Educational technology | Wikipedia audio article

Educational technology | Wikipedia audio article

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Educational. Technology is. The. Study and ethical, practice of facilitating. Learning and, improving, performance by. Creating. Using. And managing, appropriate. Technological. Processes, and, resources. Educational. Technology. Is the use of both physical Hardware, and educational. Theoretic. It. Encompasses, several. Domains including. Learning theory, computer-based. Training, online. Learning and where mobile technologies. Are used em learning. Accordingly. There, are several discrete, aspects. To describing, the intellectual. And technical, development, of educational. Technology. Educational. Technology. Is the theory, and practice of educational. Approaches, to learning. Educational. Technology. Is technological. Tools and media for, instance massive. Online courses. That, assist in the communication. Of knowledge, and its development and, exchange. This. Is usually what people are, referring to when they use the term EdTech. Educational. Technology. For learning management, systems. LMS. Such, as tools for student, and curriculum, management and education, management. Information, systems. MS. Educational. Technology. Is back-office, management. Such as training, management systems. For logistics. And budget management and, learning record store LRS. For learning data storage, and analysis. Educational. Technology. Itself, is an educational. Subject, such courses may, be called. Computer. Studies, or. Information. And communications. Technology. ICT. Topic. Definition. The, association. From educational. Communications, and, Technology, a ECT. Defined, educational. Technology. As the. Study and ethical, practice of facilitating. Learning, and improving, performance by. Creating. Using, and managing, appropriate. Technological. Processes, and, resources. It. Denoted, instructional. Technology. As the. Theory, and practice of design, development. Utilization. Management and. Evaluation. Of processes. And resources. For learning as. Such. Educational. Technology. Refers, to all valid and reliable applied. Education. Sciences, such, as equipment as well as processes. And procedures that, are derived from scientific.

Research And, in a given context. May refer, to theoretical. Algorithmic. Or heuristic, processes, it does not necessarily. Imply physical. Technology. Educational. Technology. Is the process, of integrating, technology into. Education. In a positive, manner that promotes a more diverse learning, environment in. A way for students, to learn how to use technology as, well as their common assignments. Topic. Related. Terms. Educational. Technology is. An inclusive, term, for both the material, tools and the theoretical, foundations. For supporting, learning and teaching. Educational. Technology. Is not restricted. To high technology but, is anything, that enhances. Classroom, learning in the utilization, of, blended, face-to-face. Or online learning. An educational. Technologist. Is someone, who is trained in the field of educational. Technology. Educational. Technologists. Try to analyze, design, develop implement. And. Evaluate, process. And tools to enhance learning. While. The term educational. Technologist. Is used primarily in, the United, States learning. Technologist. Is synonymous and, used in the UK as well as Canada. Modern. Electronic, educational. Technology. Is an important, part of society, today. Educational. Technology. Encompasses. E-learning, instructional. Technology. Information, and, communication. Technology. ICT in. Education. EdTech, learning, technology. Multimedia. Learning, technology. Enhanced, learning tell computer-based. Instruction. CBI. Computer. Managed instruction. Computer-based. Training. CBT. Computer. Assisted, instruction or. Computer, aided instruction CAI. Internet-based. Training. IBT, flexible. Learning web-based, training. WBT. Online, education. Digital. Educational. Collaboration. Distributed. Learning computer. Mediated communication. Cyber. Learning and multimodal. Instruction. Virtual. Education, personal. Learning, environments. Networked, learning virtual, learning, environments. VLE, which are also called learning, platforms. Em learning, ubiquitous. Learning, and digital education. Each. Of these numerous, terms, has had its advocates, who point up potential. Distinctive. Features. However. Many, terms, and concepts, in educational. Technology have. Been find nebulously. For example, Fiedler's, review, of the literature found. A complete, lack agreement, of the components. Of a personal, learning environment. Moreover. Moore, saw these terminologies. Is emphasizing, particular, features. Such as digitization. Approaches. Components. Or delivery, methods, rather than being fundamentally. Dissimilar, in concept. Or principle. For. Example, m-learning, emphasizes. Mobility. Which allows for altered timing, location. Accessibility. In context, of learning nevertheless. Its, purpose, and conceptual.

Principles. Are those of educational. Technology. In practice. As technology. Has advanced. The particular, narrowly. Defined. Terminological. Aspect, that was initially emphasized. By name has blended into the general, field of educational. Technology. Initially. Virtual. Learning as, narrowly. Defined, in a semantic, sense implied, entering, an environmental. Simulation. Within a virtual world, for example, in treating, post-traumatic stress. Disorder, PTSD. In. Practice. A, virtual. Education course. Refers. To any, instructional. Course in which all or at least a significant. Portion is, delivered, by the internet. Virtual. Is. Used, in that broader way to describe. A course that is not taught in a classroom, face-to-face. But through a substitute. Mode that can conceptually, be, associated. Virtually. With. Classroom. Teaching which means that people do not have to go to the physical classroom, to learn. Accordingly. Virtual. Education refers. To a form of distance, learning in, which course content, is delivered by various, methods such as course, management, applications. Multimedia. Resources, and. Videoconferencing. Virtual. Education and. Simulated. Learning opportunities. Such, as games or dissections. Offer opportunities. For students, to connect classroom. Content to authentic, situations. Educational. Content, pervasively. Embedded, in objects, is all around the learner who may not even be conscious of the learning process. The. Combination. Of adaptive, learning using. An individualized. Interface. And materials. Which accommodate. To an individual. Who thus receives, personally. Differentiated. Instruction with. Ubiquitous. Access to digital resources. And learning opportunities. In a range of places and at various, times has, been termed smart, learning. Smart. Learning is a component, of the Smart City concept. Topic. History. Helping. People and children learn in ways that are easier faster, more, accurate. Or less expensive can, be traced back to the emergence, of very early tools, such, as paintings, on cave walls. Various. Types of abacus, have been used, writing. Slates, and blackboards, have been used for at least a millennium. From. Their introduction. Books and pamphlets have, held a prominent, role in education. From. The early, 20th, century. Duplicating. Machines, such, as the mimeograph and, gues tetanus stencil, devices, were used to produce short, copy runs, typically. Ten to fifty copies for, classroom, or home use. The. Use of media for instructional. Purposes is generally, traced back to the first decade, of the 20th, century, with the introduction. Of educational. Films, nineteen, hundreds and Sydney presses, mechanical. Teaching, machines. 1920s. The. First all multiple-choice. Large-scale. Assessment, was the army alpha used, to assess the intelligence. And more specifically. The aptitudes. Of World War one military, recruits. Further. Large-scale. Use of technologies. Was employed, in training, soldiers during. And after World War two using, films, and other mediated. Materials. Such, as overhead, projectors. The. Concept. Of hypertext, is traced to the description, of Memex by Vannevar, Bush in, 1945. Slide. Projectors. Were widely used during, the 1950's. In educational. Institutional. Settings. Cuccia. Nair rods were devised in the 1920s. And saw widespread use, from the late 1950s. In. The mid 1960s. Stanford. University. Psychology. Professors, Patrick, suppers and Richard C Atkinson. Experimented. With using, computers, to teach arithmetic. And spelling via, teletypes. To element, school students. In the Palo Alto Unified, School. District, in California. Stanford's. Education. Program, for gifted youth, is descended, from those early, experiments. Online. Education. Originated. From the University. Of Illinois in, 1960. Although. Internet, would not be created, for another nine years students. Were able to, access class, information. With linked computer, terminals. The. First online course, was offered in 1986. By the Electronic. University. Network for, Dawson Commodore. 64. Computers. Computer. Assisted. Learning eventually. Offered the first online courses, with real interaction. In. 2002. MIT, began, providing online, classes. Free of charge as of. 2009. Approximately. 5.5. Million students. Were taking, at least one class online. Currently. One, out of three, college, students, takes at least one, online course while, in college promises.

