COP26: Scaling Investment in Climate-Smart Agriculture Technologies in Africa
[Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Welcome to Scaling Investment in Climate-Smart Agriculture Technologies in Africa. This event is being broadcast on World Bank Live @live.worldbank.org as part of an exciting program, showcasing climate action around the world. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: My name is Ferzina Vistasp Banaji and I'll be moderating this event. If you would like to tweet or share your views, please use the #ClimateActionWBG. Climate change and poverty are the defining challenges of our time. Luckily in agriculture, solutions in one field, double as solutions in the others. Today, you will hear
about what is happening on the ground to make the promise of Climate-smart Agriculture a reality. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: We will kick off with opening remarks from Simeon Ehui, Regional Director of Sustainable Development Africa from the World Bank. We will then switch to a panel discussion featuring speakers from Ministries of Agriculture, from Lesotho and Zimbabwe, from Policy and Research Institutions like the Adaptation of African Agriculture to Climate Change and CIAT and the Private Finance Advisory company [inaudible 00:01:29]. Without further ado, let me welcome Simeon Ehui to provide opening context for today's discussion Simeon, over to you.
[Simeon Ehui]: Thank you Ferzina. I want to make sure that you hear me very well, that, okay? Good morning. Good afternoon and Good evening to our global audience. [Simeon Ehui]: I'm really delighted here, to be here with two ministers of agriculture from African countries and with representatives from the research community, the private sector and the adaptation of African agriculture initiative for this event on Scaling Investment in Climate-Smart Agriculture Technologies in Africa. [Simeon Ehui]: Scaling up, climate-smart agriculture on the continent is crucial for several reasons. The facts are well known but are worth repeating. Agriculture is a key economy driver
in Africa. It represents 30 to 40% of Gross Domestic Product and employees up to 65% of the labor force. The impact of climate change are already, reducing yield making our people more vulnerable to food insecurity and are projected to become increasingly severe. Climate change
harmful and destructive impact will reduce Africa GDP and increase countries' adaptation costs. [Simeon Ehui]: Agriculture is also a substantial contributor to Greenhouse gas emission while agriculture and agriculture driven land use change contribute 24% of global emission in Southern Africa. They contribute to almost half of the total GHG emission. Hence, given it's importance to African countries economies contribution to GHG emission and the sectors inherent vulnerability to climate change. [Simeon Ehui]: African countries have given Agriculture prominent role in their climate strategies as evidence in their indices. Adaptation priorities
of African countries have benefited from the Climate-smart Agriculture Investment plans. They, were developed over the past three years. This investment plan have been prepared in about one fifth of African countries and identify investment that can work for farmers contribute to the countries. And this is the target and drive increase investment. [Simeon Ehui]: We will share lessons on such investment plans and their contributions to climate resilience and low carbon agriculture system that work for people, economies and the environment during our discussion today. We will also discuss the opportunities for private sector investment in CSA, in Africa, and how African countries can take advantage of prevailing and emerging Climate Finance Architecture to support major agricultural systems transitions. [Simeon Ehui]: Last, but certainly not least, the discussion will look at how research and innovation can support Climate-smart Agricultural prioritization and implementation. Agriculture is crucial, critical to our development challenges.
