Communications engineering | Wikipedia audio article
Telecommunications. Engineering, is an engineering, discipline, centered, on Electrical and Computer Engineering which, seeks to support an enhanced, telecommunication. Systems, the. Work ranges, from basic, circuit, design to strategic, mass developments. A, telecommunication. Engineer, is responsible, for designing and overseeing, the installation, of telecommunications. Equipment and, facilities, such, as complex, electronic. Switching, systems, and other plain old telephone service, facilities. Optical, fiber cabling, IP networks, and microwave, transmission, systems. Telecommunication. Engineering also. Overlaps, with broadcast, engineering. Telecommunication. Is a diverse, field of engineering connected, to electronic, civil and systems, engineering, they help find the cost of money for different types of computers, and technological. Objects. Ultimately. Telecom. Engineers, are responsible for, providing high-speed, data transmission. Services. They. Use a variety of equipment, and transport, media to design the telecom, network infrastructure, the most common media used by wired, telecommunications. Today a twisted, pair coaxial. Cables, and optical, fibers. Telecommunications. Engineers, also provide, solutions. Revolving, around wireless, modes of communication and, information, transfer, such as wireless, telephony services. Radio, and satellite communications. And internet and broadband technologies. Topic. History. Telecommunication. Systems, are generally designed by telecommunication. Engineers, which sprang from technological, improvements. In the Telegraph, industry in, the late 19th, century and, the radio in the telephone, industries, in the early 20th, century. Today. Telecommunication. Is widespread, and devices, that assist the process such, as the television, radio, and telephone are common in many parts of the world there. Are also many, networks, that connect these devices, including, computer, networks public, switched telephone network. PSTN, radio. Networks, and television, networks. Computer. Communication. Across the Internet is one of many examples of, telecommunication. Telecommunication. Plays a vital role in the world economy and, the telecommunication. Industry's, revenue has been placed at just under 3% of the gross world product. Topic. Telegraph. And telephone. Samuel. Morse independently. Developed, a version of the electrical, Telegraph that he unsuccessfully, demonstrated. On the 2nd of September. 1837. Soon. After he was joined by Alfred, Vale who developed, the register, a telegraph. Terminal, that integrated, a logging device for recording messages, to paper tape, this. Was demonstrated, successfully. Over three miles five kilometres on the 6th of January, 1838. And, eventually, over 40 miles 64, kilometres.
Between Washington, DC and, Baltimore on, the 24th. Of May 1844. The. Patented, invention proved. Lucrative, and by 1851. Telegraph. Lines in the United States, spanned over 20,000. Miles, 32,000. Kilometers the. First successful, transatlantic, Telegraph. Cable was completed, on the 27th. Of July, 1866. Allowing, transatlantic. Telecommunication. For the first time, earlier, transatlantic, cables. Installed, in 1857. And 1858. Only, operated, for a few days or weeks before they failed the. International, use of the Telegraph, has sometimes been dubbed the Victorian. Internet, the. First commercial, telephone, services, were set up in 1878. In 1879. On, both sides of the Atlantic, in the cities of New Haven and London. Alexander. Graham Bell held the master patent for the telephone that, was needed for such services, in both countries the. Technology. Grew quickly from this point with intercity, lines being built and telephone, exchanges, in every major city of the United, States by, the mid 1880s. Despite. This transatlantic. Voice, communication. Remained impossible, for customers, until January, 7 1927, when. A connection, was established using radio. However. No cable, connection, existed, until tap 1 was inaugurated on, September, 25th. 1956. Providing, 36, telephone, circuits in 1880, Bell & Co inventor, Charles Sumner Tainter, conducted, the world's first wireless telephone. Call via modulated, light beams projected, by photo phones, the. Scientific. Principles, of their invention, would not be utilized for, several decades when they were first deployed in military, and fiber-optic. Communications. Topic. Radio. And television. Over. Several years starting. In 1894. The Italian, inventor guglielmo. Marconi built. The first complete, commercially. Successful wireless. Telegraphy, system, based on airborne, electromagnetic. Waves radio, transmission. In, December. 1901, he, would go on to established, wireless, communication. Between Britain and Newfoundland, earning, him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909, which, he shared with Karl Braun in. 1900. Reginald, Fessenden was able to wirelessly, transmit a human, voice on March. 25th. 1925. Scottish. Inventor John, Logie Baird publicly, demonstrated, the transmission, of moving silhouette pictures, at the London department, store Selfridges, in, October.
