Environmental impact of automobiles | Wikipedia audio article

Environmental impact of automobiles | Wikipedia audio article

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A car. Or automobile. Is a wheeled motor vehicle, used for transportation. Most. Definitions, of car say they run primarily, on roads seat one to eight people have, four tires and mainly, transport, people rather than goods cars came into global, use during, the 20th, century and developed, economies, depend on them the. Year 1886. Is regarded, as the birth year of the modern car when German, inventor Karl Benz patented, his Benz patent, Motorwagen. Cars. Became, widely available in, the early 20th, century one. Of the first cars accessible. To the masses was the 1908, Model, T an American. Car manufactured. By the Ford Motor Company. Cars. Were rapidly adopted, in the US where they replaced, animal-drawn, carriages, and carts but took much longer to be accepted, in Western, Europe and other parts of the world. Cars. Have controls, for driving, parking, passenger, comfort and a variety of lights. Over. The decades, additional. Features and controls, have been added to vehicles, making, them progressively more complex. These. Include, rear reversing, cameras, air conditioning. Navigation. Systems, and in-car, entertainment. Most. Cars in use in the 2010s, are propelled by an internal, combustion engine fueled, by the combustion, of fossil fuels. Electric. Cars which were invented early in the history of the car began, to become commercially. Available in, 2008. There. Are costs and benefits to car use the. Cost to the individual, include, acquiring, the vehicle, interest, payments, if the car is financed, repairs, and maintenance fuel. Depreciation. Driving, time parking, fees taxes. And insurance. The. Cost to society include. Maintaining, roads land-use, road congestion air, pollution, public, health healthcare and disposing. Of the vehicle, at the end of its life, road. Traffic accidents. Are the largest cause of injury-related, deaths, worldwide the, personal, benefits, include, on-demand, transportation. Mobility, independence, and, convenience. The. Societal, benefits include economic, benefits, such as job and wealth creation from, the automotive, industry, transportation. Provision, societal. Well-being from, leisure and travel opportunities. And revenue, generation from the taxes. People's. Ability, to move flexibly, from place to place has, far-reaching implications, for, the nature of societies. There. Are around 1 billion cars, in use worldwide the. Numbers, are increasing rapidly especially, in China India and other newly industrialized countries. Topic. Etymology. The. Word car, is believed to originate from, the latin word Karras or carom wheeled, vehicle. Or, the middle english word car meaning, two-wheel. Cart from. Old North French in turn, these, originated. From the Gaulish word Karros, a Gallic, chariot, it. Originally, referred to any wheeled horse-drawn, vehicle, such as a car carriage. Or wagon, motorcar. Is. Attested, from 1895. And is the usual formal, name for cars in British English auto, car, is, a variant, that is also attested, from 1895.

But That is now considered, archaic, it. Literally means. Self-propelled. Car. The. Term horseless. Carriage, was. Used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built and is attested, from 1895. The word, automobile. He's. A classical. Compound, derived from the ancient Greek word autos, autos, meaning, self. And the, Latin word mobilized, meaning, movable. It. Entered the English language from French and was first adopted by the Automobile. Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over. Time the word, automobile. Fell. Out of favour in Britain and was replaced by motor. Car. Automobile. Remains. Chiefly, North American, particularly, as a formal, or commercial, term an. Abbreviated. Form auto. Was. Formerly, a common, way to refer, to cars in English but is now considered old-fashioned. The. Word is still very common as an adjective in American, English usually. In compound, formations, like auto, industry. And, auto. Mechanic. In. Dutch and German two, languages, historically, related to English the abbreviated, form Otto. Dutch. Otto. German. As well as the formal full version, automobile. Dutch. Automobile. German. Are still used in. Either the short form is the most regular, word for car. Topic. History the first working steam powered vehicle, was designed and quite possibly built, by Ferdinand, verbiage, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission, in China around 1670. -, it. Was a 65. Cm long scale model toy for the Chinese, emperor that