We can't eliminate poverty without a robust agriculture sector that addresses people's basic needs, that provide job and responds to the challenge of climate change. Let's work together to ensure that agriculture continues to be part of the solution. I will now give the floor to our moderator Ferzina Banaji the next step. Over to Ferzina. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. Thank you very
much. That was Simeon Ehui, Regional Director of Sustainable Development Africa for the World Bank. Since the Paris agreement was signed, the World Bank has doubled, the climate co-benefits of it's new agriculture and food lending from 28% to 59%, a total of 2.9 billion in adaptation and mitigation investments, just last year. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: These numbers reflect increased planning and demand from countries that are experiencing the impacts of climate change and taking action to protect food and nutrition security. With that in mind, I'm delighted to turn to the panel that we have today. I will call on our speakers who each have three minutes or so. And I hope we can keep to time so that we can actually get to a second round of questions as well. Let me start with Dr. Lebesa,
Director of Agricultural Research from Lesotho who's here with us in person. Dr. Lebesa, what is your government doing to ensure that Climate-smart Agriculture is adopted widely in Lesotho? [Lefulesele Lebesa]: Thank you very much. A Good morning, good afternoon everyone. In my country, because we are really experiencing the effects of climate
change, to an extent that, the effects we are not even productive enough to keep up with our food and therefore we import most of the food that we have in the country. We are actually partnered with the world Bank to produce the Climate-smart investment plan, which is actually what we can say is a roadmap for us that we are using. And it has identified some of the investment ways that we think are working for us. And we are following the two pathways, the commercial one and the resilient one. The reason for that is because
in our country, we have part of the country that is prone to soil erosion that has very thin soils. [Lefulesele Lebesa]: So the resilient one seems to be pathway seems to be working very well for us, like to restore the land, but also the commercial pathway also is important. When you look at our, some of the commodities that have the high potential, like the horticulture, the small cycle or the short cycled animals, which are actually... [Lefulesele Lebesa]: So those are the investment ways in which the government has looked into, in developing that the stakeholders, different stakeholders were involved and we are building on what was already existing. We already had the
NSDP, the National Strategic Development Plan too, which was already talking about commercialization, which was talking about diversification to make sure that agriculture diversifies into different horticulture, different products, agricultural product that can make a difference in the country. [Lefulesele Lebesa]: And then we are also looking into our climate change, a policy. How it has been structured to also include agriculture as one of the chapters that are very important in the... So to make sure that it is put into practice, is not just a policy. So some of the projects, for example, that the ministry of agriculture developed such as
the agricultural productivity program for Southern Africa, which is dealing with the technologies, most of the technologies that are Climate-smart to make sure that we cushion the farmers that we have as they transition, because most of our farmers are small holders but as the transition from the small holder to the commercial level. [Lefulesele Lebesa]: But we also have another bigger project, which is about like 62 Million US Dollars, which is the small holder agricultural development project, which is basically targeting the small holders, like moving them from the smallholder, transitioning them to the commercial level. So those are some of the ways in which the government of Lesotho is trying to reach different and those are being reached through the grants programs, in which some, most of them are actually dealing with the climate-smart practices to make sure that even as they do, they are horticulture because mostly is horticulture but even other crops, at least they're able to be cushioned against the climate change effects. Thank You. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. Let me pass to
Mr.Tapererwa Chief Director of Agricultural Extension from Zimbabwe who's joined us remotely. Mr.Tapererwa what is Zimbabwe's experience with implementing Climate-smart Agriculture? [Stancilae Tapererwa]: Yes. Thank you very much moderator. In fact, the Minister was supposed to be with here today with us, but however he has given me his a speech to read. So I will quickly go through what the Minister has given me. Agriculture production in Zimbabwe is under threat from
climate change and a multiple weather related shocks like drought, floods, extreme temperatures, pests and diseases, leading to food insecurity and the country being a net food importer. [Stancilae Tapererwa]: In the past, such extreme weather events, compromised the food security every 10 years. This is now accelerated to almost every two and a half years, which is clearly too frequent for the country's agriculture sector to recover. In response to this climate related changes. The government of Zimbabwe collaborated with the World Bank through the Zimbabwe reconstruction funds and other key partners to integrate climate change into the Country Agriculture policy agenda.
[Stancilae Tapererwa]: One such initiative was the Zimbabwe Climate-smart Agriculture investment plan, which identified investments that offer the greatest potential to transform Zimbabwe's agriculture into a robust and more productive climate resistant and low emission sectors. As government, we then identified and adopted at a national scale some conservation smart investments. We have introduced a flagship Climate-smart Agriculture in vernacular called [inaudible 00:12:44] in Ndebele it's called [inaudible 00:12:46] program, which is a sustainable cropping production, intensification technique, whereby farmers concentrate resources on a smaller piece of land resulting in higher productivity and profit margins.
