Communication engineering | Wikipedia audio article
Telecommunications. Engineering. As an engineering, discipline, centered, on Electrical and Computer Engineering, which, seeks to support, and enhance, telecommunication. Systems, the. Work ranges, from basic, circuit, design to strategic, mass developments. A, telecommunication. Engineer, is responsible, for designing and, overseeing, the installation. Of telecommunications. Equipment and, facilities, such, as complex, electronic. Switching, systems, and other plain old telephone service, facilities. Optical, fiber cabling, IP networks. And microwave. Transmission. Systems. Telecommunication. Engineering also. Overlaps, with broadcast, engineering. Telecommunication. As a diverse, field of engineering, connected, to electronic, civil and systems, engineering, they help find the cost of money for different types of computers, and technological. Objects. Ultimately. Telecom. Engineers, are responsible, for providing high-speed. Data transmission. Services, they. Use a variety, of equipment and transport, media to design the telecom, network, infrastructure. The most common, media used by wired, telecommunications. Today are twisted, pair coaxial. Cables, and optical, fibers. Telecommunications. Engineers, also provides, solutions revolving. Around wireless. Modes of communication and, information, transfer, such as wireless, telephony services. Radio, and satellite, communications. And internet, and broadband, technologies. Topic. History. Telecommunication. Systems, are generally designed, by, telecommunication. Engineers, which sprang from technological. Improvements. In the Telegraph, industry in, the late 19th, century and the radio and the telephone, industries, in the early 20th, century. Today. Telecommunication. As widespread and, devices, that assist the process such as the television radio. And telephone are common, in many parts of the world there. Are also many, networks, that connect these devices, including, computer, networks, public, switched telephone network. PSTN, radio. Networks, and television. Networks. Computer. Communication. Across the internet as one of many examples of, telecommunication. Telecommunication. Plays a vital role in the world economy and the telecommunication. Industry's, revenue has, been placed, at just under 3% of the gross world product. Topic. Telegraph. And telephone. You. Samuel. Morse independently. Developed, a version of the electrical, Telegraph that he unsuccessfully. Demonstrated. On the 2nd of September. 1837. Soon. After he was joined by Alfred, Vale who developed, the register, a telegraph. Terminal, that integrated, a logging device for recording messages. To paper tape this. Was demonstrated, successfully. Over three miles five kilometres on the 6th of January, 1838. And eventually, over 40, miles 64, kilometres. Between, Washington, DC and, Baltimore on. The 24th. Of May 1844. The. Patented, invention proved. Lucrative, and by 1851. Telegraph. Lines in the United States, spanned over 20,000. Miles, 32,000. Kilometers the. First successful, transatlantic. Telegraph. Cable was, completed, on the 27th. Of July. 1866. Allowing, transatlantic. Telecommunication. For the first time, earlier. Transatlantic. Cables, installed, in, 1857. And 1858. Only operated, for a few days or weeks before they failed the. International. Use of the Telegraph, has sometimes been dubbed the Victorian. Internet, the, first commercial, telephone, services, were set up in 1878. And 1879. On both sides of the Atlantic, in the cities of New Haven and London. Alexander. Graham Bell held the master patent for the telephone that, was needed for such services, in both countries the. Technology. Grew quickly from this point with intercity, lines being, built and telephone, exchanges. In every major city of the United States by, the mid 1880s. Despite. This transatlantic. Voice, communication. Remained impossible. For customers, until January, 7. 1927. When a connection, was established using radio. However. No cable, connection, existed, until tap, 1 was inaugurated on, September, 25th. 1956. Providing, 36, telephone, circuits in 1880. Bell and Co inventor, Charles, Sumner Tainter, conducted, the world's first, wireless.
