Emerging technology | Wikipedia audio article
Emerging. Technologies. Are technologies. That are perceived, as capable, of changing, the status quo. These. Technologies. Are generally. New but include, older, technologies. That are still controversial. And, relatively, undeveloped. In potential. Such, as pre-implantation. Genetic. Diagnosis. And gene therapy which. Date to 1989. And, 1990. Respectively. Emerging. Technologies. Are characterized. By radical. Novelty. Relatively. Fast growth, coherence. Prominent. Impact, and uncertainty. And ambiguity, in. Other. Words, an emerging. Technology, can. Be defined, as a radically. Novel, and relatively. Fast, growing. Technology. Characterized. By, a certain, degree of coherence. Persisting. Over time and with the potential, to, exert, a considerable. Impact on, the socio-economic. Domains. Which, is observed, in terms of, the composition. Of actors. Institutions. And patterns, of interactions. Among, those along. With the, associated. Knowledge, production. Processes. Its. Most prominent, impact. However. Lies, in the future, and so, in the emergence. Phase, as, still somewhat, uncertain, and ambiguous. Emerging. Technologies. Include, a variety, of technologies. Such as educational. Technology. Information. Technology. Nanotechnology. Biotechnology. Cognitive. Science, psycho. Technology. Robotics. And artificial. Intelligence, new. Technological, fields. May result, from the technological, convergence. Of. Different, systems, evolving. Towards, similar goals. Convergence. Brings, previously. Separate, technologies. Such as voice, and telephony, features data. And productivity. Application. And, video, together, so that they share resources, and interact. With each other creating, new, efficiencies. Emerging. Technologies. Are those technical. Innovations. Which represent. Progressive. Developments. Within a field for competitive. Advantage. Converging. Technologies. Represent. Previously. Distinct. Fields which are in some way moving, towards, stronger. Interconnection. And similar, goals. However. The, opinion, on the degree, of the impact, status. And economic. Viability of, several. Emerging. And converging. Technologies. You. Topic. History. Of emerging. Technologies. In the history, of technology. Emerging. Technologies. Are contemporary. Advances. And innovation. In various, fields of technology. Over. Centuries, innovative. Methods, and new technologies. Are developed, and opened, up, some. Of these technologies. Are due to theoretical. Research and others, from commercial. Research, and development. Technological. Growth includes. Incremental. Developments. And disruptive, technologies. An, example. Of the former, was the gradual, rollout of, DVD. Digital, video, disc as a development. Intended. To follow on from the previous optical. Technology. Compact, disc, by. Contrast. Disruptive. Technologies. Are those where a new method, replaces. The previous, technology. And makes it redundant, for example, the replacement. Of horse-drawn. Carriages. By automobiles. And other vehicles. You. Topic. Emerging. Technology. Debates. Many, writers, including. Computer. Scientist. Bill joy, have, identified. Clusters. Of technologies. That they consider, critical, to humanity's. Future. Joy. Warns, that the technology. Could be used by elites, for good or evil, they. Could use it as good. Shepherds, for. The rest of humanity or, decide, everyone. Else as superfluous. And push for mass extinction.
Of Those made unnecessary. By technology. Advocates. Of the benefits, of technological. Change, typically. See emerging, and converging. Technologies as. Offering, hope for the betterment of the human condition. Cyber. Philosophers. Alexander. Bard and James Soderquist, argue. In the future, iike trilogy, that while man himself has, basically. Constant. Throughout, human, history genes. Change very. Slowly, all relevant. Change as rather a direct. Or indirect. Result, of technological. Innovation. Memes change, very, fast, since, new ideas, always emanate. From technology. Use and not the other way around. Man. Should, consequently. Be regarded, as history's. Main constant. And technology. As its main variable. However. Critics. Of the risks, of technological. Change and even some, advocates. Such as transhumanist. Philosopher. Nick Bostrom, warned that some of these technologies, could. Pose dangers. Perhaps, even, contribute. To the extinction, of humanity itself, ie, some. Of them could involve existential. Risks. Much ethical. Debate, centers, on issues, of distributive. Justice in allocating. Access. To beneficial, forms, of technology. Some. Thinkers, such, as environmental. Ethicist. Bill McKibben, opposed, the continuing. Development of. Advanced, technology. Partly, out of fear, that its benefits, will be distributed. Unequally in. Ways that could worsen, the plight of the poor, by. Contrast. Inventor. Reycarts, while as among techno, utopians. Who believe that emerging. And converging. Technologies could. And