And Pitfalls. At. DeVry, University. Out of all students, that are earning a bachelor's, degree 80, percent, earn two thirds of their requirements, online, promises. And pitfalls. Also. In 2014, two, point eight five million, students. Out of 5.8. Million students. That took courses online took, all of their courses online promises. And pitfalls. From. This information. It can be concluded that the number of students, taking classes. Online is, on the steady increase in. 1971. Ivan, Illich published, a hugely influential, book, called de schooling society. In which he envisioned, learning. Webs as a, model, for people to network the learning, they needed, the. 1970s. And 1980s saw. Notable, contributions. In computer-based, learning by, Murray tear-off, and star Roxanne, hilts, at the New Jersey Institute, of Technology, as well as developments. At the University. Of Guelph in Canada, in. The UK, the Council, for educational. Technology, supported. The use of educational. Technology. In particular, administering. The government's, National Development Program, in computer, aided learning. 1973. 277, and the micro, electronics. Education. Program. 1982. 86. By. The mid-1980s. Accessing. Course content, became, possible at many college, libraries. In. Computer-based. Training. CBT. Or computer-based. Learning, CBL. The learning interaction. Was between the student, and computer, drills or micro, world simulations. Digitized. Communication. And networking in, education. Started, in the mid-1980s. Educational. Institutions. Began to take advantage, of the new medium by. Offering distance, learning courses, using, computer, networking, for, information. Early. Learning systems. Based, on computer-based, learning training. Often replicated. Autocratic, teaching, styles, whereby the role of the e-learning system. Was assumed, to be for transferring. Knowledge as opposed, to systems, developed, later based, on computer-supported. Collaborative. Learning. CSCL, which encouraged, the shared development, of knowledge. Videoconferencing. Was an important, for runner to the educational. Technologies. Known today this. Work was especially, popular, with museum. Education. Even, in recent years. Videoconferencing. Has risen in popularity to. Reach over, 20,000. Students, across the United, States and Canada in, 2008. 2009. Disadvantages. Of this form of educational. Technology. A readily, apparent image, and sound quality is, often grainy, or pixelated. Videoconferencing. Requires, setting, up a type of mini television. Studio, within the museum for broadcast. Space becomes, an issue and specialized. Equipment is, required for both the provider, in the participant. The Open, University in. Britain and the University. Of British Columbia where. Web CT now, incorporated. Into blackboard, Inc was first developed began, a revolution. Of using, the Internet, to deliver learning, making. Heavy use of web-based training, online. Distance, learning and, online discussion. Between students. Practitioners. Such as her Assam, 1995. Put, heavy emphasis on, the use of learning networks. With. The advent, of worldwide web in the 1990s. Teachers, embarked, on the method using, emerging, technologies. To employ multi. Object-oriented. Sites which, are text-based online, virtual reality.

Systems, To, create course, websites along, with simple sets of instructions. For its students. By. 1994. The first, online high, school had, been founded. In. 1997. Grazia, day described, criteria. For evaluating, products. And developing, technology. Based courses, that include being, portable, replicable. Scalable. Affordable and, having, a high probability of, long term cost-effectiveness. Improved. Internet, functionality. Enabled, new schemes of communication. With multimedia, or, webcams. The. National, Center, for Education Statistics. Estimate. The number of k-12, students. Enrolled in online distance. Learning programs. Increased, by 65. Percent from. 2002. To 2005. With greater flexibility. Ease of communication between. Teacher, and student and, quick lecture and assignment, feedback. According. To a 2008. Study conducted, by the US Department. Of Education during. The 2006. 2007. Academic. Year about 66. Percent of, post-secondary, public. And private, schools, participating. In student financial. Aid programs, offered, some distance, learn, courses, records, show, 77%. Of enrollment, in four credit courses with an online component. In. 2008. The Council, of Europe, passed a statement endorsing. Eel earnings, potential, to drive equality. And education, improvements. Across the EU computer. Mediated communication. CMC. Is between, learners and instructors. Mediated. By the computer. In. Contrast. CBT. CBL. Usually, means individualized. Self-study. Learning, while CMC. Involves, educator, tutor. Facilitation. And requires. Summarization. Of flexible, learning activities. In. Addition modern. ICT. Provides, education. With tools for sustaining. Learning, communities. And associated, knowledge, management, tasks. Students. Growing up in this digital age have, extensive. Exposure, to a variety of, media. Major. High-tech, companies, have funded, schools to provide them the ability, to teach the students, through technology. Point 201. 5 was the first year that private, nonprofit. Organizations. Enrolled, more online students. Than for profits although, public, universities. Still enrolled the highest number, of online students. In. The, fall of 2015. More. Than 6 million, students, enrolled in at least one online course. Topic. Theory. Various. Pedagogical. Perspectives. Or learning, theories, may be considered. In designing and, interacting. With educational. Technology. Elearning. Theory, examines, these approaches. These. Theoretical. Perspectives. Are grouped into three main theoretical, schools. Or philosophical. Frameworks, behaviorism. Cognitivism, and. Constructivism. Topic. Behaviorism. This, theoretical. Framework was developed in the early 20th, century based. On animal, learning, experiments. By Ivan Pavlov, Edward, Thorndike Edward. C Tolman Clark L hull and BF. Skinner. Many. Psychologists. Used these results, to develop, theories, of human learning but, modern educators. Generally, see behaviorism. As one aspect of a holistic synthesis. Teaching. In behaviorism, has, been linked to training, emphasizing. The animal, learning, experiments. Since. The havior ISM consists, of the view of teaching, people how to do something with rewards, and punishments. It is related to training people BF. Skinner. Wrote extensively on, improvements. Of teaching, based on his functional, analysis, of verbal behavior and, wrote the. Technology. Of teaching. An attempt. To dispel, the myths underlying. Contemporary. Education as, well as promote, his system, he called programmed, instruction. Bogdan. Linsley developed, a learning, system named. Seller ation that was based on behavior, analysis, but that substantially.

