COP26: Scaling Investment in Climate-Smart Agriculture Technologies in Africa

COP26: Scaling Investment in Climate-Smart Agriculture Technologies in Africa

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[Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Welcome to Scaling Investment in   Climate-Smart Agriculture Technologies in Africa.   This event is being broadcast on  World Bank Live   as part of an exciting program, showcasing  climate action around the world. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: My name is Ferzina Vistasp Banaji   and I'll be moderating this event. If you would  like to tweet or share your views, please use the   #ClimateActionWBG. Climate change and poverty  are the defining challenges of our time. Luckily   in agriculture, solutions in one field, double  as solutions in the others. Today, you will hear  

about what is happening on the ground to make the  promise of Climate-smart Agriculture a reality. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: We will kick off with opening   remarks from Simeon Ehui, Regional Director of  Sustainable Development Africa from the World   Bank. We will then switch to a panel discussion  featuring speakers from Ministries of Agriculture,   from Lesotho and Zimbabwe, from Policy and  Research Institutions like the Adaptation   of African Agriculture to Climate Change and CIAT   and the Private Finance Advisory company  [inaudible 00:01:29]. Without further ado, let   me welcome Simeon Ehui to provide opening context  for today's discussion Simeon, over to you.

[Simeon Ehui]: Thank you Ferzina. I want to make sure that you   hear me very well, that, okay? Good morning. Good  afternoon and Good evening to our global audience. [Simeon Ehui]: I'm really delighted here, to be here with   two ministers of agriculture from African  countries and with representatives from the   research community, the private sector and the  adaptation of African agriculture initiative   for this event on Scaling Investment in  Climate-Smart Agriculture Technologies in Africa. [Simeon Ehui]: Scaling up,   climate-smart agriculture on the  continent is crucial for several reasons.   The facts are well known but are worth  repeating. Agriculture is a key economy driver  

in Africa. It represents 30 to 40% of Gross  Domestic Product and employees up to 65%   of the labor force. The impact of climate change  are already, reducing yield making our people more   vulnerable to food insecurity and are projected  to become increasingly severe. Climate change  

harmful and destructive impact will reduce Africa  GDP and increase countries' adaptation costs. [Simeon Ehui]:  Agriculture is also a substantial  contributor to Greenhouse gas emission   while agriculture and agriculture driven land  use change contribute 24% of global emission   in Southern Africa. They contribute to  almost half of the total GHG emission.   Hence, given it's importance  to African countries economies   contribution to GHG emission and the sectors  inherent vulnerability to climate change. [Simeon Ehui]: African countries have given Agriculture   prominent role in their climate strategies as  evidence in their indices. Adaptation priorities  

of African countries have benefited from the  Climate-smart Agriculture Investment plans.   They, were developed over the past three years.  This investment plan have been prepared in about   one fifth of African countries and identify  investment that can work for farmers contribute to   the countries. And this is the  target and drive increase investment. [Simeon Ehui]: We will share lessons on such investment plans and   their contributions to climate resilience and low  carbon agriculture system that work for people,   economies and the environment  during our discussion today.   We will also discuss the opportunities  for private sector investment   in CSA, in Africa, and how African countries  can take advantage of prevailing and emerging   Climate Finance Architecture to support  major agricultural systems transitions. [Simeon Ehui]: Last, but certainly not least,   the discussion will look at how research and  innovation can support Climate-smart Agricultural   prioritization and implementation. Agriculture is  crucial, critical to our development challenges.  