Phone Call via modulated. Light beams projected. By photo phones, the. Scientific. Principles, of their invention, would not be utilized for several, decades when they were first deployed in military, and fiber-optic. Communications. Topic. Radio, and television. Over. Several years starting. In 1894. The Italian, inventor ghuli Elmo Marconi, built the first complete, commercially. Successful wireless. Telegraphy, system, based on airborne, electromagnetic. Waves radio, transmission. In, December. 1901. He, would go on to established, wireless, communication. Between Britain and Newfoundland, earning, him the Nobel Prize in Physics in, 1909, which, he shared with Karl Braun in. 1900. Reginald, Fessenden was, able to wirelessly transmit a, human, voice on March. 25th. 1925. Scottish. Inventor John, Logie, Baird publicly. Demonstrated, the transmission. Of moving silhouette, pictures, at the London department, store Selfridges. In October. 1925. Baird was successful. In obtaining moving. Pictures, with halftone, shades which were by most accounts the first true television, pictures, this led to a public, demonstration, of the improved, device on the 26th. Of January. 1926. Again, at Selfridges. Barrett's. First devices relied, upon the NIP cow disk and thus became known as the mechanical, television, it. Formed, the basis of semi experimental. Broadcasts done. By the British Broadcasting Corporation. Beginning. September 30th. 1929. Topics. Satellite the first u.s. satellite, to relay communications was. Project, score in 1958. Which, used a tape recorder, to store-and-forward voice. Messages. It. Was used to send a Christmas greeting to the world from u.s. President, Dwight D Eisenhower, in. 1960. NASA launched, an echo satellite, the 100, foot 30 meters aluminized. PET film balloon. Served as a passive, reflector, for radio communications. Courier. 1 be built, by Philco also, launched in 1960. Was the world's, first active, repeater, satellite. Satellites. These days are used for many applications such. As uses, in GPS, television. Internet, and telephone uses. Telstar. Was the first active, direct, relay, commercial, communications. Satellite, belonging. To AT&T, as, part of a multinational, agreement. Between AT&T, bell, telephone laboratories, NASA, the British General, Post Office and the French national PTT. Post office, to develop satellite. Communications. It was launched by NASA from, Cape Canaveral on July 10, 1962. The, first privately, sponsored space. Launch, relay. 1 was launched on December 13. 1962. And became the first satellite, to broadcast across. The Pacific, on November, 22nd. 1963. The, first and historically, most important, application. For communication, satellites, was an intercontinental.
Long-distance, Telephony, the. Fixed, public switched telephone network. Relays, telephone, calls from landline, telephones, to an earth station where, they are then transmitted. A receiving, satellite, dish via a geostationary. Satellite. In Earth orbit. Improvements. In submarine, communications. Cables, through the use of fiber optics, caused some decline, in the use of satellites. For fixed telephony in, the late 20th, century but, they still exclusively. Service remote islands, such as Ascension. Island st., Helena Diego, Garcia and Easter Island where, no submarine, cables, are in service, there. Are also some, content, and some regions, of countries, where landline. Telecommunications. Are rare to non-existent for, example, Antarctica. Plus large regions, of Australia South. America Africa. Northern, Canada, China Russia, and Greenland. After. Commercial, long-distance. Telephone service. Was established, via communication. Satellites, a host of other commercial, telecommunications, were. Also, adapted, to similar satellites, starting, in 1979. Including. Mobile satellite phones, satellite, radio, satellite. Television and, satellite, internet, access, the. Earliest, adaption, for most such services, occurred in the 1990s. As the pricing, for commercial, satellite, transponder. Channels continued, to drop significantly. Topic. Computer. Networks, and the Internet. On the. 11th, of September, 1940. George stupids, was able to transmit, problems, using teleprinter. To his complex, number, calculator, in New York and receive the computed, results, back at Dartmouth, College in, New Hampshire this. Configuration, of, a centralized, computer, or mainframe, computer, with remote dumb, terminals. Remained. Popular throughout, the 1950s. And into the 1960s. However. It was not until the 1960s. That, researchers, started to investigate, packet, switching, a technology. That allows chunks, of data to be sent between different, computers without, first passing through, a centralized, mainframe, a four. Node network emerged, on the 5th of December, 1969. This. Network soon became the ARPANET, which by 1981. Would, consist, of 213. Nodes ARPA. Ne T's development. Centered, around the request, for comment process and, on the 7th of April, 1969.
