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A. You. For. Connectivity. We. Have already gone, through different. Technologies. Which. Offer communication. In, IOT. Technologies. Such. As. Zigbee. 6lowpan. And. The. Like they. Are based on either, they use either they are developed. On. Top of, h0, 2.15. Point for for instance the way we'd be has been developed, or, they. Use a 2-0. 2.15. Point for standard. The. Way 6lowpan, does. Likewise. There, are other technologies, which. Are sort, of derived from or are based upon, the. I typically h0, 2.15. Point for. Technologies. Such as heart, h. Eh-eh-eh-eh. RT, and. Well. Less heart are. Two such technologies, that. We are going to cover in this, particular lecture. So. Hart the, full form of. The fulcrum of heart. Is. Highly, addressable, remote. Cars user, protocol. So. Highway addressable, remote, Constitution, cortical har T and. Its. Latest version, which is a wellness version, of it which is the wellness heart are. Two such technologies, which. Are sort of derived from. 802.3. Teen point four standard. So. All these, 802.3. Teen point four standard. Based, technologies. And the, protocols, they. Are very useful, for setting, up IOT, communication, the. Reason is that they. Enable. Short-range. You. Know different, data, rate communication. Between. Low-power. Devices as are, found, in, IOT systems. So. We'll go, through the. Heart and the wireless heart and the. Overview of it to, understand, how it. Functions, and what are its different, features. So. The. Genesis. Of, heart. And wireless, heart goes. Back to. Industrial. IOT III ot. Industrial. IOT which is again one of the lectures that we are going to have in. The future in. This particular course so. For. Many of these industrial, applications, such as industrial plants. Or. Regular. Networks, connected, vehicles etc etcetera. So. What is required is to set up some. Kind of network. Between. Different. Field devices to. Form a smart, system, a smart network, and this is what is required in, IOT. So. Heart. Basically, helps. In the same way as Big. B does for, establishing. Connectivity, between, different. IOT, devices and, special. The special focus of heart, is on, industrial applications. So. The. Hard protocol has been designed, and is. Implemented, in such a way so, that it becomes, cheaper and easier, to. Implement in. An IOT. System. So. Has, basically, encompasses. The. Most number of field devices, incorporated. In any, IOT, network. So. Talking about heart, and wireless, heart it, basically. Helps. To. Ensure.

Accessibility. Of. Different, devices and the. Placement of such devices in. Such a way that, it. Becomes cheaper to, develop the overall system, the system becomes overall efficient, and. Typically. This, protocol is implemented, on top of a reaction tank. Inside. A pipe or at. Widely separated wear warehouses. To have. Connectivity, between, these different components. Or different. Parts of the warehouse, or the reaction tank or the pipes etc. So. The main difference between. Heart and the wireless heart is in the physical datalink, and network. Layers so. The wellness, heart and the. Heart they, are almost the same except, that there are subtle. Differences in. These. Specific, layers of physical. Data link and network, and we are going to go through them. In a little bit more detail. So. We have to also keep in mind that where, HAARP, basically. Does not have support. For a network layer, so. Looking at heart and, the. Wireless heart what we have is a physical, layer data, link layer Network layer, transport. Layer and application. Layer. So the, physical, layer as. I said is, derived. From the. Basic standard. The most popular, standard. For. IOT implementation. The, 802.3. No point for I typically standard. And, this. Protocol. The hard protocol. Functions. In, the, assignment. But, more specifically, the 2.4. Gigahertz I ascendent, it. Implies, and exploits. 15, channels of the band in, this particular assignment to. Increase the reliability of, the, network. So. That is the physical layer with support, for 802.3. No point for derived videos. Then. Comes the datalink layer the. Data link layer has, a concept, of something known, as the super frames and the, super frame, basically. Helps, in ensuring. Reliable, communication. Collusion. Free and deterministic. Communication. Between, the different nodes of the network and, it is based on this particular, layer, it, works. Using. A TDM a like protocol, time division multiple, access protocol, where there are different time slots when, the. Different, devices are. Able to communicate in, those allotted. Time slots. So. These super, frames that, we are talking about they, are booked into ten millisecond, white time slots and the, super frames basically, control, the timing of transmission. To ensure, collision. Free and reliable. Communication. This. Layer the little ink layer incorporates. Channel. Hopping and. Channel. Blacklisting, to increase the reliability and, security how. Is it done how is the delay with the and security increased because there is channel hopping so. You. Know what happens is a, transmission. Takes place in one. Of the channels then. Basically. The. The. Transmission, takes over in another, channel at the next, time instant, so. There is basically travel channel hopping there, is something similar to you. Know what, happens in frequency, hopping. Frequency. Hopping spread spectrum, so. A similar kind of approach is adopted in. This particular. Case. As well so. Because, there is channel hopping at different, time instants etcetera, that, improves. The security, you know, and also. Improves. The. System from. Being, hacked, network. From being hacked, by. Different, intruders. Or malicious. Agents. Channel. Blacklisting, basically, what it does is it identifies. The, channels consistently. Affected, by interference. And removes. Them from use. Now. Looking at the network and transport, layers after, the physical and the returning players, we. See that. These. Two layers they. Cooperatively. Handle, various, types types of traffic, traffic, routing. Session. Creation, and security. Functions. When. This heart is based, on the. Miss networking, in communication. So, a miss network at the network layer is set up using.