Differed From Keller's, and Skinner's, models. Topic. Cognitivism. Cognitive. Science underwent. Significant. Change in the 1960s. And 1970s to. The point that some described. The period, as a cognitive. Revolution. Particularly. In reaction. To behaviorism. While. Retaining, the empirical, framework, of behaviorism. Cognitive. Psychology. Theories, look beyond behavior, to explain, brain based learning by, considering. How human, memory works to promote learning. It. Refers, to learning. As all, processes. By which the sensory, input, is transformed. Reduced. Elaborated. Stored, recovered. And used. By. The human, mind the, Atkinson, Schifrin memory model, and Baddeley's, working, memory model were, established. As theoretical, frameworks. Computer. Science, and information technology. Have. Had a major influence, on, cognitive, science, theory, the. Cognitive, concepts. Of working, memory formerly. Known as short-term. Memory, and long-term memory, have. Been facilitated. By research, and technology. From the field of computer, science. Another. Major influence on, the field of cognitive science, is Noam Chomsky. Today. Researchers are, concentrating. On topics, like cognitive, load information. Processing. And media, psychology. These. Theoretical. Perspectives. Influence, instructional. Design, there are two separate, schools of cognitivism. And these are the cognitivist. And social, cognitivist. The. Former, focuses, on the understanding of, the thinking, or cognitive, processes, of an individual. While the latter includes, social, processes, as influences. In learning besides. Cognition. These. Two, schools however share, the view that learning, is more than a behavioral. Change but, as a mental, process used, by the learner. Topic. Constructivism. Educational. Psychologists. Distinguish. Between several. Types of constructivism. Individual. Or psychological. Constructivism. Such, as pjs theory, of cognitive development and, social. Constructivism. This. Form, of constructivism. Has a primary, focus, on how learners construct. Their own meaning, from new information. As they interact with reality. And with other learners who, bring different perspectives. Constructivist. Learning environments. Require, students. To use their prior knowledge and experiences. To formulate, new related. And or adaptive, concepts. In learning termos, 2012. Under, this, framework the, role of the teacher becomes. That of a facilitator, providing. Guidance, so that learners can construct, their own knowledge. Constructivist. Educators. Must make sure that the prior learning, experiences. Are appropriate. And related, to the concepts. Being taught. Jonason. 1997. Suggests. Well-structured. Learning. Environments. Are useful, for novice, learners, in that lll structured. Environments. Are only useful for more advanced, learners. Educators. Utilizing. A constructivist. Perspective may. Emphasize an, active learning environment, that may incorporate learner. Centered, problem-based, learning, project-based.

Learning And, inquiry, based learning. Ideally, involving, real-world, scenarios. In which students, are actively, engaged, in critical, thinking activities. An. Illustrative. Discussion. And example. Can be found in the 1980s. Deployment. Of constructivist. Cognitive, learning in computer, literacy, which, involved, programming. As an instrument, of learning. Logo. A programming. Language embodied. An attempt to integrate Piaget. Tonigh Diaz with computers. And technology. Initially. There were broad hopeful. Claims including. Perhaps, the, most controversial. Claim. That. It would improve. All problem-solving. Skills. Across. Disciplines. However. Logo. Programming, skills did not consistently. Yield cognitive. Benefits, it. Was not. As concrete, as. Advocates. Claimed, it privileged. One. Form, of reasoning, over all others, and it. Was difficult to apply the thinking, activity. To non logo, based activities. By. The late 1980s. Logo. And other similar, programming, languages, had lost their novelty and dominance, and we're gradually, der emphasized, amid, criticisms. From a constructivist. Approach the research works on the human learning process. As a complex, adaptive system. Developed, by Peter Bela Levesque showed that it is the concept, that the individual, has that drives the accommodation. Process to, assimilate, new knowledge in the long term memory defining. Learning as an intrinsically. Freedom, oriented, and active process, as a. Student-centered. Learning approach. The, unisys reflection. Driven learning installs. Adaptive. Knowledge, objects, in the mind of the learner based, on a cyclic, process of action, reflection, action, to foster an adaptive, behavior. Topic. Practice. The, extent, to which elearning. Assists, or replaces, other learning, and teaching approaches. Is variable. Ranging, on a continuum. From none to fully online distance, learning a. Variety. Of descriptive. Terms have been employed somewhat. Inconsistently, to. Categorize, the extent, to which technology.

Is Used. For. Example hybrid. Learning or blended, learning may, refer, to classroom, aids and laptops, or may refer, to approaches, in which traditional, classroom. Time is reduced but, not eliminated and. Is replaced, with some online learning. Distributed. Learning may describe, either the e-learning component. Of a hybrid approach or, fully, online distance. Learning, environments. Topic. Synchronous. And asynchronous. EAL, earning, may either be synchronous. Or asynchronous. Synchronous. Learning occurs, in real-time with all participants. Interacting. At the same time while, asynchronous. Learning is self-paced, and allows participants, to, engage in, the exchange, of ideas or, information without. The dependency. Of other participants. Involvement. At the same time. Synchronous. Learning refers. To the, exchange, of ideas and information with. One or more participants. During, the same period. Examples. Are face-to-face, discussion. Online real-time live, teacher instruction. And feedback, Skype, conversations. And chat rooms or, virtual, classrooms. Where everyone, is online and, working, collaboratively, at, the same time. Since. Students, are working collaboratively. Synchronized. Learning, helps students, become more open, minded because they have to actively, listen and learn from their peers. Synchronized. Learning, fosters, online, awareness and improves, many students. Writing skills asynchronous. Learning may use technologies. Such as learning management, systems. Email, blogs, wiki's. And discussion. Boards as well as web supported. Textbooks, hypertext. Documents audio. Video. Courses, and social. Networking, using, web 2.0. At, the. Professional, educational. Level training may include virtual. Operating rooms. Asynchronous. Learning is beneficial, for students, who have health problems, or who have childcare. Responsibilities. They. Have the opportunity. To complete their work in a low stress environment and. Within a more flexible time, frame, in. Asynchronous online, courses, students. Proceed, at their own pace if, they need to listen to a lecture a second, time or think about a question, for a while they, may do so without fearing, that they will hold back the rest of the class. Through. Online courses. Students. Can earn their diplomas more, quickly or repeat, failed, horses without the embarrassment of, being in a class with younger students.