1925. Baird, was successful, in obtaining moving. Pictures, with halftone, shades which were by most accounts the first true television, pictures, this. Led to a public, demonstration of, the improved device on the 26th. Of January, 1926. Again at Selfridges. Byrd's. First, devices relied, upon the NIP cow disk and thus became known as the mechanical, television, it. Formed, the basis of semi experimental. Broadcasts done. By the British, Broadcasting Corporation, beginning. September, 30th. 1929. Topic. Satellite, the first u.s. satellite, to relay communications was. Project score in 1958. Which, used a tape recorder, to store-and-forward voice. Messages, it, was, used to send a Christmas greeting to the world from u.s. President, Dwight D Eisenhower, in. 1960. NASA launched, an echo satellite, the 100, foot 30, meters aluminized. Pat film balloon served as a passive, reflector, for radio communications. Korea. One be built, by Philco also, launched, in 1960. Was the world's first active, repeater satellite. Satellites. These days are used for many applications such. As uses, in GPS, television. Internet, and telephone users. Telstar. Was the first active, direct, relay, commercial, communication. Satellite, belonging. To AT&T, as, part of a multinational agreement. Between AT&T. Bell Telephone laboratories, NASA, the British general post office and the French National PTT, post office, to develop satellite. Communications. It was launched by NASA from, Cape Canaveral on July 10th, 1962. The first privately. Sponsored space, launch, relay. 1 was launched, on December 13th. 1962. And became the first satellite, to broadcast across, the Pacific, on November, 22nd. 1963, the. First and historically, most important, application. For communication. Satellites, was an intercontinental. Long distance telephony, the. Fixed public switched telephone network. Relays, telephone, calls from landline, telephones, to an earth station where, they are then transmitted. A receiving, satellite, dish via a geostationary. Satellite, in Earth orbit. Improvements. In submarine, communications. Cables, through the use of fiber optics, caused some decline in the use of satellites, for fixed telephony in, the late 20th, century but, they still exclusively. Service, remote islands, such as Ascension, Island santolina. Diego. Garcia, and Easter Island where, no submarine, cables, are in service, there. Are also some, continents. In some regions, of countries, where landline, telecommunications. Are rare to non-existent for. Example, Antarctica. Plus large regions, of Australia South. America, Africa northern, Canada, China Russia, and Greenland. After. Commercial, long-distance. Telephone service. Was established via communication. Satellites, a host of other commercial, telecommunications were. Also adapted, to similar satellites, starting, in 1979. Including. Mobile satellite, phones satellite, radio, satellite, television and satellite, internet, access, the. Earliest adaption, for most such services, occurred in the 1990s. As the pricing, for commercial, satellite, transponder. Channels continued, to drop significantly. Topic. Computer. Networks, and the Internet. On the, 11th of September, 1940. George, Tibet's was able to transmit, problems, using teleprinter, to his complex, number calculator, in New York and receive the computed, results, back at Dartmouth, College in New Hampshire this. Configuration, of, a centralized, computer. Or mainframe, computer, with remote dumb, terminals. Remain. Popular, throughout the 1950s. And into the 1960s. However. It was not until the 1960s. That, researchers, started to investigate, packet, switching, a technology. That allows chunks, of data to be sent between different, computers without first passing through, a centralized, mainframe, a four. Node network emerged, on the 5th of December, 1969. This. Network soon became the ARPA, ne T which by 1981. Would, consist, of 213. Modes ARPA. And e t--'s development. Centered, around the request for comment process and, on the 7th of April 1969. RFC. 1 was published, this. Process, is important, because ARPA, amet would eventually merge with other networks to form the internet and many of the communication. Protocols, that the internet relies upon today were specified, through the request for comment process in. September. 1981. RFC. 791. Introduced.
The Internet Protocol, version 4 ipv4, and. RFC. 793. Introduced. The transmission, control protocol, TCP thus. Creating, the tcp/ip. Protocol. That much of the internet relies upon today. You. Topic. Optical. Fiber. Optical. Fiber can be used as a medium for telecommunication. And computer networking. Because, it is flexible and can be bundled into cables. It. Is especially advantageous, for, long-distance, communications. Because, light propagates, through the fiber with little attenuation compared. To electrical, cables, this. Allows long distances, to be spanned with few repeaters, in. 1966. Charles, K cow and George Holcomb, proposed, optical, fibers at STC laboratories. STL, at Harlow, England, when they showed that the losses of 1,000, decibels, per kilometer, in existing, blasts compared, to five to ten decibels per kilometer, in coaxial, cable, was due to contaminants, which could potentially be, removed. Optical. Fiber was successfully. Developed, in 1970. By Corning, Glass Works with. Attenuation. Low enough for communication. Purposes, about 20 decibels per kilometer, and at the same time gallium, 3 arsenide, gallium