeder system in this. Case our silo, fits fills one. Of two. Pressure. Tanks, on load cells those, tanks each, has a variable, speed feeder, so, we feed, the tanks. For, a short feed cycle, and then, the speed of that feeder is controlled, by the demands, and by the load cell signals, coming from this tank and then, we, convey. Through our mode, of air using blower again as one. Tank fills the. Other is emptying so this one is emptying and as. It starts, to empty this feeder starts, up and the material, comes down through and we switch to the other feeder so we have a essentially. Seamless. Transition, so. We have none of the venting concerns because the tank is pressurized, and alarm, moves along the throat the flow, of material, we. Have no material carryover, because there's no conveyor, coming. Back up through the feeder because of this positive pressure gradient, and we, can handle therefore even the light fluffy materials, at low flows the.
Headroom Is much, lower than the air. Lock system. More. Comparable to the adductor system but tolerates, a lot more wear in it than others on. The negative side there are some, somewhat, more complex, controls, in there here's. An example of one of the systems we use for a larger injection, system which is designed. For temporary, or permanent or long-term temporary. Use it's pretty robust, and can handle up to 5 tons an hour of hydrate, but. Has been used to inject all different, sorbents in all, different, applications. But we, do. Find that it's a little bit too large for lower. Flows it's difficult, to control very low flows and it's, somewhat cumbers to move around the country especially, for short-term trials, so all that brings us to. Our micro. Feeder, which. Is shown here also. Designed, for temporary or permanent installation. You can use it for trials or you can plop down and put it as a permanent installation. The, blows are much lower than the 5 tonnes we talked about in particular 50, to 500 pounds an hour for activated, carbon a little more for hydrated lime same. Good turndown, for accuracy's, sake can. Be designed nfpa, and. Because. Of the, lower, velocities, and therefore less restriction. By. Pressure drop we're able to convey much longer, distances, up to 1,500, feet with just a standard design and with, small modifications. We, could increase that conveying, distance as well allowing. Us to put in a more convenient, location it, doesn't have to be right next to the duct and force the trucks to. Unload in the middle of your plant, it's. A smaller footprint, than the one you saw on the page before only two and a half meters tall or so can, be put on the back of a flatbed truck, and unloaded. With a fork truck and that. Shop assembled, on a skid, so it comes with, really. One piece to set up so. If we look at performance wise, the. Tank over feeder and the micro feeder in particular, we, don't have the issues with back pressure downstream. We. Don't aren't affected as greatly as we, would be with an adductor we, don't have the, rotary, air lock leakage. That's, coming back up through the feeder and interfering. With the flow of feed. Of material that's going down to the line and we don't have any other. Equipment, to maintain associated. With that pressure. Gradient, is always going in the direction of the material, down the duct we. Also don't have the flushing that's associated, with an adductor which in most. Cases we end up getting kind of a siphoning, effect with adductors it becomes difficult to break the vacuum and therefore. Our flow becomes. A little uncontrolled, and we waste some pretty expensive sorbets, in the case of activated, carbon and you, know how opaque, and visible it is it shows up any leakage, will show up a long way. The. Other thing is a built-in redundancy, beat, by having two tanks, we can operate seamlessly but, if. Nothing happens in one of the two stack ups and we, need to shut that nice, late that tank down we can still run the other one and we, will run it that fill time and vent time is less than 30 seconds, so it's, essentially, still a continuous. Continuous. Discharge. Of material, into our ductwork for mitigation. On. The maintenance side we talked about the differences, in velocities, between an adductor and a tank and you can see that.