Students. Have access, to an incredible, variety of, enrichment, courses in, online learning, and can participate, in college courses, internships. Sports. Or work and still graduate, with their class. Topic. Linear. Learning. Computer-based. Training. CBT. Refers, to self-paced. Learning activities. Delivered, on a computer. Or handheld device. Such as a tablet or, smartphone. CBT. Initially, delivered content, via cd-rom. And typically, presented content. Linearly, much, like reading an online book or manual, for. This reason, CBT. Is often, used to teach static, processes, such, as using, software, or completing. Mathematical. Equations. Computer-based. Training, is, conceptually, similar. To web-based training. WBT. Which are delivered via internet, using, a web browser. Assessing. Learning in a CBT. Is often, by assessments. That can be easily scored. By a computer, such as multiple-choice. Questions. Drag-and-drop, radio. Button, simulation. Or other interactive, means. Assessments. Are easily scored, and recorded, via online software. Providing. Immediate end, user feedback and completion. Status. Users. Are often able to print completion. Records, in the form of certificates. CB. T's provide, learning stimulus. Beyond, traditional, learning methodology. From textbook. Manual, or classroom. Based instruction. CBT. S can be a good alternative to, printed, learning, materials. Since rich media, including. Videos, or animations can. Be embedded to enhance the learning. Help. CB. T's post, some learning, challenges. Typically. The creation, of effective CB, TS requires, enormous, resources. The. Software, for developing, CB, T's is often more complex than, a subject, matter expert or, teacher, is, able to use. The. Lack of human, interaction. Can limit both the type of content, that can be presented and. The type of assessment, that can be performed and may need, supplementation. With online, discussion.

Or Other interactive. Elements. You. Topic. Collaborative. Learning. Computer-supported. Collaborative. Learning. CSCL, uses, instructional. Methods, designed to encourage, or require students. To work together on learning tasks. Allowing, social, learning. Cscl. Is similar, in concept to, the terminology. Elearning. 2.0. And. Networked. Collaborative. Learning. NCL, with, web 2.0. Advances. Sharing. Information between, multiple. People in the network has become much easier and, use has increased. One. Of the main reasons, for its usage, states that it is a, breeding. Ground for, creative. And engaging. Educational. Endeavors. Learning. Takes place through, conversations. About content, and grounded, interaction. About problems, and actions. This. Collaborative. Learning differs. From instruction. In which the instructor is. The principal, source of knowledge and skills. The. Neologism. Elearning. 1.0. Refers. To direct. Instruction. Used in early computer-based, learning, and, training systems. CBL. In. Contrast. To that linear delivery. Of content often, directly. From the instructors, material. Cscl. Uses, social software, such, as blogs social, media wiki's. Podcasts, cloud-based. Document, portals. And discussion. Groups and virtual, worlds. This. Phenomenon. Has been referred, to as longtail, learning. Advocates. Of social, learning claim that one of the best ways to learn something, is to teach it to others. Social. Networks, have been used to foster online, learning, communities. Around subjects. As diverse as, test preparation. And language, education. Mobile. Assisted. Language learning more, is the use of handheld, computers. Or cell phones to assist, in language, learning. Collaborative. Salut to dn't sand teachers, to interact, while studying, apps, are, designed after games which, provide, a fun, way to revise. When. The experience. Is enjoyable the students, become more engaged, games. Also, usually come, with a sense of progression which, can help keep students, motivated and. Consistent. While trying to improve, classroom.

2.0. Refers, to online, multi-user. Virtual, environments. Mu ves that connect, schools across, geographical. Frontiers. Known. As, eTwinning. Computer-supported. Collaborative. Learning. CSCL, allows, learners, in one school to communicate. With learners, in another that they would not get to know otherwise enhancing. Educational. Outcomes, and cultural, integration. Further. Many, researchers. Distinguish. Between collaborative. And cooperative, approaches. To group learning. For. Example Rochelle. And T's Lee 1995. Argue, that, cooperation. Is, accomplished. By the division. Of labor among, participants. As an activity, where, each person is responsible for a portion, of the problem-solving. In. Contrast. With collaboration. That involves, the mutual, engagement of, participants. In a coordinated. Effort to solve the problem, together. Topic. Flipped. Classroom. This, is an instructional. Strategy, in which computer. Assisted, teaching, is integrated. With classroom. Instruction. Students. Are given basic, essential, instruction. Such as lectures, before class, instead, of during class. Instructional. Content, is delivered outside, of the classroom, often, online this. Frees, up classroom. Time for teachers to more actively, engage, with learners. Topic. Media. Educational. Media and tools can be used for. Task. Structuring. Support, help with how to do a task procedures. And processes. Access. To knowledge bases. Help user find, information. Needed. Alternate. Forms of knowledge representation, multiple. Representations. Of knowledge eg, video, audio, text, image. Data, numerous. Types of physical technology. Are currently, used digital, cameras, video cameras. Interactive. Whiteboard, tools document. Cameras, electronic. Media, and LCD. Projectors. Combinations. Of these techniques, include, blogs collaborative. Software or portfolios. And virtual. Classrooms. The. Current, design of this type of applications. Includes, the evaluation, through tools of cognitive, analysis. That allow to identify. Which elements optimize. The use of these platforms. Topic. Audio. And video. Radio. Offers, a synchronous. Educational. Vehicle, while streaming, audio over, the internet, with webcasts. And podcasts. Can be asynchronous. Classroom. Microphones. Often, wireless, can enable, learners and educators to. Interact, more clearly. Video. Technology. Has included, VHS. Tapes and DVDs as, well as on-demand and, synchronous, methods, with digital, video via, server or web-based options. Such as streamed, video, and webcams. Telecommuting. Can connect with speakers, and other experts. Interactive. Digital video games are being used at k12, and higher education. Institutions. Topic. Computers. Tablets. And mobile, devices. Collaborative. Learning is, a group based learning approach in which learners. Are mutually, engaged, in a coordinated. Fashion to, achieve, a learning, goal or complete, a learning, task. With. Recent, developments. In smartphone, technology. The processing. Powers, and storage, capabilities. Of modern Mobile's, allow, for advanced development. And use of apps. Many. App developers. And education. Experts, have been exploring. Smartphone. And tablet, apps as a medium, for collaborative, learning. Computers. And tablets, enable, learners and educators to.