We can't eliminate poverty without a  robust agriculture sector that addresses   people's basic needs, that provide job and  responds to the challenge of climate change.   Let's work together to ensure that agriculture  continues to be part of the solution. I will now   give the floor to our moderator Ferzina  Banaji the next step. Over to Ferzina. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. Thank you very  

much. That was Simeon Ehui, Regional Director of  Sustainable Development Africa for the World Bank.   Since the Paris agreement was  signed, the World Bank has doubled,   the climate co-benefits of it's new  agriculture and food lending from 28% to 59%,   a total of 2.9 billion in adaptation and  mitigation investments, just last year. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: These numbers reflect increased   planning and demand from countries that are  experiencing the impacts of climate change   and taking action to protect  food and nutrition security.   With that in mind, I'm delighted to  turn to the panel that we have today.   I will call on our speakers who each have three  minutes or so. And I hope we can keep to time   so that we can actually get to a second round of  questions as well. Let me start with Dr. Lebesa,  

Director of Agricultural Research from Lesotho  who's here with us in person. Dr. Lebesa, what is   your government doing to ensure that Climate-smart  Agriculture is adopted widely in Lesotho? [Lefulesele Lebesa]: Thank you very much. A Good morning,   good afternoon everyone. In my country, because  we are really experiencing the effects of climate  

change, to an extent that, the effects we are not  even productive enough to keep up with our food   and therefore we import most of the  food that we have in the country.   We are actually partnered with the  world Bank to produce the Climate-smart   investment plan, which is actually what we can  say is a roadmap for us that we are using. And   it has identified some of the investment ways  that we think are working for us. And we are   following the two pathways, the commercial one and  the resilient one. The reason for that is because  

in our country, we have part of the country that  is prone to soil erosion that has very thin soils. [Lefulesele Lebesa]: So the resilient one seems to be pathway   seems to be working very well for us, like to  restore the land, but also the commercial pathway   also is important. When you look at our, some  of the commodities that have the high potential,   like the horticulture, the small cycle or the  short cycled animals, which are actually... [Lefulesele Lebesa]: So those are the investment   ways in which the government has looked into,  in developing that the stakeholders, different   stakeholders were involved and we are building  on what was already existing. We already had the  

NSDP, the National Strategic Development Plan too,  which was already talking about commercialization,   which was talking about diversification to make  sure that agriculture diversifies into different   horticulture, different products, agricultural  product that can make a difference in the country. [Lefulesele Lebesa]: And then we are also looking into our climate   change, a policy. How it has been structured to  also include agriculture as one of the chapters   that are very important in the... So to make  sure that it is put into practice, is not just   a policy. So some of the projects, for example,  that the ministry of agriculture developed such as  

the agricultural productivity program for Southern  Africa, which is dealing with the technologies,   most of the technologies that are  Climate-smart to make sure that   we cushion the farmers that we have as they  transition, because most of our farmers are   small holders but as the transition from  the small holder to the commercial level. [Lefulesele Lebesa]: But we also have another bigger project,   which is about like 62 Million US Dollars, which  is the small holder agricultural development   project, which is basically targeting the small  holders, like moving them from the smallholder,   transitioning them to the commercial level. So  those are some of the ways in which the government   of Lesotho is trying to reach different and those  are being reached through the grants programs,   in which some, most of them are actually dealing  with the climate-smart practices to make sure that   even as they do, they are horticulture because  mostly is horticulture but even other crops,   at least they're able to be cushioned against  the climate change effects. Thank You. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. Let me pass to  

Mr.Tapererwa Chief Director of Agricultural  Extension from Zimbabwe who's joined us remotely.   Mr.Tapererwa what is Zimbabwe's experience  with implementing Climate-smart Agriculture? [Stancilae Tapererwa]:  Yes. Thank you very much moderator. In fact,  the Minister was supposed to be with here   today with us, but however he has given me his  a speech to read. So I will quickly go through   what the Minister has given me. Agriculture  production in Zimbabwe is under threat from  

climate change and a multiple weather related  shocks like drought, floods, extreme temperatures,   pests and diseases, leading to food insecurity  and the country being a net food importer. [Stancilae Tapererwa]: In the past, such extreme weather events,   compromised the food security every 10 years.  This is now accelerated to almost every two   and a half years, which is clearly too frequent  for the country's agriculture sector to recover.   In response to this climate related changes.  The government of Zimbabwe collaborated   with the World Bank through the Zimbabwe  reconstruction funds and other key partners   to integrate climate change into the  Country Agriculture policy agenda.