These Are twenty sometimes higher the velocities, in the nozzle exit and in the throat here then we have as a pickup velocity. In our tank system, and that, becomes critical if you look at the fact that wear is proportional. To the velocity, squared. So. We have maybe. 500 times, more wear in some parts of the inductor and about 75, times more wearing this part of the adductor so. We, do have issues and how long a doctor, will last at these velocities, and the other thing is the. Evaporative. Cooling that we have here in the expansion, will, cause the pre carbonation, of hydrated line in fact you'd be hard-pressed to get, a manufacturer. Of adductors, to quote you an inductor for hydrated, line because you probably. Get about a week out of it before you have to swap it out and soak it in an acid bath to clean it out the. Other thing is we don't have the additional maintenance that the feeder. / airlock system, has with the fan. Hopper and dust filter. So. The. Probably. The biggest advantage we, have from. An FL Smith's side is that, we have standardized, this product, so regardless, of what's downstream, of our, installation. We, are flexible in the rate that goes through the system the number of elbows the distance, that's going to be traveled horizontally, and vertically, therefore. As I mentioned we can put it wherever we need to put it to, get easy access, with, your unloading trucks and it, shop assembled, just flat. Bed put it down and it's ready to go with just a few interface. Points, it. Also helps, us in that it reduces the. Amount of engineering we do from job to job and makes it a lot, more competitive, out in the market which helps, you in the long run and for. Your direct benefits, as well because. Of the lower pressure drop in the our effects of downstream, pressure on our, blower we're able to operate at much lower pressures, than an inductor and therefore. Our power consumption, is going to be considerably, lower than the adductors system. So. To. Wrap things up and hopefully, give, you a good idea of, what. We have to offer in at least this one, small part of our emission solutions, this. Micro. Feeder is designed. For acid, gas HCl. So2, in some cases so3. And for. Mercury, mitigation, and it's. Designed. To be able to be used for short term trials, easily, maneuverable, and dropped off at your plant or for permanent installations, very ruggedly constructed, and. It's. Got relatively, low capital, expense the equipment, itself is not much at all and lower. Height and less, venting, than our feeder air lock systems, while, having. Better control, of our feed and our sorbents, and lower pressure drop therefore operating costs than our inductors, and, of. Course all that is backed with FL Smith's, engineering. And project, execution. Team that. Most of you are familiar with and. Having. Said that we, look forward to answering, any questions, that you have. Okay, great, thanks Dave we, have again received a number of questions. Via, chat. While. Louise. Is going through his Q&A, session, please, continue, to send your questions today and. We'll. Follow up here in just a few minutes and we do have about 10 or so minutes left, and we'd like to get to as many questions as possible in.
The Event we don't get your question we've. Placed here the. Contact information for release Dave and myself and, please. Feel, free to contact. Us, again. If we don't get to your question but, we're going to try to get to as many as possible so. Louise with that if you'd like to go ahead and start your Q&A session okay, we got some questions, that came in we'll, start with the first one well what's, the effective, life of PTFE. Filter, bags considering. That they aren't selling well. That's a very frequent, question first, of all abrasion. Is acceptable, in any application whether, it's a clinker cooler or Kindle or whatever if you've got abrasion, that's the problem but if we if we have properly. Balanced flows and the numbers match. The recommendations. Meaning they're conservative, three. To five years is pretty, reasonable although, we've seen die houses, running to seven or eight years it's on a case-by-case, basis. And to really answer that question we would have to have. A lot of other questions answer, to really, see about the flows but, I could say the rules on three to five years it's quite. Reasonable. Next. Question you, mentioned, modifying, the existing auto, Jets collector, by, putting in longer Bank, what. Is the max maximum, children, bag length well. On. That, particular case I, assume, we're speaking, about the conversion that I presented we, were limited by the by, the height available, in that case we did not change, the. Housing, meaning. It was a walk-in plenum, we went with two-piece cage and extended, it as as far as mathematically, possible which was a 30%, ride in, gauges you know gave us more cloth area so. In. My opinion being a field guy and, having actually, changed, bags myself. The. Short, bags are easier, to handle in, general but we, got to look at the velocities, we get a look at restrictions, physical, etc, the short bags are definitely, easier to work with long, bags give you a smaller, footprint, and more. Capacity for, a footprint. Next. Question with long bag technologies, it's possible to have a higher can velocity. Well. It really, with long bags you're. Limiting, the cross or. The footprint. Of a bag house and the. Answer to that question is no we wouldn't want to go above above, the 200, or in some cases to 20 to 30 it's not a hard number but it's in that range what. Long, back technology gives us, some. Sideways, flow entry, which. Cancels. Part of the can velocity, and allows us to you. Know keep, that in check. So, some, of the flow is sent horizontally. Through the array of bags, allowing. Cleaning, without. Without restricting, the, airflow from the bottom but, a quick answer is no we don't want to go any higher. Next, question is what about cartridge, filters, well. PTFE. Membrane can, be put, in cartridge filters, yes. But they get very very expensive, for high-temperature applications. Cartridge. Filters with membrane for low temperatures, are reasonable, when, we start talking for, clinker cooler or kill applications, it. Is very, very expensive almost, infeasible, in fact for, the very high temperature with, glass I don't think it was ever fully, developed, there's been testing, but. In general there's no competition with the long back technology for new baghouses. Next. Question what is the maximum operating, temperature for. PTFE, filter bags as, we saw the, filter bag is actually the support, of the filter and the filter is a membrane, membrane. Has a limitation, in temperature of 500, s which is about 260. See and the. Limitation. Is. Also. The. Support. If you laminate. The membrane on polyester. Bags then. The limitation becomes the support, of the bag which will have a limitation, of 275. What. Does it cost to perform a CSP model, on an existing bank house well it depends on the geometry. And what we're dealing with, but. I could say as a rule of thumb probably. In the range of 20, to $35,000. I mean that's some. Examples I've seen that, will give you a complete, details. Of analysis. Of what's going on with it with a possible solution. There's. Additional. Questions. But, we're running out of time so let's. See there's one more than. What. Do you guess oh yeah. This is it soon regardless reverse airbag houses and. Overall. The reverser, bag houses can they meet me chef limits. 0.04. The answer is yes some of those reverser, bag houses are workhorses I have worked with reverse airbag houses in fact I'm a fan. Of reverse airbag houses when they're properly installed, and operators, and they, have membrane bags and they run well I've seen, bag lights with. Ten years on reverse air so it's not it's.