was unable to carry, a driver or a passenger. It. Is not known with certainty if. Fur beasts model was successfully, built or run. Nicholas. Joseph cognate, is widely credited with building the first full-scale. Self-propelled. Mechanical, vehicle, or car in about 1769. He, created, a steam-powered tricycle. He. Also constructed, two, steam tractors, for the French army one of which is preserved in the French national conservatory, of Arts and Crafts, his. Inventions. Were however, handicapped. By problems, with water supply, and maintaining, steam pressure, in. 1801. Richard, Trevithick built and, demonstrated, his puffing, devil Road locomotive. Believed by many to be the first demonstration. Of a steam-powered Road vehicle, it. Was unable to maintain sufficient, steam, pressure for long periods, and was of little practical use, the. Development. Of external, combustion engines, is detailed, as part of the history of the car but often treated separately from the development, of true cars a variety. Of steam-powered, Road vehicles, were used during the first part of the 19th century including steam, cars steam, buses, feet ins and steam, rollers. Sentiment. Against them led to the locomotive acts of 1865. In. 1807. Nice of Fournier and his brother Claude created, what was probably the world's first internal, combustion, engine, which they called a pyria low for but they chose to install it in a boat on the river ceranae, in France. Coincidentally. In 1807. The Swiss inventor Francois, Isaac, de Rivaz designed. His own de Rivaz internal, combustion, engine and used it to develop the world's first vehicle. To be powered by such, an engine the. Nice's pairi lo4, was fueled by a mixture, of Lycopodium. Powder dried. Spores of the like podium, plant finely crushed coal dust and resin that were mixed with oil, whereas de Rivaz used, a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, neither. Design, was very successful as was the case with others, such as Samuel, Brown Samuel. Morey and Etienne, Lenoir with his hippie Mobil who each produced, vehicles, usually adapted. Carriages, or carts, powered by internal combustion, engines, in, November. 1881. French, inventor, Gustave trouve demonstrated. The first working three-wheeled. Car powered by electricity, at the International. Exposition of electricity, Paris. Although. Several other German engineers, including Gottlieb. Daimler Wilhelm. Maybach and Siegfried. Marcus were working on the problem at about the same time Karl, Benz generally, is acknowledged, as the inventor of the modern car in. 1879. Benz, was granted, a patent, for his first engine which had been designed in 1878. Many. Of his other inventions. Made the use of the internal, combustion engine feasible. For powering a vehicle, his. First motor wagon was built in 1885. In Mannheim, Germany. He. Was awarded, the patent for its invention, as of his application, on the 29th, of January, 1886. Under the auspices, of his major company, Benz & Cie which, was founded in 1883.

Benz. Began, promotion, of the vehicle, on the 3rd of July 1886. And about 25, Benz vehicles, were sold between 1888. And 1893. When his first four-wheeler, was introduced, along with a model intended for affordability. They. Also were powered with four-stroke. Engines, of his own design. Emile. Roger of france already, producing, benz engines, under licence now added the benz car to his line of products, because. France was more open to the early cars initially. More were built and sold in France through, Roger than been sold in Germany, in. August 1888. Bertha, Benz the wife of Karl Benz undertook, the first road trip by car to, prove the road worthiness of, her husband's, invention, in. 1896. Benz designed, and patented the first internal, combustion, flat, engine called boxer, motor, during. The last year's of the 19th, century Benz, was the largest car company, in the world with. 572. Units, produced in 1899. And because of its size Benz, & Cie became. A joint-stock company, the. First motor car in Central Europe and one of the first factory, made cars in the world was produced, by czech company, Nestle's Dorf of argan bauer later renamed, to tatra in 1897. The precedent, automobile. Dangler. And Maybach found a Daimler, motor and Gessle shaft dmg, in cannstatt, in 1890. And sold their first car in 1892. Under, the brand name Daimler, it. Was a horse-drawn, stagecoach, built by another manufacturer, which they retrofitted, with an engine of their design, by. 1895. About 30 vehicles had been built by Daimler, and Maybach either at the Daimler works or in the hotel hermann where they set up shop after, disputes, with their