[Stancilae Tapererwa]: One such initiative was the Zimbabwe   Climate-smart Agriculture investment plan, which  identified investments that offer the greatest   potential to transform Zimbabwe's agriculture into  a robust and more productive climate resistant   and low emission sectors. As government, we then  identified and adopted at a national scale some   conservation smart investments. We have introduced  a flagship Climate-smart Agriculture in vernacular   called [inaudible 00:12:44] in Ndebele it's  called [inaudible 00:12:46] program, which is   a sustainable cropping production, intensification  technique, whereby farmers concentrate resources   on a smaller piece of land resulting in  higher productivity and profit margins.

[Stancilae Tapererwa]: Through the climate-smart scheme,   which was launched in 2020,  number one, 1.8 million farmers   were provided with input subsidies and expected  to adopt conversation agriculture principles,   including minimum soil disturbance,  mulching and crop diversification. [Stancilae Tapererwa]: Secondly, yield increased in the past. The average   yield has been 0.7 tax per hectare but last year  because of this climate-smart, the yield for maize   rose to 5.2 tons per hectare. Small holders who  are adopted climate-smart practice experience,  

phenomenal increase in yields producing 40% of the  total maize production in the country in the just   ended 2021 farming season. Beneficiaries  of the program have now been increased   to 2.4 million farmers so that the benefits  can cover more smallholder farmers. [Stancilae Tapererwa]: The Zimbabwe agriculture   sector disaster risk report  jointly prepared by my ministry   and the World Bank shows that the country loses  approximately 126 million US Dollars each year,   due to production risks from extreme weather  related shocks. Our smallholder farmers are the  

most vulnerable, and there is a greater need of  farmers to take up insurance, again, such risks. [Stancilae Tapererwa]: As such, we are now piloting in two districts,   a yield based insurance program for farmers  under the [inaudible 00:14:35] program and   as more resources become available, we will scale  up to the rest of the country. Disease remain   the major cause of cattle mortalities followed  by drought related deaths, accounting for 69%   and the 21% respectively as such climate proved  the livestock sector is a goal of my ministry.   This has been done through mainstreaming  climate change in agriculture extension services   and in the curriculumn of all our  agriculture training colleges.

[Stancilae Tapererwa]: Furthermore, the country   completed it's national adaptation planning  and is embarking on a low emission strategy   is articulated in its national determined  contribution, which seeks to reduce carbon   emission by 40% inclusive of the agriculture  forestry and the other land use sectors. This   development all provide pathways to reducing the  negative impact of climate change on agriculture   and increase the adaptive capacity of  farmers. This Climate-smart Agriculture,   that we've adopted as a country. We are  employing in cereals, in small grains,   Sorghum, Pearl millet et cetera. And  this year, we have taken cotton on board.

[Stancilae Tapererwa]: This brings to the end of   the Minister's report for Minister of  Agriculture in Zimbabwe. I thank you. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you very much. And thank you for   some of those very striking statistics, I think in  comparison with what you were describing about the   process, hearing about those numbers really also  puts it in perspective. Let me pass Ms. Lemseffer,  

Director General of the Initiative for  the Adaptation of African Agriculture to   climate change. Ms. Lemseffer how can policies and  investments support CSA implementation at scale? [Abir Lemseffer]:  Well, hello. Good evening everybody. Well,  first of all, very happy to participate in   this panel in the COP26. We are happy that the  triple A initiative has survived to until COP26  

and now it's held by foundation and we're very  happy to share today our experience about CSIP. So   to answer very briefly this question,  how can policies and investment support,   CSA implementation at scale. I think I will  not repeat what have been said by friends. [Abir Lemseffer]: I think that the relevance of the CSIP,   CSIPs is not to be proven today, but  I think that speaking about our proper   experience, I will repeat what Simeon has said.  He said that fifth of the African countries now   has CSIP. We're very happy to have participated in  the majority of them because we have been working   about the CSIPs of Morocco, Côte d'Ivoire,  Mali, Cameroon, Ghana, Burkina Faso   and the Republic of Congo.