[Stancilae Tapererwa]: Through the climate-smart scheme, which was launched in 2020, number one, 1.8 million farmers were provided with input subsidies and expected to adopt conversation agriculture principles, including minimum soil disturbance, mulching and crop diversification. [Stancilae Tapererwa]: Secondly, yield increased in the past. The average yield has been 0.7 tax per hectare but last year because of this climate-smart, the yield for maize rose to 5.2 tons per hectare. Small holders who are adopted climate-smart practice experience,
phenomenal increase in yields producing 40% of the total maize production in the country in the just ended 2021 farming season. Beneficiaries of the program have now been increased to 2.4 million farmers so that the benefits can cover more smallholder farmers. [Stancilae Tapererwa]: The Zimbabwe agriculture sector disaster risk report jointly prepared by my ministry and the World Bank shows that the country loses approximately 126 million US Dollars each year, due to production risks from extreme weather related shocks. Our smallholder farmers are the
most vulnerable, and there is a greater need of farmers to take up insurance, again, such risks. [Stancilae Tapererwa]: As such, we are now piloting in two districts, a yield based insurance program for farmers under the [inaudible 00:14:35] program and as more resources become available, we will scale up to the rest of the country. Disease remain the major cause of cattle mortalities followed by drought related deaths, accounting for 69% and the 21% respectively as such climate proved the livestock sector is a goal of my ministry. This has been done through mainstreaming climate change in agriculture extension services and in the curriculumn of all our agriculture training colleges.
[Stancilae Tapererwa]: Furthermore, the country completed it's national adaptation planning and is embarking on a low emission strategy is articulated in its national determined contribution, which seeks to reduce carbon emission by 40% inclusive of the agriculture forestry and the other land use sectors. This development all provide pathways to reducing the negative impact of climate change on agriculture and increase the adaptive capacity of farmers. This Climate-smart Agriculture, that we've adopted as a country. We are employing in cereals, in small grains, Sorghum, Pearl millet et cetera. And this year, we have taken cotton on board.
[Stancilae Tapererwa]: This brings to the end of the Minister's report for Minister of Agriculture in Zimbabwe. I thank you. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you very much. And thank you for some of those very striking statistics, I think in comparison with what you were describing about the process, hearing about those numbers really also puts it in perspective. Let me pass Ms. Lemseffer,
Director General of the Initiative for the Adaptation of African Agriculture to climate change. Ms. Lemseffer how can policies and investments support CSA implementation at scale? [Abir Lemseffer]: Well, hello. Good evening everybody. Well, first of all, very happy to participate in this panel in the COP26. We are happy that the triple A initiative has survived to until COP26
and now it's held by foundation and we're very happy to share today our experience about CSIP. So to answer very briefly this question, how can policies and investment support, CSA implementation at scale. I think I will not repeat what have been said by friends. [Abir Lemseffer]: I think that the relevance of the CSIP, CSIPs is not to be proven today, but I think that speaking about our proper experience, I will repeat what Simeon has said. He said that fifth of the African countries now has CSIP. We're very happy to have participated in the majority of them because we have been working about the CSIPs of Morocco, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Cameroon, Ghana, Burkina Faso and the Republic of Congo.
[Abir Lemseffer]: What we need now to support the CSA implementation is to be more targeted in the financing that we want to provide those CSIP, for example, we have heard the tremendous experience of Zimbabwe, and I'm really, really happy to hear that the CSIP in Zimbabwe have been going forward and that there are already impact on growers. We have the same example here in Morocco, because we have succeeded to enter, one part of the CSIP, which was linked to water into the big program between the World Bank and the Morocco on the agriculture sector. [Abir Lemseffer]: But the instrument we need for the implementation of the CSIP is that I think DFIs as such as, just as the World Bank can put more support, more financial support for the CSIP to transform this scientific and let's say, the [inaudible 00:19:25] work that has been done and that now exist to a very concrete projects on the ground. [Abir Lemseffer]: And I think that there is also, some leadership to be taken on this topic of CSA. And I think that the World Bank can
properly take this leadership to convince other DFI to support more CSIP and really, really, really not each time we want to talk about agriculture and climate change to reinvent the methodology and to reinvent the approach, because I think that the CSIP needed money, means people, research institutions from everywhere in the world. [Abir Lemseffer]: So, I think that, what we need now more to support the CSA implementation at scale is really to advocate for the thing that the CSAs can be the basic for the agricultural development in the African countries who has Climate-smart Agriculture investment plan. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. Let me note on to Andy who's here in the studio with us, Andy Jarvis, Associate Director General at the Alliance of Bio-diversity International and CIAT. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: How effective is Climate-smart Agriculture investment planning in delivering NDCs? That's NDCs are everywhere, we look right now here at the COP. So tell us a little bit about that.