backers, benz. Maybach, and the Danelaw team seemed to have been unaware of each other's early work they. Never worked together by the time of the merger of the two companies Daimler. And Maybach were, no longer part of dmg. Daimler. Died in 1900. And later that year Maybach. Designed, an engine named Daimler, Mercedes, that was placed in a specially, ordered model, built to specifications set. By emil jellinek this. Was a production, of a small number of vehicles, for jellinek to race and market in his country, two. Years later in 1902. A new model dmg, car was produced in the model was named Mercedes after. The Maybach engine, which generated, 35, horsepower. Maybach. Quick dmg, shortly, thereafter and, opened the business of his own rights. To the Daimler brand name was sold to other manufacturers. Karl. Benz proposed, cooperation. Between dmg. And Benz & Cie when, economic, conditions, began to deteriorate in, Germany following, the first world war but, the directors, of dmg, refused, to consider it initially. Negotiations. Between the two companies resumed, several, years later when these conditions, worsened, and in 1924. They signed an agreement of mutual, interest. Until, the year 2000. Both. Enterprises, standardized. Design production. Purchasing. And sales, and they advertised, or marketed, their car models jointly, although, keeping their respective, brands, on the. 28th, of June 1926. Benz & Cie and dmg. Finally, merged as the Daimler Benz company, baptizing, all of its cars mercedes-benz, as a brand, honoring the most important, model of the dmg cars, the Maybach design later referred, to as the 1902, Mercedes. 35, HP along, with the Benz name, Carl. Benz remained, a member of the board of directors of Daimler Benz until, his death in 1929. And at times his two sons also participated. In the management, of the company in. 1890. Emil the vasa and armand peugeot, of france began producing vehicles, with Daimler engines, and so laid the foundation, of the automotive, industry in, France, in. 1891. Auguste. Doriot and his Peugeot colleague, Louie wriggle it completed, the longest, trip by a gasoline-powered, vehicle. When their self designed and built Daimler, powered peugeot type 3 completed, mm 100 kilometers. 1,300. Miles from Valentini, to Paris and Brest and back again, they. Were attached, to the first Paris, Brest Paris bicycle, race but finished six days after, the winning cyclist, Charles, Tarrant, the. First design for an American, car with a gasoline internal, combustion. Engine was made in 1877. By George Selden, of Rochester, New York. Selden. Applied for a patent, for a car in 1879. But, the patent application, expired, because the vehicle was never built. After. A delay of 16, years in a series, of attachments. To his application. On the 5th of november, 1895. Selden. Was granted, a United, States Patent US, Patent. Five hundred and forty nine thousand, one hundred and sixty for a two-stroke, car engine which hindered more than encouraged, development. Of cars in the United States, his. Patent, was challenged, by Henry, Ford and others and overturned. In 1911, in. 1893. The first running gas, powered, American, car was built and Road tested, by the Duryea, brothers of, springfield massachusetts the.

First Public, run of the Dory a motor wagon, took place on the 21st, of September, 1893. On Taylor, Street in Metro Center Springfield, the. Studebaker automobile. Company, subsidiary, of a long-established wagon. And coach manufacturer. Started to build cars in 1897. And commenced, sales of electric vehicles, in 1902, in gasoline vehicles, in 1904. In Britain, there had been several attempts, to build steam cars with varying, degrees of success with Thomas Richert even attempting, a production, run in 1860. Sandler. From Malvern is recognized, by the veteran, car club of Great Britain as having made the first gasoline-powered, car, in the country in 1894. Followed, by Frederick, William Lanchester. In 1895. But these were both one offs the. First production vehicles, in Great Britain came, from the Daimler company, a company, founded by Harry J Lawson in 1896. After, purchasing, the right to use the name of the engines. Lawson's. Company, made its first car in 1897. And they bore the name Daimler, in 1892. German. Engineer, Rudolf, diesel was granted, a patent for a new rational combustion. Engine in. 1897. He built the first diesel engine, steam. Electric. And gasoline, powered vehicles competed. For decades, with gasoline, internal, combustion. Engines achieving, dominance, in the 1910s. Although. Various, piston, less rotary engine designs have attempted to compete with the conventional. Piston and crankshaft