[Abir Lemseffer]: What we need now to   support the CSA implementation is to  be more targeted in the financing that   we want to provide those CSIP, for example, we  have heard the tremendous experience of Zimbabwe,   and I'm really, really happy to hear that the  CSIP in Zimbabwe have been going forward and that   there are already impact on growers. We have  the same example here in Morocco, because   we have succeeded to enter, one part of  the CSIP, which was linked to water into   the big program between the World Bank  and the Morocco on the agriculture sector. [Abir Lemseffer]: But the instrument we   need for the implementation of the CSIP is that I  think DFIs as such as, just as the World Bank can   put more support, more financial  support for the CSIP to transform this   scientific and let's say, the [inaudible  00:19:25] work that has been done and   that now exist to a very  concrete projects on the ground. [Abir Lemseffer]: And I think that there is also,   some leadership to be taken on this topic  of CSA. And I think that the World Bank can  

properly take this leadership to convince other  DFI to support more CSIP and really, really,   really not each time we want to talk about  agriculture and climate change to reinvent   the methodology and to reinvent the  approach, because I think that the CSIP   needed money, means people, research  institutions from everywhere in the world. [Abir Lemseffer]: So, I think that,   what we need now more to support the CSA  implementation at scale is really to advocate   for the thing that the CSAs can  be the basic for the agricultural   development in the African countries who has  Climate-smart Agriculture investment plan. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you.   Let me note on to Andy who's  here in the studio with us,   Andy Jarvis, Associate Director General at the  Alliance of Bio-diversity International and CIAT. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]:  How effective is Climate-smart Agriculture  investment planning in delivering NDCs? That's   NDCs are everywhere, we look right now here at  the COP. So tell us a little bit about that.  

And what's the role of research in providing  evidence-based policy and investment? [Andrew Jarvis]: Thanks so much. We are   a knowledge partner and we've been working with  the World Bank and with triple A initiative in   developing some of these investment plans and  working with partner governments, so that we're   facilitated, we're bridging  between now and those NDCs. [Andrew Jarvis]: When we need to deliver, how do we get there?   Where do we need to deploy this finance? And so,  it's very impressive to hear $2.9 billion have  

been deployed of climate finance. We all know that  are in this business, that we have to make every   single dollar count, because that's a drop in the  ocean of the tremendous demands that are still   out there for adaptation and work towards  delivery of the climate agreement. So, we've   worked on these investment plans and it's really  about how do we set out what needs to happen now? [Andrew Jarvis]: What are the projects,   where are the priorities where we need to  put that investment in that will help us   get there to those NDCs. And so really  the processes is one of making sure,   and I think in doing this, what's critical is  making sure that we are listening and so we're   responding to partner needs. And so we  convene multi-stakeholder platforms within  

the countries. We listen to government, we  listen to civil society, private sector. [Andrew Jarvis]: We listen to where people are seeing, these   are the greatest needs, we're bringing analysis.  And so this is... It's very important with making   evidence based decision making in this. And so  we're bringing analysis and data to it, to look at   quantify, well, where are some of the  challenges, what are some of the problems? [Andrew Jarvis]: What if we were to do this,   what would be the potential impact?  How much would it cost? And so we do   that an analysis and then essentially synthesize  it, so that we can be saying, so these are   projects that will help this country reach, move  from where we are today to delivery of these NDCs.   And these are going to be the most cost effective. [Andrew Jarvis]: We're going to get   the biggest bang for our buck with  these kinds of projects. And so it's  

an... And you get a diverse array of plans  and projects coming out from these processes.   And you get the numbers to be able  to then move towards the action side. [Andrew Jarvis]: I have a son who has   been bothering me that I'm doing too much, blah,  blah, blah. I think these CSA investment plans are   exactly about this is what we need to do,  and these are the impacts that we'll have.   So, it's absolutely critical  to move us towards those NDCs.

[Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. And you mentioned   bang for your buck. So this is the right time  to ask, Tanya Haman, Director of Clem Monal   to talk to us a little bit about the  financing. How can African countries   take advantage of existing financing to  support key agricultural systems transitions? [Tanja Havemann]:  Hi, thank you very much for giving me the  opportunity to speak. Just a little bit   about me. So [inaudible 00:24:38] is an investment  advisory company. We actually structure and advise   of fund, including the food and  securities fund. And we work with  

private companies and also investors in terms of,  getting more investment into sustainable natural   resource management in emerging markets.  And so we have very hands on experience,   including in Africa where we have colleagues  based in Côte d'Ivoire and in Nairobi. [Tanja Havemann]: I think a couple of,   obviously we talk a lot about funding, but  it's not always clear what needs to be funded,   who should be responsible for such funding,  what are the most suitable sources of such   funding? What are the potential returns and  where are those returns going to come from,   or are they going to be cost savings that then  can be allocated in order to mobilize investments? [Tanja Havemann]: So I think investors,   it's important when you develop those  plans to think a little bit about,   if we need to mobilize additional private  capital to complement ODA funding,   which I think most people recognize that we need  to do. The ODA funding is simply not enough. [Tanja Havemann]: Then we also need to think a little   bit about investor requirements and the things  that investors or the private sector looks at   when they look at investment opportunities  and those include, the financing structure.   Is it a fund? Is it a bond? Is it a listed  product? What the risk return requirements,   what the risk return characteristics are of that,  including things like currency, counterpart risk,   track record, but also things like,  liquidities, investments likely to pay off   in one year, or do I need to wait  20 years for this to pay off? [Tanja Havemann]: I think governments play a   really important role, and I think it's great that  governments both in developed countries as well as   in emerging economies step up and try to do more,  to get more meaningful investment into the space.   I think it's been encouraging to see, for  example, an allocation of special drawing   rights, including a loan of special drawing  rights to some of the least developed countries.  

I think that should also help to make sure that  the lower income governments can actually mobilize   more financing which they  need to do for public goods. [Tanja Havemann]: And obviously groups like the World Bank   play a critical role in those things. And  it would be great to see more discussions   around things like debt restructuring and debt  forgiveness to enable the developing and emerging   countries, more fiscal space to actually make  these investments that they need to make. [Tanja Havemann]: In addition, obviously there are   in the lands, there were things that need to be  funded. There are things that will never really   be commercially viable that will always need  concessionary funding, at least in the economic   systems that we have today. And there are things  that, are commercially viable today, and there are  

things that may eventually become commercially  viable if they have a little bit of support. [Tanja Havemann]: So I think it's   important to think about things that  way. And, we have experience for example,   of the global environment facility, which is now  opened up to things like non-grant instruments,   as well as things like the GCF where obviously  government support can be really important in   enabling those things. But I think that some  African governments also have experience with   things like, public private partnerships and  putting in place incentives to make sure that   those investments take place and private sector  capital can be mobilized in those economies. [Tanja Havemann]:  I would also say that for many of the  smaller emerging and developing countries,   things like blended finance, both in terms  of lending that can happen through investment   incentives, but also blended finance through  partnerships with DFI, including things like   USAID and the Swedish government can be  really, very meaningful and very interesting. [Tanja Havemann]: And then I would also   encourage some of the smaller governments  to maybe stick together, to try to get to   the scale that private sector often needs to  see in terms of a financing instrument. So,  

in short, when you the climate-smart agriculture  investment plans are interesting in that they   provide the government a roadmap for where some  of the investments could be prioritized, but I do   think that there are opportunities to build on  that, to look at where are the things that are   investable at the moment and what maybe needs a  bit of support and the best ways of doing that.   And making sure that, where it's possible that  private sector entities become responsible   for taking on some of those costs and  also some of those outcomes. Thank you. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. And in fact, as you were speaking,   I could see colleagues nodding on the call and  in the rooms. So I'm going to stay on that topic   for just another quick round of questions. And I'm  going to ask, first the panel here, and then those  