arsenide. Semiconductor. Lasers were developed, that were compact, and therefore suitable for transmitting, light through fiber optic cables, for long distances. After. A period of research starting, from 1975. The first commercial, fiber-optic, communication, system, was developed which, operated, at a wavelength around, 0.8. Micrometers. And used gallium, 3 arsenide, semiconductor. Lasers, this. First generation system. Operated, at a bit rate of 45, megabits, per second, with repeater spacing of, up to 10 kilometres soon. On the 22nd. Of April, 1977. General, telephone and, electronics, sent the first live telephone, traffic through fiber optics, at a 6 megabits per second, throughput in Long Beach California. The. First wide, area, network, fiber-optic. Cable, system, in the world seems, to have been installed, by reader fusion, in Hastings, East Sussex UK. In 1978. The. Cables, were placed in ducting, throughout the town and had over 1,000, subscribers. They. Were used at that time for the transmission, of television channels not, available, because of local reception. Problems. The first transatlantic, telephone. Cable to, use optical fiber, was tat eight based on de servir optimized, laser amplification. Technology, it. Went into operation in, 1988. In the. Late 1990s. Through 2000. Industry, promoters, and research, companies, such as que mi and r HK, predicted, massive increases in demand for communications. Bandwidth, due to increased, use of the internet and commercialization. Of various, bandwidth, intensive consumer. Services, such as video on-demand. Internet, Protocol, data traffic was increasing, exponentially. At a faster, rate than integrated. Circuit, complexity, had increased under Moore's law. Topic. Concepts. Topic. Basic. Elements, of a telecommunication. System. You. Topic. Transmitter. Transmitter. Information. Source that takes information, and converts it to a signal, for transmission, in. Electronics. And telecommunications. A transmitter, or radio transmitter, is an electronic, device which, with the aid of an antenna produces. Radio waves in. Addition. To the use in broadcasting. Transmitters. Are necessary, component, parts of many electronic, devices that communicate, by radio such. As cell phones. Topic. Transmission. Medium. Transmission. Medium, over which the signal is transmitted. For, example, the transmission, medium for sounds is usually, air but solids, and liquids may, also act as transmission, media for sound many. Transmission. Media are used as communications. Channel one, of the most common, physical media's, used in networking, is copper wire, copper. Wire is used to carry signals, to long distances, using relatively, low amounts, of power another. Example, of a physical medium is optical, fiber which has emerged as the most commonly, used transmission. Medium for long-distance, communications. Optical. Fiber is a thin strand of glass that guides light along its length. The. Absence, of a material, medium in vacuum, may also constitute. A transmission, medium for electromagnetic. Waves such as light and radio waves. Topic. Receiver. Reciever. Information. Sync that receives, and converts the signal back into required, information, in.
Radio, Communications. A radio, receiver is, an electronic, device that receives radio, waves and converts the information, carried by them to a usable form it, is, used with an antenna the, information, produced by the receiver, may be in the form of sound and audio signal, images, a video signal or digital, data. You. Topic. Wired. Communication. Wired. Communications. Make use of underground, communications, cables. Less often overhead, lines electronic. Signal amplifiers, repeaters. Inserted, into connecting, cables, at specified points, and terminal, apparatus, of various types depending on the type of wired communications. Used. Topic. Wireless. Communication. Wireless. Communication. Involves the transmission, of information over. A distance without help, of wires cables, or any other forms, of electrical, conductors. Wireless. Operations. Permit services, such as long-range, communications. That are impossible, or impractical to, implement, with the use of wires, the. Term is commonly used in the telecommunications. Industry to, refer to telecommunication. Systems, eg radio, transmitters. And receivers remote. Controls, etc, which use some form of energy eg, radio, waves acoustic. Energy etc to, transfer, information, without the use of wires. Information. Is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances. Topic. Rolls. Topic. Telecom. Equipment engineer. A telecom. Equipment engineer. Is an electronics, engineer that designs equipment, such as routers switches. Multiplexers. And other specialized, computer, electronics. Equipment designed. To be used in the telecommunication. Network infrastructure. Topic. Network. Engineer. A network. Engineer, is a computer, engineer who. Is in charge of designing deploying. And maintaining, computer, networks in. Addition. They oversee, network operations. From a network operation, center designs. Backbone, infrastructure. Or supervisors. Into connections, in a data center. Topic. Central. Office engineer. A central. Office engineer. Is responsible for, designing and overseeing, the implementation. Of telecommunications. Equipment in, a central office Co, for short also, referred to as a wire center, or telephone, exchange, a co engineer, is responsible for integrating, new technology, into the existing, network assigning.