design only Mazdas, version, of the Wankel engine has had more than very limited, success. All. In all it is estimated that over 100, thousand, patents created, the modern automobile, and motorcycle. Topic. Mass-production. Large-scale. Production. Line manufacturing. Of affordable, cars was started, by ransom olds in 1901, at his Oldsmobile, Factory, in Lansing Michigan and, based upon stationary. Assembly, line techniques, pioneered, by Mark Isambard, Brunel, at the Portsmouth block Mills England, in 1802. The, assembly. Line style of mass production and interchangeable. Parts had been pioneered in the u.s. by Thomas Blanchard, in 1821. At the Springfield, Armory, in Springfield, Massachusetts. This. Concept, was greatly expanded by Henry Ford beginning. In 1913. With the world's first moving assembly line for cars at the Highland, Park Ford plant as a. Result, Ford's, cars came off the line in 15-minute. Intervals much faster, than previous, methods increasing. Productivity, a fold while using less manpower from, 12.5. Man-hours, to 1-hour 33. Minutes it. Was so successful paint, became a bottleneck, only. Japan black would dry fast enough forcing, the company to drop the variety, of colors, available before, 1913. Until fast, drying due Cole Acker was developed, in 1926. This. Is the source of Ford's apocryphal, remark any color. As long as it's black in. 1914. An assembly, line worker could buy a Model, T with four months pay ford's, complex, safety procedures, especially. Assigning. Each worker to a specific, location instead, of allowing them to roam about, dramatically. Reduced the rate of injury, the. Combination. Of high wages and high efficiency, is called Fordism. And was. Copied by most major industries, the. Efficiency. Gains from the assembly, line also coincided, with the economic, rise of the United, States the. Assembly, line forced, workers to work at a certain pace with very repetitive motions. Which led to more output, per worker while, other countries were using less productive, methods.

In. The automotive, industry its success, was dominating, and quickly, spread worldwide seeing. The founding, of Ford France and Ford Britain in 1911, for, Denmark. 1923. Ford Germany, 1925. In 1921. Citroen. Was the first native European, manufacturer. To adopt the production, method, soon. Companies, had to have assembly, lines or risk going broke by 1930. 250. Companies which did not had disappeared, development. Of automotive, technology was. Rapid due in part to the hundreds, of small manufacturers. Competing, to gain the world's attention, key. Developments. Included, electric, ignition and the electric, self-starter. Both by Charles, Kettering for the Cadillac Motor, Company, in 1910. 1911. Independent. Suspension, and four-wheel, brakes. Since. The 1920s, nearly, all cars have been mass-produced to meet market, needs so marketing, plans often have heavily influenced, car design, it. Was Alfred P Sloan who established, the idea of different makes of cars produced, by one company called the General Motors companion. Make program, so that buyers could move, up as their. Fortunes, improved. Reflecting. The rapid pace of change make, shared parts with one another so larger, production, volume resulted, in lower costs for each price range for example, in the 1930s, Lascelles. Sold by Cadillac used, cheaper mechanical, parts made by Oldsmobile, in the 1950s. Chevrolet, shared hood doors roof, and windows, with Pontiac, by the 1990s, corporate. Power trains and shared platforms, with interchangeable brakes. Suspension, and, other parts were common, even. So only major makers, could afford high costs and even companies with decades, of production, such as a person, Col Doris, Payne's or premier, could not manage of some 200, American, car makers in existence, in 1920. Only 43, survived, in 1930. And with the Great Depression by, 1940. Only 17. Of those were left in Europe much the same would happen. Morris. Set up its production line at Cowley in 1924. And soon outsold, Ford while beginning, in 1923. To follow Ford's practice of vertical, integration buying, Hotchkiss, engines, Wrigley gearboxes. And oz Burton radiators. For instance, as well as competitors. Such as Worsley in 1925. Morris, had 41, percent, of total British, car production. Most. British small car assemblers, from a B two extra, had gone under. Citroen. Did the same in France coming to cars in 1919. Between, them and other cheap cars in reply such as Renaud's one ocv in Peugeot's v cv they produced five hundred and fifty thousand, cars in 1925. And Moore's her2, and others, could not compete. Germany's. First mass, manufactured. Car the opel 4ps log