will eliminate poverty. And abolish, suffering, some analysts. Such as Martin, Ford author of, the lights in the tunnel automation. Accelerating. Technology. And the economy of the future argue. That as information technology. Advances. Robots, and other forms, of automation will, ultimately, result, in significant. Unemployment as, machines. And software begin. To match and exceed, the capability. Of workers, to perform most routine, jobs, as. Robotics. And artificial, intelligence. Develop. Further even, many skilled, jobs, may, be threatened. Technologies. Such, as machine, learning may. Ultimately allow. Computers, to do many knowledge-based. Jobs that, require, significant. Education. This. May result in, substantial. Unemployment. At all skill, levels, stagnant. Or falling wages. For most workers an increased, concentration, of. Income, and wealth as the owners, of capital capture. And ever a larger, fraction of, the economy. This. In turn could lead to depressed. Consumer. Spending, and economic. Growth as the bulk of the population lacks. Sufficient. Discretionary. Income to purchase the, products, and services, produced, by, the economy. You. Topic. Examples. Topic. Artificial. Intelligence. Artificial. Intelligence. AI is, the sub intelligence. Exhibited. By machines, or software. And the branch of computer, science, that develops, machines, and software with, animal-like, intelligence. Major. AI, researchers. And textbooks, define, the field as the. Study, and design of intelligent. Agents. Where. An intelligent. Agent as a system, that perceives, its environment. And takes, actions, that maximize. Its chances. Of success. John. McCarthy. Who coined the term in, 1942. Defines. It as the. Study of making. Intelligent, machines. The, central, problems, or goals, of AI research, include. Reasoning. Knowledge. Planning. Learning, natural. Language, processing. Communication. Perception. And the ability, to move, and manipulate, objects. General. Intelligence. Or, strong. AI. Is. Still, among the fields, long term goals. Currently. Popular, approaches. Include, deep learning. Statistical. Methods. Computational. Intelligence, and, traditional. Symbolic. AI. There. Are an enormous number of tools, used, in AI including. Versions of search and mathematical. Optimization. Logic. Methods, based on probability. And economics. And many, others. You. Topic. 3d. Printing. 3d. Printing, also known, as additive, manufacturing, has. Been posited. By Jeremy. Rifkin, and others as part of the third Industrial, Revolution, combined. With internet technology. 3d, printing, would allow for digital, blueprints, of virtually. Any material. Product, to be sent instantly. To another person, to be produced, on the spot making, purchasing. A product online almost. Instantaneous. Although. This technology. Is still too crude, to produce, most, products. It is rapidly, developing. And created, a controversy, in. 2013. Around, the issue of 3d. Printed, guns. You. Topic. Gene, therapy. Gene, therapy was, first successfully.
Demonstrated. In late, 1990. Early. 1991. For, adenosine, deaminase deficiency. Though. The treatment, was somatic, that US did not affect, the patient's, germline and, thus was not heritable. This. Led the way to treatments. For other genetic. Diseases, and increased, interest, in germline, gene. Therapy. Therapy, affecting. The gametes, and descendants, of patients. Between. September. 1990. And January, 2014. There, were around, 2000. Gene therapy. Trials, conducted or, approved. You. Topic. Cancer. Vaccines. A cancer. Vaccine, as a vaccine, that treats, existing. Cancer or prevents, the development, of cancer in, certain, high-risk, individuals. Vaccines. That treat existing. Cancer are, known as therapeutic. Cancer, vaccines. There. Are currently, no vaccines. Able, to prevent cancer, in general. On April. 14th. 2009. Denry and corporation. Announced, that their phase 3 clinical trial. Of Provenge. A cancer, vaccine designed. To treat prostate. Cancer had. Demonstrated. An increase, in survival. It. Received. US, Food, and Drug, Administration, FDA. Approval. For use, in the treatment of advanced. Prostate, cancer patients. On April, 29. 2010. The. Approval, of Provenge, has, stimulated, interest, in, this type of therapy. You. Topic. In vitro. Meat. In, vitro meat, also called, cultured. Meat clean, meat cruelty. Free meat meat, and test tube meat is an animal, flesh product, that has never been part of a living animal with, exception. Of the fetal, calf serum taken. From a slaughtered, cow in the. 21st. Century, several. Research, projects. Have worked on in-vitro, meat in, the laboratory. The. First in-vitro, beef, burger, created. By a Dutch team, was, even at a demonstration, for. The press in London, in August, 2013. There. Remain, difficulties. To be overcome. Before in-vitro. Meat becomes. Commercially. Available. Cultured. Meat is prohibitively. Expensive but. It is expected, that the cost could be reduced to compete, with that of