The Equipment's location, in the wire center, and providing, power clocking, for digital equipment and alarm monitoring, facilities. For the new equipment, the. Co engineer. Is also responsible, for providing more power, clocking and alarm monitoring, facilities. If there are currently not enough available to support the new equipment being installed. Finally. The co engineer, is responsible for, designing how the massive, amounts of cable will be distributed. To various equipment. And wiring frames throughout, the wire center, and overseeing, the installation and, turn-up of all new equipment. Topic. Sub, roles. As structural. Engineers, co engineers, are responsible, for the structural, design and placement of racking and bays for the equipment to be installed, in as well as for the plant to be placed on as. Electrical. Engineers, co engineers, are responsible for, the resistance, capacitance. And inductance our CL design of all new plant to ensure telephone, service, is clear and crisp and data service, is clean as well as reliable. Attenuation. Or gradual, loss in intensity, and loop loss calculations. Are required to determine cable. Length and size required, to provide the service called for in. Addition, power, requirements. Have to be calculated, and provided, to power any electronic, equipment being, placed in the wire Center. Overall. Co, engineers. Have seen new challenges, emerging, in the co environment. With. The advent of data centers, Internet, Protocol, IP facilities. Cellular, radio sites and other emerging, technology, equipment environments. Within telecommunication. Networks it is important, that a consistent, set of established, practices, or requirements. Be implemented. Installation. Suppliers, all the subcontractors are, expected, to provide requirements. With the products, features, or services. These. Services might. Be associated, with the installation, of new or expanded equipment. As well as the removal of existing equipment. Several. Other factors must be considered such as. Regulations. And safety and installation. Removal. Of hazardous material. Commonly. Used tools to perform installation, and removal of equipment. Topic. Outside. Plant, engineer. Outside. Plants, OSP, engineers, are also often called field, engineers, because they frequently, spend much time in the field taking notes about the civil environment aerial. Above ground and below ground. OSP. Engineers, are responsible, for taking plant, copper, fiber etc. From a wire center, to a distribution, point, or destination, point directly, if, a, distribution point, design is used then a cross connect box is placed in a strategic, location to. Feed a determined, distribution. Area, the. Cross connect, box also, known as a serving, area interface, is then installed to allow connections. To be made more easily from the wire Center, to the destination, point and ties up fewer facilities by, not having dedication. Facilities, from the wire Center, to every destination point. The. Plant is then taken, directly, to its destination point. Or to another small closure, called, a terminal, where access, can also be gained to the plant if necessary, these. Access, points are, preferred as they allow faster, repair times for customers, and save telephone, operating, companies, large amounts, of money, the. Plant facilities, can be delivered via underground facilities. Either direct, buried or through conduit, or in some cases laid under water via, aerial, facilities, such as telephone, or power poles or via microwave, radio, signals, for long distances, where either of the other two methods is too costly. Topic. Sub, roles. As structural. Engineers, OSP. Engineers, are responsible for, the structural, design and placement of cellular towers, and telephone, poles as, well as calculating. Pole capabilities. Of existing, telephone or power poles onto which new plant is being added. Structural. Calculations are. Required when boring, under heavy traffic areas, such as highways, or when attaching to other structures, such as bridges. Shirring. Also has to be taken into consideration for.
Larger Trenches, or pits. Conduits. Structures, often include encasements. Of slurry that needs to be designed to support the structure and withstand, the environment, around its soil type high-traffic, areas, etc as. Electrical. Engineers, OSP. Engineer's are responsible, for the resistance, capacitance. And inductance, RCL. Design, of all new plant to insure telephone, service, is clear and crisp and data service, is clean as well as reliable. Attenuation. Or gradual, loss in intensity, and loop loss calculations. Are required to determine cable, length and size required, to provide the service called for in. Addition power, requirements. Have to be calculated. And provided, to power any electronic. Equipment being, placed in the field, ground. Potential, has to be taken into consideration when. Placing equipment, facilities and, plant in the field to account for lightning, strikes high voltage intercept, from improperly, grounded, or broken, power company, facilities and, from various sources of electromagnetic, interference, as. Civil. Engineers OSP. Engineers, are responsible for, drafting plans either, by hand or using computer-aided, design, CAD, software for, how telecom, plant facilities, will be placed. Often. When working with municipalities, trenching. Or boring permits, are required and, drawings must be made for these, often. These drawings include, about 70%. Or so of the detailed, information required. To pave a road or add a turn lane to an existing, Street. Structural. Calculations, are required when boring, under heavy traffic areas, such as highways, or when attaching to other structures such as bridges as. Civil. Engineers, telecom, engineers, provide the modern communications. Backbone, for all technological. Communications. Distributed. Throughout civilizations. Today. Unique. To telecom, engineering, is the use of air core cable, which requires, an extensive, network of air handling equipment such, as compressors. Manifolds. Regulators. And hundreds of miles of air pipe per system that connects to pressurized, splice, cases, all designed to pressurize, this special, form of copper cable, to keep moisture out and provide a clean signal to the customer, as. Political. And social ambassador. The OSP engineer. Is a telephone, operating, companies, face and voice to the local authorities, and other utilities. OSP. Engineers, often meet with municipalities. Construction. Companies, and other utility, companies, to address, their concerns and, educate them about how the telephone, utility, works and operates. Additionally. The OSP engineer. Has to secure, real estate to place outside facilities, on such, as an easement to place a cross connect box on. Equals. Equals see also.