Wireless, Heart and each. Device is primed at different, time instants, to forward packets for, every other device. Each. Device, in wireless heart is armed, with an updated, network graph that. Means the topology gets updated, at. Subsequent. Time time, instants and that. Means, that. That particular topology is used to, handle routing. So. The, network layer in heart basically. Consists, of the. OSI. Network, layer the. Transport layer and the, session layers put, them together and that, is what is the network layer of, the, heart or wellness heart protocol. Application. Layer in heart handles. Communication, between gateways. And devices, via. A series, of command. And response messages, so there are different common messages response, messages, and a. Chain of such message, flows take place to, implement the application, layer. This. Application, layer is responsible for extracting. Comments, from a message, executing. It, and generating. Responses. So. In extract, the comment from, the message execute. Those comments and then, respond. To those comments so this layer is seamless, and does not differentiate between the Wellness, and where for sins of heart so irrespective of what, is down underneath, in the different bottom. Bottom layers as I said that, there is subtle, difference between. The. Heart. And the wireless heart protocols, at, the, network layer transport, layer datalink, layer and the physical layer in fact as, I said before your. Heart the word heart doesn't even have the, network. Layer implemented. So essentially. The most almost of the difference comes in the other three layers which, is basically the physical layer the return link layers and the transport layer. Now. One. Of the very important, issues of use, of heart or any, such like. Protocol, is how. Do you handle, condition. So. Condition, is basically, handled. In different ways so, we are talking about a 2.4. Gigahertz is m band with. Channels. With. Channel 26, removed. From it so, there is no channel 26 due, to the restricted, use of this, particular channel in certain areas.

So. The so. What we have is interference, toll channels, avoided. By using channel, switching post, every transmission the. Transmission is, synchronized, using 10 millisecond, slots, during. Each such slot all available. Channels, can be utilized by the various, nodes in the network allowing. For the propagation of 15, packets through the network at a time which, also minimizes, the risk of collision, so this is how condition. Is. Controlled, collisions, are avoided, and not. Avoided, but minimized, and so, on. Well. This heart, uses. A something. Known, as the network manager, agent, the. Network manager agent super. Each node, in the network and, guides, them when, and where to, send the packet when to send the packet and where, what is the intended destination so this is what is the job of the, network. Manager entity, in the wireless arc. It. Allows for this network manager, allows for collision free and timely. Deliver your packets between a source and the destination the. Network manager updates the information, about, the neighbors, the, single strength and the, information. Needing. Delivery of deceit. So. Well. It's heart basically uses, something, called known as the code based network, security to, prevent from, unauthorized access. Or, unauthorized, attempts, of different. Nodes from joining. The network. Now. As I started, at the very beginning that these, are all like, you. Know protocols, like. ZigBee or you. Know ipv6. Or, Wireless, are the. Ipv6. Protocol has a little, bit of different. You. Know the. Functionality. From. These protocols but you, know if you look at all these protocols they are all meant, for use, in low. Power low. Specification. Resource. Constraint. Bandwidth. Constraint, networks. And. This. Is where their. Usefulness, in IOT comes into picture so we, now need to compare, between. For, instance the popular ZigBee protocol and, the well result one thing is ZT is primarily. Consumer. Based IOT, you know ZigBee is primarily used for consumer based IOT whereas, heart is primarily, used for industrial, IOT, applications. Although, nobody. Limits, the use of either of these protocols for. Consumer. Or. Or. Industrial. Application. Domain, so, they can be used interchangeably but primarily, they. Are based on their implementation. Consumer. IOT, ZigBee. And. Industrial. IOT. Heart. And wellness heart. So. Going back. A wellness, heart node basically, hops, after. Every message and that as I said before, improves. The security, of systems from being, attacked, or from. Unauthorized access, to the network. Ziggy. Does not feature hopping, at all on the contrary, and, it. Only hops, when the entire, network hops, so. This is one of the prime points. Of difference, between ZigBee, and well, let's hug. Now. At the Mac layer well, it hurts utilizes, TDMA, allowing.