conventionally. Obtained, meat as technology. Improves. In-vitro. Meat is, also an ethical issue. Some. Argue, that it is less objectionable, than, traditionally. Obtained, meat because, it doesn't, involve killing, and reduces, the risk of animal, cruelty. While others disagree. With eating meat that has not developed, naturally. You. Topic. Nanotechnology. Nanotechnology. Sometimes. Shortened. To nanotech, is the manipulation. Of matter on an atomic, molecular and. Super, molecular, scale. The. Earliest, widespread. Description. Of, nanotechnology. Referred, to the particular. Technological, goal. Of precisely. Manipulating. Atoms and molecules for. Fabrication. Of macroscale. Products. Also, now referred, to as molecular nanotechnology. A. More. Generalized. Description, of. Nanotechnology. Was subsequently. Established by. The National nanotechnology. Initiative. Which, defines. Nanotechnology. As the manipulation. Of matter with, at least one, dimension sized. From, one to 100, nanometers. This. Definition. Reflects. The fact that quantum. Mechanical. Effects, are important. At this quantum, realm scale, and so the definition, shifted, from a particular. Technological, goal. To a research, category. Inclusive. Of all types of research, and technologies. That deal with the special, properties. Of matter that occur below the given size threshold. You. Topic. Robotics. You. Robotics. As the branch of technology. That deals with the design construction. Operation. And application. Of robots, as well as computer. Systems, for their control, sensory. Feedback and, information. Processing. These. Technologies. Deal, with automated, machines, that, can take the place of humans. In dangerous. Environments our, manufacturing. Processes. Or resemble. Humans, in appearance, behavior, and, or cognition, a good. Example, of robots, which resembles. Humans, as Sophia a social, humanoid, robot, developed by, Hong Kong based, company. Hanson, robotics which. Was activated. On April, 19 2015. Many. Of today's robots, are, inspired, by nature, contributing. To the field of bio-inspired. Robotics. You. Topic. Stem, cell therapy. Stem-cell. Therapy as. An intervention, strategy, that, introduces. New adult, stem cells, into damaged, tissue, in, order to treat disease, or injury. Many. Medical, researchers. Believe, that stem, cell treatments. Have the potential, to change the, face of human, disease, and alleviate. Suffering. The. Ability, of stem cells, to self renew and give rise to subsequent. Generations. With variable. Degrees, of differentiation. Capacities. Offers. Significant. Potential, for, generation. Of tissues, that can potentially replace. Diseased. And damaged, areas, in the body with, minimal, risk of rejection, and side effects. You. Topic. Distributed. Ledger technology. Distributed. Ledger or blockchain. Technology. As a technology. Which provides, transparent. And immutable lists. Of transactions. Blockchains. Can enable, autonomous. Transactions. Through, the use of smart, contracts. Smart. Contracts. Are self executing.
Transactions. Which occur, when predefined. Conditions. Are met, the. Original, idea of a smart contract, was conceived, by Nick Szabo, in. 1994. But these original. Theories, about, how these smart, contracts. Could work remained, and realized, because, there was no technology, to support, programmable. Agreements. And transactions. Between parties. His. Example. Of a smart contract was. The vending, machine, that holds, goods until money, has been received, and then the goods are released, to the buyer, the. Machine, holds, the property. And is able to enforce, the contract. There. Were two main issues that, needed to be addressed, before smart. Contracts. Could be used in the real world. Firstly. The control, of physical. Assets, by smart, contracts. To be able to enforce, agreements. Secondly. The last of trustworthy. Computers. That are reliable. And trusted, to execute. The contract between, two, or more parties. It. Is only with the advent, of cryptocurrency. And, encryption. That the technology. For smart contracts. Has come to fruition. Many. Potential. Applications of. Smart, contracts. Have been suggested. That go beyond the transfer, of value from. One party, to another such. As supply, chain, management. Electronic. Voting law, and the Internet, of Things. You. Topic. Development. Of emerging. Technologies. As innovation. Drives, economic growth. And large, economic, rewards. Come from new inventions. A great, deal of resources. Funding, and effort, go into the development, of emerging, technologies. Some. Of the sources of these resources, are described. Below. You. Topic. Research. And development. Research. And development as, directed. Towards, the advancement, of technology. In general and, therefore includes. Development. Of emerging, technologies. See. Also list, of countries, by research, and development. Spending. Applied. For research as a form, of systematic. Inquiry, involving. The practical, application. Of