Access, Websites, as well as applications. Many. Mobile, devices support. M learning. Mobile. Devices. Such as clickers, and smart phones can be used for interactive, audience, response, feedback. Mobile. Learning can provide performance, support, for checking the time setting. Reminders retrieving. Worksheets, and instruction. Manuals, such devices, as iPads are used for helping disabled. Visually, impaired or with multiple disabilities children, in, communication. Development, as well as in improving. Physiological. Activity, according. To the assimilation. Practice. Report. Topic. Social. Networks. Group, webpages, blogs. Wiki's. And Twitter allow, learners and educators to. Post thoughts ideas, and comments. On a website in, an interactive, learning environment. Social. Networking, sites, are virtual, communities. For people interested in, a particular subject, to, communicate. By voice chat. Instant. Message. Videoconference. Or blogs. The. National, School Boards Association, found. That 96%. Of students, with online, access have, used social networking, technologies. And more than 50 percent talk, online about, school work, social. Networking. Encourages. Collaboration. And, engagement and. Can be a motivational. Tool for, self efficacy amongst. Students. Topic. Webcams. Webcams. And webcasting. Have enabled, creation. Of virtual classrooms. And virtual learning, environment. Webcams. Are also being, used to counter, plagiarism. And other forms, of academic, dishonesty that, might occur in an e-learning environment. Topic. Whiteboards. There, are three types of whiteboards, the. Initial, whiteboards, analogous. To blackboards, date from the late 1950s. The. Term whiteboard. Is also used metaphorically. To refer to virtual. Whiteboards. In which computer. Software, applications. Simulate, whiteboards. By allowing writing, or drawing. This. Is a common, feature of group wear for virtual, meeting. Collaboration. And instant, messaging. Interactive. Whiteboards. Allow learners, and instructors to, write on the touch screen. The. Screen markup. Can be on either a blank whiteboard or, any computer screen, content. Depending. On permission, settings, this, visual, learning can be interactive. And participatory. Including. Writing, and manipulating. Images on the interactive, whiteboard. Topic. Screencasting. Screencasting. Allows users, to share the screens directly. From their browser and make the video available, online so that other viewers, can stream the video directly. The. Presenter, thus has the ability, to show, their ideas, and flow of thoughts rather than simply, explain, them as simple, text, content. In. Combination. With audio, and video the, educator, can mimic the one-on-one, experience. Of the classroom. Learners. Have an ability to, pause and rewind to, review at their own pace something. A classroom cannot, always offer. Topic. Virtual. Classroom. A virtual. Learning environment. VLE also. Known as a learning, platform, simulates. A virtual, classroom or, meetings, by, simultaneously. Mixing, several, communication. Technologies. Web. Conferencing. Software enables. Students. And instructors, to communicate. With each other via webcam, microphone, and, real-time chatting. In a group setting. Participants. Can raise hands, answer, polls or take tests. Students. Are able to whiteboard. And screencast. When given rights by the instructor. Who sets permission, levels for text notes microphone.

Rights And mouse control, a virtual classroom, provides. The opportunity. For students. To receive direct, instruction. From a qualified teacher. In, an interactive, environment. Learners. Can have direct, and immediate access, to their instructor. For instant, feedback and direction. The, virtual, classroom provides. A structured, schedule of classes which. Can be helpful for students, who may find the freedom of asynchronous learning, to be overwhelming. In. Addition. The virtual, classroom provides. A social learning environment. That replicates, the traditional. Brick-and-mortar. Classroom. Most, virtual. Classroom, applications. Provide, a recording. Feature each. Class, is recorded. And stored on a server which, allows for instant, playback of any class over, the course of the school year, this. Can be extremely, useful for, students, to retrieve, missed material. Or review concepts, for an upcoming exam. Parents. And auditors, have the conceptual, ability. To monitor, any classroom to, ensure that they are satisfied, with the education. The learner is receiving. In. Higher, education especially. A, virtual. Learning environment. VLE is sometimes. Combined, with a management, information, system. Ms to create a managed, learning, environment. In which all aspects, of a course are handled, through a consistent. User in to face throughout, the institution. Physical. Universities. And newer online-only, colleges. Offer select, academic degrees. And certificate. Programs via. The Internet. Some. Programs, require students. To attend some campus, classes or, orientations. But many are delivered, completely, online. Several. Universities. Offer online, student, support services. Such, as online advising. And registration. Counseling. Online, textbook, purchases. Student. Government's and student, newspapers. Augmented. Reality are. Provides. Students. And teachers, the opportunity to. Create layers of digital, information that. Includes both, virtual, world and real-world elements. To interact, with in real time. There. Are already a variety, of apps which offer a lot of variations. And possibilities. Media. Psychology, involves. The application of. Theories, in psychology, to media, and is a growing specialty. In learning and educational. Technology. Topic. Learning. Management, system. A learning, management system lms, is. Software, used for delivering, tracking, and managing, training, and education. It. Tracks, data about, attendance, time on task and student, progress. Educators. Can post announcements, grade. Assignments. Check on course activity. And participate. In class discussions. Students. Can submit their work read, and respond, to discussion, questions, and take quizzes an. LMS. May allow teachers. Administrators. Students. And permitted, additional, parties, such, as parents. If appropriate. To track various, metrics. LMS. Is range from systems, for managing training. Educational. Records, to software, for distributing. Courses, over the Internet and offering features for, online collaboration. The. Creation. And maintenance of, comprehensive. Learning, content. Requires, substantial, initial. And ongoing investments. Of human, labor. Effective. Translation, into, other languages. And cultural, contexts. Requires, even more investment. By knowledgeable, personnel, internet-based, learning. Management systems. Include, canvas blackboard. Inc and Moodle, these. Types, of LMS, allow educators to. Run a learning, system partially. Or fully online. Asynchronously. Or synchronously. Learning. Management systems. Also offer a nonlinear, presentation. Of content and, curricular, goals giving. Students, the choice of pace and order of information. Learned. Blackboard. Can be used for k-12, education higher. Education business. And government. Collaboration. Moodle. Is a free to download open. Source course management, system. That provides, blended, learning opportunities. As well as platforms.