of you who have joined. We are hearing, out here  in Glasgow, in the COP or, if you're talking about   agriculture in Africa, specifically adaptation and  resilience are an absolutely critical priority.   Do you think, and I'll start with you, Dr.  Lebesa, do you think that the financing is   in place to support the shift at climate-smart  agriculture? What would you like to see happen? [Lefulesele Lebesa]: Thank you very much for that question. Actually, I   was dying to have my say on that one, that, yeah,  if we talk about the climate financing, I would   really say it is not enough, at least for the  developing countries. Maybe we need the capacity  

to... We need to be capacitated on how to really  access that finance. Maybe it is enough, but for   us, we really need a lot of capacity building  to make sure that we are able to access that. [Lefulesele Lebesa]: We have our... Like I talked about our are farmers   that we are saying they're transitioning from  small holder to commercial. And there are so   many shocks that they have to be guarded against.  There are technologies that have to be developed,  

and then you don't have enough, money  or enough finance for the innovations   that the farmers can use for  them to actually transition. [Lefulesele Lebesa]: But also the issue that came out that I think,   I'm really embracing is that also in our  country, at least mine, the private sector   also has to step in and for them to step in,  they also have to be capacitated in to take over,   it cannot be the government. The government's  role is actually supposed to be facilitating, but   the private sector has to step in so that,  issues like this, there are at the forefront. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. [Lefulesele Lebesa]: So I think out of this COP26, really   one of the things that we would  want to see coming out clearly   is how an increased financing  for the climate change issues. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. Let me stay in the studio  

for one minute and ask Andy the same question, is  the financing in place? What do you need to see? [Andrew Jarvis]:  I think, we need to vastly increase the  financing. The scale of the problem is   much, much bigger than what the finance on the  table is right now. And this is the reality   and many institutions are scrambling and push  very hard to bring that finance there. But,   this is a bigger problem that we face in the  world. The magnitude of the problem is way  

beyond right now, what the finance can deliver in  terms of solving it. So, that's the first thing. [Andrew Jarvis]: But I think, one of the critical   pieces that we need to work on is making sure  that the finance that we do have is impactful,   but at the same time streamlined. And just as  you were saying, the capacity to access that,   the complexity of accessing at the  moment climate finance is very high. [Andrew Jarvis]: And, I think we've got to think very   openly about how we can make that access to it,  simpler for countries. And we don't have time to   waste to learn to then do. We need to do and learn  at the same time, I think. And so there's a lot  

to be done. And also about just making this more  streamlined, making it an easier process to access   and developing a finance arena that's kind of...  An ecosystem that's mixed where there's quick   funding available for piloting and innovating that  there's, as you scale the investment up, obviously   it gets more... Well, you need to have much more  evidence, much more diligence in that process,  

but I think you need to create an ecosystem  that can respond more quickly throughout. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. I noticed Mr.   Tapererwa that you were nodding when we mentioned  concessional finance. So I'd like to ask you,  

maybe to talk a little bit about what you  see in terms of the financing landscape. [Stancilae Tapererwa]: Yes. Thank you so much.   Financing is a major challenge. In Zimbabwe, what  we are saying is treasury, which is taxpayer money   is being used to finance the imports to provide  for the vulnerable groups and the government,   the way how they look at it is that if government  does not provide those resources, local resources,   local currency, it'll now be forced to look  for foreign currency to import the food. [Stancilae Tapererwa]: So it's cheaper to look for local currency so   that farmers contribute towards food production  on their own. Their major challenge is that  

they can't access inputs on their own. So, the  approach that we're taking in Climate-smart   Agriculture is that the farmers they provide  labor, they dig holes that is their own labor.   And then government will come in with what, with  input. So it's cheaper to give them, inputs than  