frosh tree frog came off the line at rüsselsheim, in, 1924. Soon making opel, the top car builder in germany, with thirty seven point five percent of the market in Japan car, production, was very limited before, World War two, only. A handful, of companies were producing, vehicles in limited, numbers and these were small three-wheeled. For commercial, uses like, Daihatsu, or with a result of partnering, with European, companies, like a zoo zoo building, the woolsley hay 9 in 1922. Mitsubishi. Was also partnered, with Fiat, and built the Mitsubishi, Model A based on a Fiat vehicle. Tata. Nissen Suzuki. Mazda, and Honda, began as companies, producing, non-automotive, products, before the war, switching, to car production during the 1950's. Keiichiro. Toyota's, decision, to take Toyota, loom works into automobile, manufacturing. Would create what would eventually become toyota, motor corporation the. Largest automobile. Manufacturer. In the world. Subaru. Meanwhile. Was formed from a conglomerate, of six companies who banded together as Fuji, Heavy Industries as, a result, of having been broken up under key retsu legislation. Topic. Fuel, and propulsion, technologies. According. To the European, Environment. Agency, the transport, sector is a major contributor. To air pollution noise. Pollution and, climate change, most cars in use in the 2010s, run on gasoline petrol. Burnt in an internal combustion, engine ice the. International. Organization of. Motor vehicle, manufacturers.

Says That in countries, that mandate, low sulfur gasoline, gasoline, fuelled cars built to late 2010, standards, such as Euro 6 emit very little local, air pollution. Some. Cities ban holder gasoline-fueled, cars, and some countries plan to ban sales in future, however. Some, environmental, groups say this phase-out, of fossil, fuel vehicles, must be brought forward to limit climate change. Some. Analysts, say that production, of gasoline fuelled, cars may have peaked and suggests the peak occurred between, 2017. And 2019. Other hydrocarbon. Fossil fuels, also burnt by deflagration, rather, than detonation, in ice cars include, diesel, auto gas, and CNG. Removal. Of fossil, fuel subsidies, concerns, about oil dependence, tightening, environmental. Laws and restrictions, on greenhouse gas emissions, are propelling work on alternative. Power systems, for cars, this. Includes, hybrid, vehicles, plug-in, electric vehicles. And hydrogen, vehicles. 2.1. Million light electric, vehicles, of all types but mainly cars were sold in 2018. Over half in China this was an increase of 64%. On the previous year giving, a global, total on the road of 5.4. Million. Vehicles. Using alternative. Fuels such as ethanol flexible. Fuel vehicles, and natural, gas vehicles, are also gaining, popularity in. Some countries. Cars. For racing, or speed records, have sometimes employed, jet or rocket engines, but these are impractical for common use. Oil. Consumption, has increased rapidly in, the 20th, and 21st centuries, because there are more cars the 1985. To 2003. Oil glut even fuelled the sales of low economy, vehicles, in OECD countries. The. BRIC countries are adding to this consumption. Topic. User-interface. Cars, are equipped with controls, used for driving passenger. Comfort and safety normally. Operated, by a combination, of the use of feet and hands and occasionally. By voice on 21st, century cars, these. Controls, include, a steering, wheel pedals, for operating, the brakes and controlling, the car's speed and in a manual transmission, car a clutch pedal a shift lever or stick for changing, gears and a number of buttons and dials for turning on lights ventilation. And other functions. Modern. Cars controls, are now standardized, such as the location for the accelerator, and brake but, this was not always the case. Controls. Are evolving, in response to, new technologies, for example the electric, car and the integration, of mobile, communications. Some. Of the original controls. Are no longer required for. Example, all cars once had controls, for the choke valve clutch ignition, timing and the crank instead, of an electric starter. However. New controls, have also been added to vehicles, making them more complex. These. Include, air conditioning, navigation. Systems, and in-car, entertainment. Another. Trend, is the replacement of physical, knobs and switches by, secondary, controls, with touchscreen, controls, such as BMWs. IDrive and Ford's MIFA touch, another. Change, is that while early cars pedals, were physically, linked to the brake mechanism and, throttle in the 2010s, cars, have increasingly, replaced, these physical, linkages, with electronic, controls.