For Distance, learning courses. Eliademy. Is, a free cloud-based course. Management, system. That provides, blended, learning opportunities. As well as platforms. For distance, learning. Courses. Topic. Learning. Content, management, system. A learning. Content, management system. Lc-ms, is software. For author, content, courses, reusable. Content objects. NL, CMS, may be solely, dedicated to, producing and, publishing content. That is hosted, on an LMS, or it can host the content, itself. The. Aviation. Industry computer-based. Training, committee, a ICC. Specification. Provides support. For content. That is hosted, separately. From the LMS, a. Recent. Trend in l CMS's. Is to address this issue through, crowdsourcing, cf, slide, wiki. Topic. Computer-aided. Assessment. Computer-aided. Assessment. Assessment. Ranges. From automated, multiple-choice. Tests. To more sophisticated. Systems. With. Some systems, feedback. Can be geared towards a student's, specific mistakes. Or the computer, can navigate the, student, through a series, of questions, adapting. To what the student, appears to have learned or not learned. Formative. Assessment, sifts out the incorrect, answers, and these questions are, then explained, by the teacher. The. Learner then practices. With slight variations. Of the sifted, out questions. The. Process, is completed, by summative, assessment, using a new set of questions, that only cover, the topics, previously. Taught. Topic. Electronic. Performance, support. System. An electronic. Performance support. System, EPSS. Is according. To Barry Reybold, a computer-based. System. That improves worker, productivity, by. Providing, on-the-job. Access, to integrated, information, advice. And learning. Experiences. Topic. Training. Management, system. A training. Management, system. Or training, resource management, system is, a software designed. To optimize, instructor-led. Training management. Similar. To an enterprise resource, planning ERP, it, is a back-office, tool, which aims at streamlining, every, aspect, of the training process planning. Training, plan and budget forecasting. Logistics. Scheduling. And resource management. Financials. Cost, tracking, profitability. Reporting. And sales, for profit training, providers, a, training. Management, system, can be used to schedule instructors. Venues, and equipment, through graphical, agendas, optimized, resource, utilization. Create. A training, plan and track remaining, budgets, generate. Reports, and share data between different. Teams. While. Training, management systems, focus, on managing, instructor-led. Training they. Can complete, an LMS. In. This situation. An LMS. Will manage e-learning, delivery. And assessment while, a training, management system, will manage ilt, and back-office, budget, planning logistic. And reporting. Topic. Learning. Objects. You. Topic. Content. Content. And design architecture. Issues include. Pedagogy, and learning object. Reuse. One. Approach looks at five aspects. Fact. Unique, data eg, symbols. For Excel formula, or the parts that make up a learning objective. Concept. A category, that includes multiple. Examples eg. Excel formulas, or the various, types theories. Of instructional. Design. Process. A, flow, of events, or activities, eg. How a spreadsheet, works, or the five phases in a d--. Procedure. Step, by step tasks eg, entering, a formula into a spreadsheet or, the steps that should be followed within a phase in a D. Strategic. Principle, tasks performed by, adapting, guidelines, eg. Doing. A financial, projection. In a spreadsheet or, using, a framework for designing, learning, environments. Topic. Pedagogical. Elements. Pedagogical. Elements, are defined as structures, or units, of educational. Material. They. Are the educational. Content, that is to be delivered these. Units, are independent. Of format, meaning, that although the unit may be delivered, in various, ways the pedagogical, structures.

Themselves, Are not the textbook, webpage. Videoconference. Podcast. Lesson. Assignment. Multiple. Choice question. Quiz discussion group. Or a case study all of which are possible, methods, of delivery. Topic. Learning. Object, standards. Much, effort has been put into the technical, reuse, of electronically. Based teaching, materials. And in particular creating. Or reusing. Learning, objects. These. Are self-contained, units. That are properly tagged with keywords, or other metadata, and often, stored in an XML, file format. Creating. A course requires, putting together a sequence of, learning objects. There. Are both proprietary. And open non commercial and commercial, peer-reviewed. Repositories. Of learning, objects, such as the merlot repository. Shareable. Content object. Reference model. SCORM. Is a collection, of standards and specifications that. Applies, to certain web-based, eLearning. Other. Specifications. Such as schools, framework, allow for the transporting. Of learning, objects, or for categorizing, metadata. Lumm. Topic. Settings. You. Topic. Preschool. Various. Forms of electronic, media can, be a feature of preschool, life, although. Parents, report. A positive, experience, the, impact of such use has not been systematically. Assess, the age when a given child might start using a particular technology. Such, as a cell phone or computer might, depend, on matching a technological. Resource, to the recipients. Developmental. Capabilities. Such, as the age anticipated. Stages, labeled, by Swiss psychologist, Jean. Piaget, parameters. Such, as age appropriateness. Coherence. With sought-after values. And concurrent. Entertainment. And educational. Aspects. Have been suggested. For choosing media, at the preschool level, technology. Can be introduced, in several, ways at. The, most basic, is the use of computers. Tablets. And audio, and video resources, in classrooms. Additionally. There are many resources available for. Parents and educators to. Introduce, technology, to young children or, to use technology. To augment lessons, and enhance learning. Some. Options, that are age-appropriate of. Video or audio recording. Of their creations. Introducing. Them to the use of the internet, through browsing, age-appropriate, websites.

Providing. Assistive. Technology. To allow differently. Abled children to participate with. The rest of their peers, educational. Apps electronic. Books and educational videos. There. Are many free and paid educational. Website, and apps that are directly, targeting. The educational. Needs of preschool, children. These. Include, Starfall, ABC. Mouse PBS. KIDS video may. And Montessori. Crosswords. Educational. Technology. In the form of electronic. Books, 109. Offer preschool, children the, option, to store and retrieve several, books on one device thus. Bringing together the, traditional, action of reading, along with the use of educational. Technology. Educational. Technology. Is also thought to impor of hand-eye, coordination. Language. Skills visual, attention, and motivation. To complete, educational. Tasks, and allows, children to experience, things, they otherwise, wouldn't. There. Are several keys, to making the most educational. Use out of introducing. Technology at, the preschool, level technology. Must be used appropriately, should, allow access, to learning, opportunities. Should, include the interaction. Of parents, and other adults with. The preschool, children and should be developmentally. Appropriate. Allowing. Access to, learning opportunities. Especially for, allowing, disabled, children, to have access, to learning opportunities. Giving, bilingual, children the opportunity. To communicate. And learn in more than one language bringing. In more information, about STEM, subjects, and bringing, in images, of diversity. That may be lacking in the child's, immediate, environment. Topic. K-12. EAL, earning, is utilized, by public, k-12, schools, in the United, States as well as private, schools. Some. E-learning, environments. Take place in a traditional, classroom others, allow students. To attend, classes from, home or other locations. There. Are several states, that are utilizing, virtual, school platforms. For e-learning across, the country, that continue, to increase. Virtual. School enables, students, to log into synchronous, learning or, asynchronous. Learning courses, anywhere. There is an internet connection. EAL. Earning, is increasingly. Being utilized. By students, who may not want to go to traditional brick-and-mortar, schools. Due to severe allergies, or other medical, issues fear, of school violence and, school bullying, and students, whose parents would like to home-school but. Do not feel qualified. Online. Schools, create, a haven, for students, to receive a quality education while. Almost completely. Avoiding, these common, problems, online. Charter. Schools also, often are not limited, by location. Income. Level or class size in the way brick-and-mortar, charter. Schools are elearning, also, has been rising as a supplement, to the traditional, classroom. Students. With special, talents, or interests, outside of the available, curricula, you see learning, to advance the skills or exceed grade restrictions. Some. Online, institutions. Connect, students. With instructors. Via web conference, technology. To form a digital, classroom. National. Private, schools are also available, online. These. Provide, the benefits, of e-learning to, students, in states where charter, online schools, are not available.