science. It. Accesses. And uses, some part of the research, communities. The academia. Is accumulated. Theories, knowledge. Methods. And techniques. For, a specific often. State, business, or client. Driven purpose. Science. Policy. As the area, of public, policy. Which is concerned, with the policies. That affect the, conduct of the science, and research enterprise. Including. The funding of science often in, pursuance, of other national. Policy. Goals such, as technological. Innovation. To promote commercial. Product, development. Weapons, development. Healthcare, and environmental. Monitoring. You. Topic. Darpa. The, Defense, Advanced. Research, Projects. Agency DARPA. Is an agency, of the US Department of. Defense. Responsible. For the development, of emerging, technologies. For, use by the military. DARPA. Was created. In, 1958. As, the Advanced, Research Projects. Agency ARPA. By President. Dwight D Eisenhower. Its. Purpose, was to formulate, and execute, research. And development, projects. To expand, the frontiers of technology. And science with. The aim to reach beyond, immediate, military. Requirements. Projects. Funded, by DARPA have. Provided, significant. Technologies. That influenced. Many, non-military. Fields. Such, as the internet, and Global Positioning System, technology. You. Topic. Technology. Competitions. And awards. There, are awards that provide, incentive. To push the limits, of Technology. Generally. Synonymous with. Emerging, technologies. Note that while some of these awards, reward, achievement after. The fact via analysis. Of the merits, of technological. Breakthroughs, others, provide, incentive. Via competitions. For awards, offered, for goals yet to be achieved. The. Or take prize was, a. $25,000. Award offered. In, 1919. By French hotelier. Raymond or take for the first nonstop flight. Between New, York City and Paris, in. 1927. Underdog. Charles, Lindbergh, won the prize in a modified. Single-engine. Ryan, aircraft, called, the spirit, of st. Louis in. Total. Nine, teams, spent. $400,000. In pursuit, of the or take prize. The. Xpr ize. Series. Of awards public. Competitions. Designed. And managed, by the nonprofit. Organization. Called, the XPrize. Foundation. Are intended. To encourage. Technological. Development. That could benefit, mankind. The. Most high-profile.
Xpr. Ize. To, date was the ten million dollars, in sorry, ex PRI. Ze. Relating. To spacecraft, development. Which, was awarded in. 2004. For the development, of spaceship, own. The. Turing, award as, an annual, prize, given, by the Association. For Computing, Machinery. ACM. To, an, individual. Selected, for, contributions. Of a technical. Nature made, to the computing. Community. It is stipulated that, the. Contributions. Should be of lasting. And major technical. Importance. To the computer, field. The. Turing, award is generally. Recognized. As the highest, distinction, in, computer, science and, in 2014. Grew. To, $1,000,000. The. Millennium, technology. Prize as awarded, once every, two years by. Technology. Academy Finland. An independent. Fund established by. Finnish, industry. And the Finnish state in partnership. The. First recipient, was, Tim berners-lee. Inventor. Of the world wide web, in. 2003. David, Goebbels. Seed funded, the Methuselah Mouse, prize M prize to, encourage, the development of. New life, extension, therapies. In mice which, are genetically, similar to, humans. So. Far 3, Mouse prizes. Have been awarded. One for, breaking longevity. Records, - dr., Andre, barky, of Southern Illinois University, one, for late onset. Rejuvenation. Strategies. - dr. Stephen, Spindler, of the University. Of California. And one - dr. Z dave sharpe for his work with the pharmaceutical, rapamycin. You. Topic. Role, of science, fiction. Science. Fiction has, criticized, developing. And future, technologies, but. Also inspires. Innovation, and, new technology. This. Topic, has been more, often, discussed, in literary and. Sociological. Than in scientific. Forums. Cinema. And media, theorist, Vivian, Sobchak, examines. The dialogue, between science, fiction, films, and technological. Imagination. Technology. Impacts. Artists, and how they portray, their fictionalized. Subjects. But the fictional, world gives. Back to science by, broadening. Imagination. How. William Shatner. Changed, the world as a documentary, that, gave a number, of real-world, examples. Of actualized. Technological. Imaginations. While. More prevalent. In the early years of science, fiction, with writers, like arthur, c clarke new. Authors, still find, ways to make, currently. Impossible. Technologies. Seem closer, to, being realized. You. Topic. See, also. List, of emerging, technologies. Forsyte. Futures. Studies. Institute. For ethics, and emerging, technologies. Institute. On biotechnology. And, the human, future. Technological. Change. Accelerating. Change. Moore's. Law. Innovation. Technological. Revolution. Transhumanism. Technological. Singularity. Upcoming. Software.