Not Needed to replace him and then. Here says well you expect a reasonable, area to cloth ratio, for. Reverse air. One. Point five one point eight with. Nisha would be reasonable. Some. Of them work well as 2.0. But. It's probably, pushing it to have good long reliable. Bag life. Again. I keep I see, more and more questions coming but I'm going to cut it right there but you're, welcome to email me you fill, in the screen we can even, talk about your specific application and again, thank you for the questions, unfortunately, we can't, answer all of them at this time but. You have Louis's contact, information, here please feel. Free to email him or call him and, you. Can discuss your, specific question in more detail if necessary. Dave, without if you'd like to go ahead and start your Q&A session sure, I'd like that and, I, apologize, what I'll try to do is. For. The sake of time I'll probably wrap a couple of these in that. Are worded a little differently I'll try to summarize them if I don't answer your question exactly I apologize, and again let me know by, email, or call, me but I think I have I can, put them into a couple of categories of questions the first kind, of common thread was, Makati. Estimate, what's an estimate of the reduction, of acid, gases so2, and HCL versus, the consumption, of sorbents, and. The. Answer of course first, answer is it all depends, and I, don't like that answer any more than you do so what I'll do is kind. Of give you a quick description. Of how we do it normally to, normalize. These. These. Injection, systems, we use a molar ratio, the moles absorbent, divided by the moles of pollutant. In most cases let's use so2 for, a typical. Case and, so. We would have say, a three. To one molar, ratio three moles of calcium. Hydroxide per. Mole of so2 in. Typical. Preheater system, might get us somewhere around 40. Or 50 percent removal, and if you look at pounds, to pound basis which most of us are more used to it's multiply. That by about 1.15. So maybe it's a four point four pound. Ratio, would get you 40 or 50 percent reduction, and then, if you need to go up higher you may be up around five to one molar ratio, or you know five and a half six to one on a pound ratio but, I have to stress that that's really dependent. On so. Many variables amount, of water spray, or water vapor, in your gas, the temperature of the gas the. What kind of sorban what, grade sorbents, you have how, much dust is in the system the retention time available, and of course the, APC, device itself, so. It does depend and, if you have for, example a long kiln where your temperatures, are going to be a. Bit, higher than then in that case you may expect to use higher molar ratios, to get those same reductions, but what, I would really say is you.
Want To. Experiment. To run trials, to, use the equipment that we showed you here, or, other similar equipment but you want to find out, what. Kind of effect you get with injection, how much sorban it takes where's the best place because it varies from plant to plant and I, can say the same a couple questions just come in on mercury, removal, as well although. We don't use molar ratios, it's, more of a weight, ratio, per volume of air and so. Typically, will use pounds, per million ACF, as a representative. And and we can expect for instance if you have a polishing, filter a separate, bag house you, may inject up to five pounds per million ACF, and you could get seventy, seventy-five percent removal I've seen more depending, on among. Other things what state, the mercury is in the, presence of sulfur. So2, to so3 and, water, vapor other pollutants, or poisoning. Effects. On the activated, carbon activated, carbon is kind of a sponge it's not a chemical reaction it just soaks up what's there so it's not very selective, and so you need to make sure there aren't other interferences. In there the. APC. Device, and how you pulse, the bags is really going to affect it as well so, I would say you could be five maybe six or seven pounds per million cubic. Feet to get a decent. Amount of removal, that we need and of course it all comes back to how much is coming into your system on what's, going to be your best solution. Dave. I'm sorry to interrupt you right there but we are closing, in on the time we allotted for today's, webinar. Thank. You very much, Dave and Maurice and. Obviously, you've, touched on a lot of important. Issues because, we have, received a lot of questions. And answers I. Emphasize. If you are unable to if, your question was not answered please feel free to contact Dave. Louise for myself and we'd, be happy to discuss. It with you in more detail. Obviously. With time constraints, we can't touch on the. Full. Offer. That we have. SL. Smiths full portfolio. Of products, and services to. Assist you with meeting compliance but. Again we encourage you to contact us and we'll be more, than happy to work with you and creating. Your compliance, strategy, with. That I'd like to thank you all and on behalf of Louise, and Dave thank. You and have a great day.