And what's the role of research in providing evidence-based policy and investment? [Andrew Jarvis]: Thanks so much. We are a knowledge partner and we've been working with the World Bank and with triple A initiative in developing some of these investment plans and working with partner governments, so that we're facilitated, we're bridging between now and those NDCs. [Andrew Jarvis]: When we need to deliver, how do we get there? Where do we need to deploy this finance? And so, it's very impressive to hear $2.9 billion have
been deployed of climate finance. We all know that are in this business, that we have to make every single dollar count, because that's a drop in the ocean of the tremendous demands that are still out there for adaptation and work towards delivery of the climate agreement. So, we've worked on these investment plans and it's really about how do we set out what needs to happen now? [Andrew Jarvis]: What are the projects, where are the priorities where we need to put that investment in that will help us get there to those NDCs. And so really the processes is one of making sure, and I think in doing this, what's critical is making sure that we are listening and so we're responding to partner needs. And so we convene multi-stakeholder platforms within
the countries. We listen to government, we listen to civil society, private sector. [Andrew Jarvis]: We listen to where people are seeing, these are the greatest needs, we're bringing analysis. And so this is... It's very important with making evidence based decision making in this. And so we're bringing analysis and data to it, to look at quantify, well, where are some of the challenges, what are some of the problems? [Andrew Jarvis]: What if we were to do this, what would be the potential impact? How much would it cost? And so we do that an analysis and then essentially synthesize it, so that we can be saying, so these are projects that will help this country reach, move from where we are today to delivery of these NDCs. And these are going to be the most cost effective. [Andrew Jarvis]: We're going to get the biggest bang for our buck with these kinds of projects. And so it's
an... And you get a diverse array of plans and projects coming out from these processes. And you get the numbers to be able to then move towards the action side. [Andrew Jarvis]: I have a son who has been bothering me that I'm doing too much, blah, blah, blah. I think these CSA investment plans are exactly about this is what we need to do, and these are the impacts that we'll have. So, it's absolutely critical to move us towards those NDCs.
[Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. And you mentioned bang for your buck. So this is the right time to ask, Tanya Haman, Director of Clem Monal to talk to us a little bit about the financing. How can African countries take advantage of existing financing to support key agricultural systems transitions? [Tanja Havemann]: Hi, thank you very much for giving me the opportunity to speak. Just a little bit about me. So [inaudible 00:24:38] is an investment advisory company. We actually structure and advise of fund, including the food and securities fund. And we work with
private companies and also investors in terms of, getting more investment into sustainable natural resource management in emerging markets. And so we have very hands on experience, including in Africa where we have colleagues based in Côte d'Ivoire and in Nairobi. [Tanja Havemann]: I think a couple of, obviously we talk a lot about funding, but it's not always clear what needs to be funded, who should be responsible for such funding, what are the most suitable sources of such funding? What are the potential returns and where are those returns going to come from, or are they going to be cost savings that then can be allocated in order to mobilize investments? [Tanja Havemann]: So I think investors, it's important when you develop those plans to think a little bit about, if we need to mobilize additional private capital to complement ODA funding, which I think most people recognize that we need to do. The ODA funding is simply not enough. [Tanja Havemann]: Then we also need to think a little bit about investor requirements and the things that investors or the private sector looks at when they look at investment opportunities and those include, the financing structure. Is it a fund? Is it a bond? Is it a listed product? What the risk return requirements, what the risk return characteristics are of that, including things like currency, counterpart risk, track record, but also things like, liquidities, investments likely to pay off in one year, or do I need to wait 20 years for this to pay off? [Tanja Havemann]: I think governments play a really important role, and I think it's great that governments both in developed countries as well as in emerging economies step up and try to do more, to get more meaningful investment into the space. I think it's been encouraging to see, for example, an allocation of special drawing rights, including a loan of special drawing rights to some of the least developed countries.