to look for Forex to import the food. That way  now it becomes self-sustaining so to speak. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Tanya maybe, let me ask   you also to... I know that you already  gave us a really good overview of this,   but is there anything you would like to add in  the context specifically of COP26, right now? [Tanja Havemann]: Yeah, just to say, look, I think the last estimate   I saw pre COVID was that the annual financing gap  for the STGs, is 2.5 trillion a year. I think the   allocation now of the special drawing rights to  emerging and developing markets was 275 billion.   So you can see just there, that there is a huge  financing gap, and frankly, I think it's a bit   ridiculous that at these times, when we have been  having record low interest rates in much of those   developed world that we see interest rates and  access to financing, be constrained further and   further for emerging markets at the time when they  needed it the most, because they're facing all   these issues that have maybe not necessarily  that much to do with them in most cases.

[Tanja Havemann]: So I think these are   issues that really need to be addressed quite  urgently, how we enable private sector entities   and also governments to have the fiscal space to  really invest and meet the adaptation challenge.   I think there are some really critical things  to be done there. It's simply not fair. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]:  Thank you. And a thank you to all of  our panelists for these extremely rich  

insights. I'm going to take advantage of being  the moderator to ask people to give me one word,   that sums up your hope for helping farmers  to adapt to climate change in Africa. And I'm   going to start again in our studio with  you, one word. You can take five words. [Lefulesele Lebesa]:  Access to climate finance  for small holder farmers. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you, Andy.

[Andrew Jarvis]: Focus in on innovation.   If we're going to solve this, we need to innovate. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. Mr. Tapererwa.  

I think you might be on mute actually,  if we could ask you to unmute. Yes. [Stancilae Tapererwa]: Yes. Climate change is real. And the   adaptation of climate-smart agriculture is the  way to go, the way how I look at it. Because we   still have got a long way to go before we develop  as much irrigation as possible. So if we adapt  

climate change innovations, that's the way  to go for us to become food self-sufficient. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. Tanya. [Tanja Havemann]: And I guess my request would just be   that we start getting more granular around what  the ask and the investment needs actually are,   and then start to better  assign responsibilities. So   the things that require concessionary  capital and development, finance that is   grant funding let's do that. And the things  where private sector can be made responsible,  

let's also figure that out and find ways to  make them responsible and then for them to act. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. I'm wondering,   I think I can see Simeon also still online. May  I ask you if you have one word to share on how   you would like to see your hopes for supporting  farmers to adapt to climate change in Africa? [Simeon Ehui]: Yeah. Thank you Ferzina.   For us, the key point is to ensure that the  farmers in Africa have access to the technologies   that can help them to farm in a way that the  system, the [inaudible 00:39:18] can be resilient.   So let's say, zero carbon type of  fertilizers, farming practices that are   not allowing high emission of the greenhouse  gas emission also, for livestock, for example,   how you feed the livestock has a delayed impact  on the quantity of methane emitted by the animals.

[Simeon Ehui]: So we need to help countries to adopt those   technologies that can help  them to have a resilient   farming system. That's what we're working  on. The other aspect we're working on   is also to support countries to adopt  those policies at the highest level. [Simeon Ehui]: So at the World Bank,   for example, at this moment, what  we are working with countries   to develop something called the country climate  development report, where we're looking at   the relationship between the climate and  development, and specifically in the agri sector,   identify those policies that are needed to be  able to help improve the recent farming system. [Simeon Ehui]: What is key Ferzina   is how the resources already at hand  are used. We are recommending that,   the subsidies that are not proper targeted  be actually used for research and development   directed toward more resilient systems. That's  what we are helping country for. Over to you. [Ferzina Vistasp Banaji]: Thank you. I took away from that good policies  

that are granular, that are innovative, that  take into account the reality of what's happening   for communities, for farmers. And I think  about the capacity needs and think about   how you're actually building the capacity on  the ground. So thank you very much for that.   Thank you to all of our panelists for joining  us remotely or here in the studio. Please do   check out the replay, it will be at available Thank you very much.

2021-11-15 00:57

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