Different Time slots for each, transmission. On the, other hand ZD, is primarily. Based on the, Mac. Protocol, CSMA. Plus. So, csma/cd, or csma/ca. So, CSM a class of protocols. So. ZB is based on CSM a class of, protocols. Contention. Based protocols. And. An. Tdma. Is basically. Applied. In the case of wireless heart. In. Wellness heart what is used is the MIS network, topology, where, each node is capable of serving, as a router so. That if one node goes down another node can replace it so that basically in fact, this mace networking. Topology. Improves. The overall delivery. Reliability, of packet delivery in the network link we use utilizes, a tree topology which, makes nodes, along. The trunk, critical. Well. As hard devices, are. All backwards, compatible, and that. Basically allows for the integration of, legacy, devices as well as the new one so this is one of the very important, and attractive. Features behind using, well, lizard because you, do not have to totally, forget the legacy and the contemporary systems because, it is backwards, compatible you. Can use wellness, heart in conjunction, to, the legacy systems, and protocols. The, knee devices, share the same basis for their physical needs but VB, ZigBee pros will be our, rf-4c. E and fig, B IP. Or otherwise. Incompatible. With each other so this is also a very attractive, or, important. Difference between Rigby. And wellness. Hart. Another. Very important. Technology. Is. NFC, and. This. NFC, technology as, you will see shortly. Has. Lot of similarities, with. The RFID, RFID. Czar. Also based on, something. Known. As magnetic induction. Magnetic. Induction between. The. Card. Reader. That. Means the RFID card reader and the. RFID tag RFID. Card and, in. The case of NFC, as well we'll see, that, there is a similarity, of this, sort. So. NFC, one the, full form of NFC is near field communication, and this. Is basically as I, said it is, very similar to the RFID. Technology. And is something the RFID technology is something that we have discussed, previously in, a previous. Lecture, so. NFC, is designed for use by devices, within the close proximity to each other all NFC. Types are similar but, communicate, in different ways. So. A very allied NFC. Technology. Which. Is known as the silica, is commonly. Found and, is, used mostly. In Japan. The. Contemporary, ones, type A and type B NF seals are used. In the rest part of the world. There. Are different primary two types of NFC, devices one, is the passive device and the. Other one is the active device passive, devices are more common than the active devices active, devices are typically implemented. In, smartphones. And so on so, you have an NFC, support along. With your smartphone, in. Which. Are basically you, know these. NFC's, that are implemented, in smartphones, are basically. Active. Collectors, of. Of. Information, and they. Are also active. Transceivers. You know rather transmitters. Of the information. So. We have active, devices an. Example. As I just said is, the use of NFC in. You. Know active ellipses in, smartphones. And all. The, passive devices are typically, used, in. NFC. Tags and so on and these. Are very similar to the RFID, tags and, very. Similar kind of technology. Which, is based on magnetic. Induction. These. RFC, tags sorry. Give NFC, tags they, contain information which. Is readable by other devices however, it cannot read, information, itself, and. These NF seals like, in the case of RFIDs. Are typically, used and are, implemented. In supermarkets. So. And I was just thing in a short short while back. NFC's. Are. Based, on the, physical. Principle. The scientific, principle, behind the, function functioning, of NFC. Is, the, concept, of magnetic. Induction. So. Here basically there is a in FC Reader which emits, a small electric, current which, creates a magnetic field which, in turn bridges. The physical, space, between the devices so, you, bring the NFC, reader close. To the NFC device, there is a magnetic, induction that. Basically. Goes on between these two entities, and that is how the information, that is encoded in these NFC. Tags are tons. Transmitted. Are, sent, to the. NFC. Reader. The. Reader basically. It's a small electric, current which, creates a magnetic field, that in turn because the physical space between the devices this is what I will just same sort, foil back, the. Generated field this magnetic field is received by a similar, coil. In. The client device where, where. Where, it is turned back, into, electrical. Impulses. To communicate, data such. As identification. Number status information. Status.