I think that should also help to make sure that the lower income governments can actually mobilize more financing which they need to do for public goods. [Tanja Havemann]: And obviously groups like the World Bank play a critical role in those things. And it would be great to see more discussions around things like debt restructuring and debt forgiveness to enable the developing and emerging countries, more fiscal space to actually make these investments that they need to make. [Tanja Havemann]: In addition, obviously there are in the lands, there were things that need to be funded. There are things that will never really be commercially viable that will always need concessionary funding, at least in the economic systems that we have today. And there are things that, are commercially viable today, and there are
things that may eventually become commercially viable if they have a little bit of support. [Tanja Havemann]: So I think it's important to think about things that way. And, we have experience for example, of the global environment facility, which is now opened up to things like non-grant instruments, as well as things like the GCF where obviously government support can be really important in enabling those things. But I think that some African governments also have experience with things like, public private partnerships and putting in place incentives to make sure that those investments take place and private sector capital can be mobilized in those economies. [Tanja Havemann]: I would also say that for many of the smaller emerging and developing countries, things like blended finance, both in terms of lending that can happen through investment incentives, but also blended finance through partnerships with DFI, including things like USAID and the Swedish government can be really, very meaningful and very interesting. [Tanja Havemann]: And then I would also encourage some of the smaller governments to maybe stick together, to try to get to the scale that private sector often needs to see in terms of a financing instrument. So,
in short, when you the climate-smart agriculture investment plans are interesting in that they provide the government a roadmap for where some of the investments could be prioritized, but I do think that there are opportunities to build on that, to look at where are the things that are investable at the moment and what maybe needs a bit of support and the best ways of doing that. And making sure that, where it's possible that private sector entities become responsible for taking on some of those costs and also some of those outcomes. Thank you. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. And in fact, as you were speaking, I could see colleagues nodding on the call and in the rooms. So I'm going to stay on that topic for just another quick round of questions. And I'm going to ask, first the panel here, and then those
of you who have joined. We are hearing, out here in Glasgow, in the COP or, if you're talking about agriculture in Africa, specifically adaptation and resilience are an absolutely critical priority. Do you think, and I'll start with you, Dr. Lebesa, do you think that the financing is in place to support the shift at climate-smart agriculture? What would you like to see happen? [Lefulesele Lebesa]: Thank you very much for that question. Actually, I was dying to have my say on that one, that, yeah, if we talk about the climate financing, I would really say it is not enough, at least for the developing countries. Maybe we need the capacity
to... We need to be capacitated on how to really access that finance. Maybe it is enough, but for us, we really need a lot of capacity building to make sure that we are able to access that. [Lefulesele Lebesa]: We have our... Like I talked about our are farmers that we are saying they're transitioning from small holder to commercial. And there are so many shocks that they have to be guarded against. There are technologies that have to be developed,
and then you don't have enough, money or enough finance for the innovations that the farmers can use for them to actually transition. [Lefulesele Lebesa]: But also the issue that came out that I think, I'm really embracing is that also in our country, at least mine, the private sector also has to step in and for them to step in, they also have to be capacitated in to take over, it cannot be the government. The government's role is actually supposed to be facilitating, but the private sector has to step in so that, issues like this, there are at the forefront. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. [Lefulesele Lebesa]: So I think out of this COP26, really one of the things that we would want to see coming out clearly is how an increased financing for the climate change issues. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. Let me stay in the studio
for one minute and ask Andy the same question, is the financing in place? What do you need to see? [Andrew Jarvis]: I think, we need to vastly increase the financing. The scale of the problem is much, much bigger than what the finance on the table is right now. And this is the reality and many institutions are scrambling and push very hard to bring that finance there. But, this is a bigger problem that we face in the world. The magnitude of the problem is way
beyond right now, what the finance can deliver in terms of solving it. So, that's the first thing. [Andrew Jarvis]: But I think, one of the critical pieces that we need to work on is making sure that the finance that we do have is impactful, but at the same time streamlined. And just as you were saying, the capacity to access that, the complexity of accessing at the moment climate finance is very high. [Andrew Jarvis]: And, I think we've got to think very openly about how we can make that access to it, simpler for countries. And we don't have time to waste to learn to then do. We need to do and learn at the same time, I think. And so there's a lot
to be done. And also about just making this more streamlined, making it an easier process to access and developing a finance arena that's kind of... An ecosystem that's mixed where there's quick funding available for piloting and innovating that there's, as you scale the investment up, obviously it gets more... Well, you need to have much more evidence, much more diligence in that process,