They. Also may, allow students. Greater flexibility. An exemption, from state testing. Some. Of these schools, are available, at the high school level and offer college, prep courses to students. Virtual. Education, in k12, schooling, often, refers to virtual. Schools and in higher education to. Virtual, universities. Virtual. Schools, are cyber. Charter. Schools, with. Innovative, administrative. Models, and course delivery, technology. Topic. Higher. Education. Online. College, course enrollment. Has seen a 29, percent increase, in, enrollment, with nearly one third of all college students. Or an estimated. Six point seven, million students. Are currently enrolled in online classes. In. 2009. 44. Percent of post-secondary. Students. In the USA, were taking, some or all of their courses online which. Was projected, to rise to 81 percent by, 2014. Although a large proportion of, for-profit higher, education. Institutions. Now offer online classes, only, about half of private, non-profit, schools do sir. Private. Institutions. May become more involved with online presentations. As the costs, decrease. Properly. Trained staff must also be hired to work with students, online. These. Staff, members need. To understand, the content, area, and also, be highly, trained in the use of the computer, and Internet online, education. Is rapidly, increasing, and online, doctoral, programs, have even developed at leading research universities although. Massive. Open online courses. MOOCs, may, have limitations, that preclude, them from fully, replacing. College education. Such, programs, have significantly. Expanded. MIT. Stanford. And, Princeton, University. Offer classes to, a global, audience but, not for college credit. University. Level programs, like, EDX founded, by Massachusetts, Institute, of, Technology and. Harvard, University offer. Wide range of disciplines at, no charge while. Others permit students, to audit a course at no charge but, require a small, fee for accreditation. MOOCs. Have not had a significant. Impact on higher education and. Declined, after the initial, expansion, but are expected to remain in some form. Topic. Corporate. And professional. Companies. With spread out distribution. Chains use, e-learning, for staff training, and development. And to bring customers, information. About the latest product, developments. Continuing. Professional development. CPD. Can. Deliver regulatory. Compliance. Updates, and staff development, of valuable, workplace, skills. For. Effectiveness. And competitive. Learning, performance, scoring. Systems, are designed to give live feedback on decision, making in complex, mobile, learning, scenarios. Topic. Public. Health. There. Is an important, need for recent, reliable. And high-quality health. Information, to be made available to, the public as, well as in summarized form, for public health providers. Providers. Have indicated, the need for automatic. Notification. Of the latest, research a, single, searchable portal. Of information. And access to grey literature. The. Maternal, and child health MCH. Library. Is funded, by the u.s. maternal. And child health Bureau, to screen the latest research and, develop, automatic. Notifications. To providers, through the MCH, alert. Another. Application. In public, health is the development. Of AM health use of mobile. Telecommunication. And multimedia. Into, global, public health M. Health has been used to promote prenatal. In newborn, services. With positive, outcomes in. Addition. Health. Systems. Have implemented, M health programs. To facilitate. Emergency. Medical, responses. Point, of care support, health, promotion. And data collection. In. Low and middle income countries M, health is most frequently used, as, one way text, messages, or phone reminders. To promote treatment, adherence and. Gather data. Topic. ADHD. There. Has also been a growing interest, in e-learning as a beneficial. Educational. Method for students, with attention deficit. Hyperactivity. Disorder, ADHD. With. The growing popularity, in, e-learning among, k-12, in higher education the. Opportunity. To take online classes, is becoming. Increasingly, important. For students. Of all ages. However. Students. With ADHD and. Special. Needs face, different, learning demands, compared, to the typical developing.

Learner. This. Is especially, significant. Considering, the dramatic, rise in ADHD. Diagnosis. In the last decade, among both children and adults. Compared. To the traditional, face-to-face. Classroom. Elearning. And virtual, classrooms. Require, a higher, level of executive. Functions, which is the primary deficit. Associated. With ADHD. Although. ADHD. Is not specifically. Named in the Rehabilitation. Act of 1973. Students. With ADHD who. Have symptoms, that interfere with, their learning or ability, may be eligible, for assistive. Technology. Some. Examples. Of the resources, that may help interest, students, and adults with, ADHD, consist. Of computer. Software brain, games timers. Calendars. Voice, recognition, devices. Screen, magnifiers. And talking, books Woolf lists, 12 executive. Function, skills necessary. For, students. To succeed in post-secondary education. Plan. Set, goals organize. Initiate. Sustained. Attention effort. Flexibility. Monitor. Use feedback, structure. Manage, time management. For. These. Skills, along, with strong, independent, and, self regulated. Learning are, especially pronounced. In the online environment and. As many ADHD. Students, suffer from a deficit, in one or more of these executive. Functions, this presents a significant. Challenge and, accessibility, barrier. To the current e-learning, approach, some, have noted that current, e-learning, models, are moving, towards, applying, a constructivism. Learning, theory, that emphasizes. A learner centered, environment and. Postulates. That everyone, has the ability to construct, their own knowledge and, meaning through a process, of problem-solving and, discovery. However. Some, principles. Of constructivism. May not be appropriate, for ADHD, learners. These principles. Include, active, learning. Self-monitoring. Motivation. And strong, focus despite. The limitations. Students. With special needs, including. ADHD. Have expressed, an overall, enthusiasm. For e-learning and have identified a number e learning benefits, including. Availability. Of online course notes, materials. And additional, resources the, ability, to work at an independent pace, and spend extra time formulating. Thoughtful, responses, in class discussions. Help, in understanding course. Lecture, content ability. To review lectures, multiple, times and enhanced. Access to, in communication. With the course instructor. Topic. Disabilities. The. Design, of e-learning platforms. In ways that enable universal. Access, has received, attention from, several, directions, including. The World Wide Web consortiums. Web accessibility. Initiative, yé, yé. Provides. Universal. Formatting, standards, for websites so they can remain accessible, to people with disabilities. For. Example, developing, or, adopting, elearning, material. Can enable, accessibility for. People with visual impairment. The. Perkins, School for the Blind office. Learning resources tailored, for the visually, impaired including, webcasts. Webinars. Downloadable. Science, activities. And an online library that, has access to over 40,000. Resource materials. On blindness, and deafblindness. Online. Education. May appear to be a promising, alternative for. Students, with physical and, sensory disabilities. Because, they get to work at their own pace and in their own home, however. Not, all online programs. Are equal when it comes to their resources for, students, with disabilities. Students. With disabilities. Who wish to enroll in online education must. Either be able to advocate for themselves in, their own rights or have a person, who is willing to advocate for them, the. American, with Disabilities, Act states, that online programs, must provide appropriate. Accommodations. For students, with disabilities. But has not specifically. Defined, what that means, once. Students. With disabilities. Are accepted. Into an online program they, should prepare, to be direct, and open about what they need to succeed, experts. Say. Heine. Topic. High, ability, students. Education. Technology. Also seems, to be an interesting method, of engaging gifted. Youths that are under stimulated, in, their current educational. Program. This. Can be achieved with, after-school programs. Or even technologically. Integrated. Curricula, for example, virtual, reality, integrated. Courses VR, IC can be developed, for any course, in order to give them such stimulation. 3d. Printing, integrated. Courses, 3dp, IC can also give, youths the stimulation, they need in their educational. Journey. Université. De montréal, pro, jet se you are in collaboration. With college, Mont Royal and, low variable, are heavily developing. This field. Topic. Identity. Options. Educational. Technology, particularly. In online learning, environments. Can allow students, to use real, identity.