Information Or any, other information. NFC. Tags are used. In. The case of supermarkets. And similar. Kind of libraries. Etcetera etcetera. They. Use the energy. From the, reader to encode, their response, while. The active or peer-to-peer tags, have, their own or source. So. In this particular figure this, particular, physical or scientific, principle, that I just mentioned is. Shown. Over here. So. What we have. Pictorially. As it is shown what we have is, the NFC, card, so. This has some magnetic, coil kind of and. Then. We have this, NFC. Reader. Through. Which current is passed so a magnetic field, is generated and. That is. How the information transfer. Between these two entities, the, card as well as the card reader takes, place. The. NFC specification receives data, transmission, frequency, is thirteen point five. Six Miller McSally. Megahertz. NFC. Can suffer, can transmit, data at the rate of either, 1:06. - 1 2, or 4, - 4 creepiest. That's. Typically. Stored, between 96, and 512. Bytes, of data and the, communication, range is, less than 20, centimeters. There. Are primarily, three modes. Of operation, of NFC, the. First is the peer-to-peer mode, the. Second is the read write mode and, a, third is the card emulation mode, in. The, peer-to-peer mode. -. Smartphones. They. Can for. Example. Swap. Data between, themselves and. This. Is this particular mode which helps these two smartphones to, be, able to exchange the data between themselves. The readwrite move mode. Here. One, active, device picks, up information. From a passive one so. Active device, from. Passive. Device, picking. Up information is an, example of read. Write mode of, operation, and card. Emulation the. NFC device can be used like, a contactless, credit. Card so in credit cards also and, very similar, to the way it. Is done swing credit cards also you. Know these kind of things. Are implemented. The RFC's are implemented, so that what, you have is, payment. Through. These nxe enabled read, cards so. There is a contactless, credit card, okay. So these NFC, basically, makes it contactless, the functioning. Of NFC, basically, makes it contact, Lea so we have three, modes of operation, the, peer-to-peer mode, the read write mode and the, card emulation mode. So. I already mentioned about payments. Using smartphones, Parcel. Tracking, information. Tags, in posters, and advertisements computer. Game, synchronized. Toils low-power. Home automation, systems, these. Are all different examples of. NFC. Applications. NFC. Reader. The. Card and the, NFC reader being, used for. All the different types of applications, is something, that, makes, NFC. Very, useful, and effective, for. IOT, applications. So. To. Conclude what. We have gone through are primarily. Two, protocols the, heart and it's, wireless variant, the wireless heart. And. NFC. Which. Is the near-field communication, in, heart, and well is heart basically, there. Are the. Layers physical. Layer the. Data link layer Network. Layer transport. Layer and application, layer harp. The word heart basically does not have. The. It does not have the. Network layer when. Is heart does and when. It's heart basically. Works. On top of the, ITP 8 0 to point 15.4. Or rather to. Be more besides and correct. Well. Is heart. Works. As a. Delight. Protocol. From. The. 802.3. Point, for, it. Is derived from 802.3. Point, for because it has different features, that have been suggested. In, n02 point fifteen point four and is implemented, over here in heart. And wireless heart rather. Whereas. In. NFC. NFC. Basically, works very similar, to RFID, and you have, an NFC, reader and, a NFC. Card, and there, is magnetic. Coupling. That you, know magnetic, induction, that. Helps. These, two entities to. Transfer. Information between, them. To. Read information let us say from the card, to, the reader. So. These, are all very attractive, technologies, that can be used for. Implementing. Internet. Of Things. Thank. You.

2019-03-26 18:10

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There are applications in mobile phones like Shareit, Xender, MiDrop. Do they work on NFC Protocol (Peer to Peer mode). If not, how are they transferred ?

very well explained!

very well explain sir!! sir may i please get the assignment for all these lectures........I am a researcher in university and your lectures are helping me alot.....

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