Topic. Lighting. Cars. Are typically fitted with multiple, types of lights, these, include, headlights, which are used to illuminate the way ahead and make the car visible, to other users so, that the vehicle, can be used at night in some jurisdictions, daytime, running lights red brake lights to indicate when the brakes are applied amber. Turn signal lights, to indicate the turn intentions, of the driver white colored reverse lights to illuminate the. Area behind the car and indicate, that the driver will be or is reversing, and on some vehicles additional. Lights eg, side marker, lights to increase the visibility of, the car. Interior. Lights on the ceiling of the car are usually, fitted for the driver and passengers. Some. Vehicles, also have a trunk light and more rarely an engine, compartment light. Topic. Wait. In, the United States from. 1975. To 1980. Average. Car weight dropped, from. 1842. To. 1464. Kilograms. 4062. 3228. Pounds, likely, in response, to rising gasoline, prices and. New. Fuel efficiency. Standards the, average, new car weighed. 1461. Kilograms. 3221. Pounds, in 1987. But. 1818. Kilograms. 4009. Pounds, in 2010. Due to modern steel safety cage 'as anti-lock, brakes air bags and more. Powerful. If. More efficient. Engines. Heavier. Cars are safer for the driver from an accident, perspective, but more dangerous for other vehicles, and road users, the. Weight of a car influences. Fuel consumption, and performance, with more weight resulting, in increased, fuel consumption, and decreased performance. The. Smart fortwo a small, city car weighs. 750. To, 795. Kilograms, one thousand, six hundred and fifty five to one thousand, seven hundred and fifty-five pounds. Heavier. Cars include, full-size, cars SUVs. And extended-length SUVs. Like the Suburban. According. To research conducted by, Julian, or word of the University. Of Cambridge global, energy use could be greatly reduced, by using lighter cars and an average weight of 500. Kilograms. 1,100. Pounds has been said to be well achievable, in. Some competitions, such as the shell eco-marathon, average. Car weights of 45, kilograms 99. Pounds have also been achieved, these. Cars are only single, seaters still falling within the definition of, a car, although four-seater, cars are more common but they nevertheless demonstrate. The amount by which car, weights could still be reduced, and the subsequent, lower fuel use ie up to a fuel use of. 2,560. Kilometers L. Topic. Seating, and body style. Most, cars are designed to carry multiple occupants. Often with four or five seats. Cars. With five seats typically, seat two passengers, in the front and three in the rear. Full-size. Cars and large sport, utility, vehicles, can often carry six seven, or more occupants, depending, on the arrangement of the seats on the. Other hand sports, cars are most often designed, with only two seats, the. Differing, needs for passenger, capacity in, their luggage or cargo space has resulted in the availability, of a large variety of body styles to, meet individual, consumer, requirements. That include among others the sedan saloon, hatchback, station, wagon estate, and minivan. Topic. Safety. Road, traffic accidents. Are the largest cause of injury-related, deaths, worldwide. Mary. Ward became one of the first documented, car fatalities in, 1869. In Parsons, Town Island, and Henry bliss one of the United, States first, pedestrian car, casualties, in 1899. In New York City. There. Are now standard, tests for safety in new cars such, as the EuroNCAP and the u.s. NCAP, tests, and insurance. Industry, backed tests, by the Insurance, Institute for Highway Safety.