Pseudonym. Or anonymous. Identity during. Classroom. Communication. Advantages. In anonymizing race age and, gender, are increased, student, participation. And increased, cross cultural communication. Risks. Include, increased, cyberbullying. And aggressive. Or hostile, language. Topic. Benefits. Effective. Technology. Use deploys, multiple. Evidence-based. Strategies. Concurrently. Eg, adaptive, content frequent. Testing, immediate. Feedback etc, as, dur effective, teachers. Using. Computers. Or other forms, of technology can, give students. Practice, on core content, and skills while the teacher can work with others conduct, assessments. Or perform, other tasks. Through. The use of educational. Technology. Education. Is able to be individualized. For each student, allowing. For better, differentiation. And allowing, students, to work for mastery, at their own pace modern, educational. Technology. Can improve access to education. Including. Full degree, programs. It. Enables. Better integration. For, non full-time, students. Particularly. In continuing. Education and, improved, interactions. Between students. And instructors. Learning. Material. Can be used for long distance, learning and are accessible, to a wider audience. Course. Materials. Are easy to access in. 2010. 70. Point three percent of American, family, households. Had access, to the Internet, in. 2013. According, to Canadian, radio-television, and. Telecommunications. Commission Canada. 79. Percent, of homes have access, to the Internet. Students. Can access and, engage with numerous. Online, resources, at home, using. Online resources, can, help students. Spend more time on specific. Aspects, of what they may be learning, in school but at home. Schools. Like MIT have. Made certain, course materials. Free online, although. Some, aspects, of a classroom setting, are missed by using these resources they. Are helpful tools, to add additional support. To the educational. System. The. Necessity. To pay for transport, to the educational. Facility, is removed. Students. Appreciate, the convenience, of e-learning, but report greater engagement in, face-to-face, learning.

Environments. According, to James Kulik, who studies, the effectiveness, of computers, used for instruction. Students. Usually learn more in less time when, receiving, computer-based. Instruction, and. They like classes, more and develop more positive, attitudes, toward, computers. In computer-based, classes. Students. Can independently solve. Problems, there. Are no intrinsic, age based restrictions. On difficulty. Level ie students. Can go at their own pace. Students. Editing, their written work on, word processes. Improve the, quality of their writing. According. To some studies, the, students, are better at critiquing, and editing, written work that is exchanged. Over a computer, network with. Students, they know. Studies. Completed, in. Computer. Intensive. Settings. Found increases. In student, centric, cooperative. And higher-order learning, writing. Skills problem-solving. And. Using, technology. In. Addition, attitudes. Toward, technology. Is a learning, tool by parents, students. And teachers are also improved. Employers. Acceptance. Of online, education. Has risen over time, more. Than 50%, of human, resource managers. SHRM. Surveyed, for an August 2010. Report, said that if two candidates, with the same level of experience were, applying, for a job it, would not have any kind of effect whether, the candidates, obtained, degree, was acquired through an online or a traditional school. 79%. Said they had employed, a candidate. With an online degree, in the past 12 months. However. 66%. Said candidates. Who get degrees online were, not seen as positively. As a job applicant, with traditional, degrees, the use of educational. Apps generally, has positive, effect on learning. Pre. And post-tests, reveal that the use of apps on mobile devices. Reduces. The achieve, gap between struggling. And average students. Some. Educational. Apps improve, group work by allowing students. To receive feedback on answers, and promoting, collaboration, in solving, problems, examples. Of these apps can be found in the third paragraph. The. Benefits, of a persisted, learning, have been exhibited, in all age groups. Kindergarten. Students, that use iPads, show much higher rates of literacy than, non users, medical, students, at University. Of California. Irvine that utilized, iPad, academically. Have been reported, to score, 23%. Higher on national, exams, than. Previous. Classes that did not. Topic. Disadvantages. Many. US, states spend, large sums of, money on, technology, however. As, of 2013. None, were looking at technology. Return on investment. ROI to, connect expenditures. On technology. With improved, student outcomes new, technologies. Are frequently, accompanied. By unrealistic. Hype, and promise, regarding, their transformative, power, to change education, for the better or in allowing, better educational. Opportunities to. Reach the masses. Examples. Include silent. Film broadcast. Radio and, television, none, of which have maintained, much of a foothold in the daily practices, of mainstream. Formal, education. Technology. In and of itself, does, not necessarily. Result in fundamental. Improvements, to educational. Practice. The. Focus, needs to be on the learners interaction. With technology. Not. The technology itself. It. Needs to be recognized. As ecological. Rather. Than, additive. Or. Subtractive. In. This ecological change. One, significant. Change will, create total, change according. To Branford, AL. Technology. Does not guarantee, effective. Learning and. Inappropriate. Use of technology. Can even hinder it a, University. Of Washington, study, of infant, vocabulary. Shows that it is slipping, due to educational. Baby dvds. Published. In the Journal of pediatrics. A 2007. University. Of Washington, study on the vocabulary of babies, surveyed, over 1,000. Parents, in Washington. And Minnesota. The. Study found that for every one hour that babies 8 to 16 months, of age watched DVDs. And videos, they knew six to eight fewer, of 90 common, baby words, than, the babies, that did not watch them. Andrew. Meltzoff a, surveyor, in this study states, that the result makes sense, that, if the babies alert time is spent, in front of DV, and TV instead. Of with people speaking the, babies are not going to get the same linguistic, experience. Dr.. Dimitri chiss Tarkus another, surveyor, reported. That the evidence is mounting that, baby, dvds. Are of no value and, may be harmful. Adaptive. Instructional. Materials, tailor questions, to each student's. Ability and, calculate, the scores but this encourages. Students. To work individually, rather, than socially. Or collaboratively. Cruz, 2013. Social. Relationships. Are important, but high-tech environments. May compromise, the balance of trust care and respect between teacher, and student, massively.

Open Online courses. MOOCs, although, quite popular, in discussions. Of technology, and education, in developed, countries, more so in u.s. are not a major concern in, most developing. Or low-income, countries. One. Of the stated, goals of MOOCs is to provide less fortunate, populations. Ie, in developing. Countries, an opportunity. To experience, courses. With us style, content and, structure. However. Research. Shows only. 3%, of, the registrants, are from low-income countries. And although many courses, have thousands, of registered students. Only 5 to 10% of them complete, the course. MOOCs. Also, implies, that certain. Curriculum. And teaching methods are superior, and this could eventually wash, over or possibly, washing, out local. Educational. Institutions. Cultural, norms, and educational. Traditions, with the Internet and social media using. Educ

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