but I think you need to create an ecosystem that can respond more quickly throughout. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. I noticed Mr. Tapererwa that you were nodding when we mentioned concessional finance. So I'd like to ask you,
maybe to talk a little bit about what you see in terms of the financing landscape. [Stancilae Tapererwa]: Yes. Thank you so much. Financing is a major challenge. In Zimbabwe, what we are saying is treasury, which is taxpayer money is being used to finance the imports to provide for the vulnerable groups and the government, the way how they look at it is that if government does not provide those resources, local resources, local currency, it'll now be forced to look for foreign currency to import the food. [Stancilae Tapererwa]: So it's cheaper to look for local currency so that farmers contribute towards food production on their own. Their major challenge is that
they can't access inputs on their own. So, the approach that we're taking in Climate-smart Agriculture is that the farmers they provide labor, they dig holes that is their own labor. And then government will come in with what, with input. So it's cheaper to give them, inputs than
to look for Forex to import the food. That way now it becomes self-sustaining so to speak. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Tanya maybe, let me ask you also to... I know that you already gave us a really good overview of this, but is there anything you would like to add in the context specifically of COP26, right now? [Tanja Havemann]: Yeah, just to say, look, I think the last estimate I saw pre COVID was that the annual financing gap for the STGs, is 2.5 trillion a year. I think the allocation now of the special drawing rights to emerging and developing markets was 275 billion. So you can see just there, that there is a huge financing gap, and frankly, I think it's a bit ridiculous that at these times, when we have been having record low interest rates in much of those developed world that we see interest rates and access to financing, be constrained further and further for emerging markets at the time when they needed it the most, because they're facing all these issues that have maybe not necessarily that much to do with them in most cases.
[Tanja Havemann]: So I think these are issues that really need to be addressed quite urgently, how we enable private sector entities and also governments to have the fiscal space to really invest and meet the adaptation challenge. I think there are some really critical things to be done there. It's simply not fair. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. And a thank you to all of our panelists for these extremely rich
insights. I'm going to take advantage of being the moderator to ask people to give me one word, that sums up your hope for helping farmers to adapt to climate change in Africa. And I'm going to start again in our studio with you, one word. You can take five words. [Lefulesele Lebesa]: Access to climate finance for small holder farmers. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you, Andy.
[Andrew Jarvis]: Focus in on innovation. If we're going to solve this, we need to innovate. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. Mr. Tapererwa.
I think you might be on mute actually, if we could ask you to unmute. Yes. [Stancilae Tapererwa]: Yes. Climate change is real. And the adaptation of climate-smart agriculture is the way to go, the way how I look at it. Because we still have got a long way to go before we develop as much irrigation as possible. So if we adapt
climate change innovations, that's the way to go for us to become food self-sufficient. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. Tanya. [Tanja Havemann]: And I guess my request would just be that we start getting more granular around what the ask and the investment needs actually are, and then start to better assign responsibilities. So the things that require concessionary capital and development, finance that is grant funding let's do that. And the things where private sector can be made responsible,
let's also figure that out and find ways to make them responsible and then for them to act. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. I'm wondering, I think I can see Simeon also still online. May I ask you if you have one word to share on how you would like to see your hopes for supporting farmers to adapt to climate change in Africa? [Simeon Ehui]: Yeah. Thank you Ferzina. For us, the key point is to ensure that the farmers in Africa have access to the technologies that can help them to farm in a way that the system, the [inaudible 00:39:18] can be resilient. So let's say, zero carbon type of fertilizers, farming practices that are not allowing high emission of the greenhouse gas emission also, for livestock, for example, how you feed the livestock has a delayed impact on the quantity of methane emitted by the animals.
[Simeon Ehui]: So we need to help countries to adopt those technologies that can help them to have a resilient farming system. That's what we're working on. The other aspect we're working on is also to support countries to adopt those policies at the highest level. [Simeon Ehui]: So at the World Bank, for example, at this moment, what we are working with countries to develop something called the country climate development report, where we're looking at the relationship between the climate and development, and specifically in the agri sector, identify those policies that are needed to be able to help improve the recent farming system. [Simeon Ehui]: What is key Ferzina is how the resources already at hand are used. We are recommending that, the subsidies that are not proper targeted be actually used for research and development directed toward more resilient systems. That's what we are helping country for. Over to you. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. I took away from that good policies
that are granular, that are innovative, that take into account the reality of what's happening for communities, for farmers. And I think about the capacity needs and think about how you're actually building the capacity on the ground. So thank you very much for that. Thank you to all of our panelists for joining us remotely or here in the studio. Please do check out the replay, it will be at available @live.worldbank.org. Thank you very much.