IIHS. Worldwide, road traffic is becoming, ever safer, in part due to efforts by the government, to implement safety, features, in cars eg, seatbelts, airbags, etc. Reduce unsafe, driving practices, eg, speeding, drinking, and driving and texting and driving and make road design more safe by adding features such as speed bumps which reduce vehicle speed and roundabouts. Which reduce the likelihood of, a head-on collision as compared, with an intersection. Topic. Costs, and benefits. The. Costs of car usage, which may include the cost of acquiring, the vehicle, repairs, and auto maintenance fuel. Depreciation. Driving, time parking, fees taxes. And insurance are, weighed against, the cost of the alternatives. And the value of the benefits perceived, in real a vehicle, usage, the. Benefits, may include on-demand, transportation. Mobility independence. And, convenience. During. The 1920s, cars. Had another benefit, see, opals finally, had a way to head off on unchaperoned, date plus, they had a private space to snuggle up close at the end of the night. Similarly. The cost to society of, car use may include maintaining. Roads land, use air pollution, road congestion Public Health healthcare, and their disposing, of the vehicle, at the end of its life and can be balanced, against the value of the benefits, to society, that car use generates. Societal. Benefits, may include economy. Benefits such as job and wealth creation of, car production, and maintenance transportation. Provision, society, well being derived from leisure and travel opportunities. And revenue, generation from the tax opportunities. The. Ability, of humans, to move flexibly, from place to place has, far-reaching implications for. The nature of societies. Topic. Environmental. Impact. While. There are different types of fuel that may power cars most rely on gasoline, or diesel, the. United, States Environmental, Protection, Agency. States. That the average vehicle emits, eight thousand, eight hundred and eighty seven grams of the greenhouse, gas carbon dioxide co2. Per, gallon of gasoline the, average. Vehicle running, on diesel fuel will, emit ten thousand, one hundred and eighty grams of carbon, dioxide. Many. Governments, are using fiscal, policies, such as road tax or the u.s. gas guzzler, tax to influence, vehicle, purchase decisions, with a low co2 figure.

Often Resulting, in reduced taxation. Fuel. Taxes, may act as an incentive for the production, of more efficient, hence less polluting, car designs eg, hybrid, vehicles, and the development, of alternative fuels. High. Fuel taxes, may provide a strong, incentive for consumers, to purchase lighter, smaller, more, fuel-efficient. Cars or to not drive on, average. Today's cars are about seventy-five percent recyclable, and using, recycled steel helps, reduce energy use, in pollution, in. The United States Congress federally, mandated fuel, efficiency, standards have, been debated, regularly, and though passenger, car standards, did not rise above the twenty seven point five miles per US gallon eight, point six L 100. Kilometers, thirty 3.0. Mpg-imp. Standard, set in 1985. For many years they increased, in 2011. As a result of passage, of the Energy Independence and, Security Act, of 2007. Many. Cities, in Europe have banned older fossil fuel cars and all fossil fuel vehicles, will be banned in Amsterdam, from 2030. Many. Chinese, cities limit licensing, of fossil fuel cars the manufacture of vehicles, is resource, intensive, and many manufacturers, now report, on the environmental. Performance of, their factories, including energy usage, waste and water consumption, the growth in popularity, of the car allowed cities to sprawl therefore, encouraging, more travel, by car resulting, in inactivity, and obesity. Which in turn can lead to increased risk of a variety of diseases, transportation. Of all types including trucks buses, and cars is a major contributor. To air pollution in most industrialized. Nations. According. To the American, surface, transportation. Policy, project nearly. Half of all Americans are, breathing unhealthy, air their. Study showed air quality, in dozens of metropolitan. Areas, has worsened over, the last decade, animals, and plants are often negatively. Impacted, by cars via habitat, destruction and, pollution. Over. The lifetime of the average car the loss, of habitat, potential. May, be over 50,000, square meters five hundred and forty thousand, square feet based on primary, production correlations. Animals. Are also killed, every year on roads by cars referred, to as road kill more. Recent, road developments. Are including, significant. Environmental, mitigations. In their designs such as green bridges, to allow wildlife, crossings, and creating, wildlife, corridors.

Growth. In the popularity, of vehicles, and commuting, has led to traffic congestion. Moscow. Istanbul. Bogota, Mexico. City and Sao Paulo were the world's, most congested, cities, in 2018. According to INR IX a data analytics, company. Topic. Emerging. Car technologies. Car, propulsion, technologies. That are under development include. Gasoline, electric, and plug-in hybrids. Battery, electric, vehicles, hydrogen. Cars biofuels. And various, alternative. Fuels. Research. Into future alternative, forms of power include, the development of, fuel cells homogeneous. Charge compression, ignition HC, CI Stirling. Engines and even using the stored energy of compressed, air or liquid nitrogen. New. Materials. Which may replace steel car bodies include, duralumon, fiberglass. Carbon, fiber, bio composites. And carbon, nanotubes. Telematics. Technology, is allowing more and more people to share cars on a pay-as-you-go, basis. Through car share and carpool schemes. Communication. Is also evolving, due to connected, car systems. Topic. Autonomous. Car. Fully. Autonomous. Vehicles also, known as driverless, cars already, exist in prototype, such as the Google driverless car, but have a long way to go before they are in general use. According. To urban designer and futurist, Michael hee our driverless, electric, vehicles, in, conjunction, with the increased, use of virtual, reality for, work travel, and pleasure could. Reduce the world's 800, million vehicles, to a fraction, of that number within a few decades. This. Would be possible if almost all private, cars requiring, drivers, which, are not in use and parked 90%. Of the time were replaced, by public, self-driving, taxis, that would be in nearly constant use this. Would require an appropriate, vehicle to be available, for each particular, need a bus. Could come for a group of people a limousine could, come for a special, night out and a Segway could come for a short trip down the street for one person. Children. Could be chauffeured, in supervised, safety, DUIs, would no longer exist, and 41,000. Lives could be saved each year in the US alone. Topic. Open-source. Development. There, have been several, projects. Aiming to develop a car on the principles, of open design an approach, to designing in which the plans for the machinery, and systems, are publicly shared often without monetary, compensation. The. Projects. Include Oscar River simple, through 40 fires org, and C mm n, none. Of the projects, have reached significant. Success in terms of developing, a car as a whole both from hardware, and software perspective, and. No mass production, ready open source based design have been introduced, as of late 2009. Some. Car hacking through onboard diagnostics. Obd has been done so far. Topic. Car-sharing. CarShare. Arrangements. And carpooling, are also increasingly. Popular, in the US and Europe for example, in the u.s. some, car sharing, services, have experienced. Double-digit. Growth in revenue, and membership, growth between, 2006. And 2007. Services. Like car sharing, offering a residence, to share. A vehicle. Rather than own a car in already congested neighborhoods. Topic. Industry. The. Automotive, industry designs. Develops. Manufactures. Markets. And sells the world's Motor Vehicles more than three-quarters, of which are cars in.

2018. There were 70 million cars manufactured. Worldwide down, two million from the previous year. The automotive, industry in China produces, by far the most 24. Million in 2018, followed, by Japan eight million, Germany, five million and India four million, the. Largest, market, is China followed, by the USA. Around. The world there are about a billion cars on the road they burn over a trillion liters of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly. Consuming. About 50 EJ nearly, 300, billion kilowatt, hours of energy, the. Numbers of cars are increasing, rapidly in, China and India in, the opinion, of some urban, transport, systems, based around the car have proved unsustainable, consuming. Excessive energy affecting. The health of populations and, delivering, a declining, level, of service, despite increasing, investment. Many. Of these negative, impacts, fall disproportionately on. Those social groups who are also least, likely, to own and drive cars, the. Sustainable. Transport, movement, focuses, on solutions to these problems the. Car industry, is also facing increasing. Competition from, the public transport, sector as some people reevaluate. Their private, vehicle, usage. Topic. Alternatives. Established. Alternatives. For some aspects, of car use include, public, transport, such as buses trolleybuses, trains. Subways, tramways. Light, rail cycling. And walking. Bike-share. Systems have, been tried in some european, cities including, Copenhagen. And Amsterdam. Similar. Programs, have been experimented. With in a number of US cities. Additional. Individual, modes of transport, such as personal, Rapid Transit could serve as an alternative, to cars if they prove to be socially, accepted. Topic. Other meanings. The. Term motorcar, has formerly also been used in the context, of electrified, rail systems, to denote a car which functions, as a small locomotive, but also provides, space for passengers, and baggage, these. Locomotive. Cars were often used on suburban routes, by both interurban and intercity rail road systems. Equals. Equals see also.

2019-06-21 16:19

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