RFC. 1 was published, this. Process, is important, because ARPANET, would eventually merge, with other networks to, form the Internet and many of the communication. Protocols, that the internet relies upon today, were specified. Through the request for comment process in, September. 1981. RFC. 791. Introduced. The Internet, Protocol, version 4 ipv4. And. RFC. 793. Introduced. The transmission. Control protocol, TCP. Thus. Creating, the tcp/ip. Protocol. That much of the internet relies, upon today. Topic. Optical. Fiber. Optical. Fiber can be used as a medium for, telecommunication. And computer networking. Because, it is flexible and can be bundled into cables, it. Is especially advantageous. For, long-distance, communications. Because light propagates. Through the fiber with little attenuation, compared. To electrical, cables, this. Allows long distances. To be spanned with few repeaters, in. 1966. Charles, K Cao and George, Holcomb, proposed, optical, fibers, at STC, laboratories. STL, at Harlow, England, when they showed that the losses of 1,000. Decibels, per kilometer, in existing, glass compared, to five to ten decibels, per kilometer, in coaxial, cable, was due to contaminants, which could potentially be removed. Optical. Fiber was successfully. Developed, in 1970. By Corning Glass Works with. Attenuation. Low enough for communication. Purposes, about 20 decibels per kilometer. And at the same time gallium, 3 arsenide, gallium arsenide. Semiconductor. Lasers, were developed, that were compact, and therefore suitable for transmitting, light through fiber optic, cables, for long distances. After, a, period of research starting, from, 1975. The first commercial, fiber-optic. Communications. System, was developed, which operated, at a wavelength around, 0.8. Micrometers, and used gallium, 3 arsenide, semiconductor. Lasers, this. First generation system. Operated. At a bit rate of 45, megabits, per second, with repeater, spacing of, up to 10 kilometers. Soon. On the 22nd. Of April. 1977. General, telephone and, electronics. Sent the first live telephone, traffic, through fiber optics, at a 6 megabits, per second, throughput in Long Beach California. The. First wide, area, network, fiber-optic. Cable system, in the world seems, to have been installed, by Reed Ephesian, in Hastings, East Sussex UK. In, 1978. The. Cables, were placed in ducting, throughout the town and had over 1,000. Subscribers. They. Were used at that time for, the transmission, of television channels, not available, because of local reception. Problems. The. First transatlantic, telephone. Cable to, use optical fiber, was TAT 8 based on desser via optimized, laser, amplification. Technology. It. Went into operation in. 1988. In, the. Late 1990s. Through 2000. Industry, promoters, and research, companies, such as KMI, and RHK. Predicted, massive, increases, in demand for communications. Bandwidth, due to increased, use of the internet and commercialization. Of various, bandwidth, intensive consumer. Services, such, as video on-demand. Internet. Protocol, data traffic was increasing, exponentially. At a faster, rate than integrated. Circuit complexity, had increased, under Moore's law. Topic. Concepts. Topic. Basic. Elements, of a telecommunication. System. Topic. Transmitter. Transmitter. Information. Source that takes information, and converts, it to a signal, for transmission in. Electronics. And telecommunications. A transmitter, or radio, transmitter. As an electronic. Device which, with the aid of an antenna produces. Radio waves, in. Addition, to their use in broadcasting. Transmitters. Are necessary, component. Parts of many electronic. Devices that, communicate, by radio such. As cell phones. Topic. Transmission. Medium. Transmission. Medium, over which the signal is transmitted. For, example, the transmission. Medium for sounds as usually, air but solids, and liquids may, also act, as transmission. Media for sound, many. Transmission. Media are used as communications. Channel, one, of the most common, physical media's, used in networking, is copper, wire. Copper. Wire is used to carry signals to long distances. Using relatively. Low amounts, of power, another. Example, of a physical medium as, optical, fiber which has emerged as the most commonly, used transmission.
Medium For long-distance, communications. Optical. Fiber as a thin strand of glass that guides light along its length, the. Absence, of a material, medium in vacuum, may also constitute, a transmission, medium for, electromagnetic. Waves such as light and radio waves. Topic. Receiver. You. Reciever, information. Sync that receives, and converts, the signal back into required. Information, in. Radio. Communications. A radio, receiver as, an electronic. Device that receives, radio waves and converts the information, carried, by them to a usable form it. Is used with an antenna the, information. Produced by the receiver, may be in the form of sound and audio signal, images, a video signal or digital, data. Topic. Wired. Communication. Wired. Communications. Make use of underground, communications, cables. Less often overhead. Lines electronic. Signal amplifiers, repeaters. Inserted. Into connecting, cables, at specified, points, and terminal, apparatus. Of various types depending on the type of wired, communications. Used. Topic. Wireless. Communication. Wireless. Communication. Involves the transmission, of information over, a distance without help of wires cables, or, any other forms, of electrical, conductors. Wireless. Operations. Permit services, such, as long-range. Communications. That are impossible, or impractical to. Implement, with the use of wires, the. Term is commonly used in the telecommunications. Industry to, refer to telecommunications. Systems. Eg radio. Transmitters. And receivers remote. Controls, etc which, use some form of energy eg, radio. Waves acoustic. Energy etc, to transfer, information, without the use of wires. Information. Is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances. Topic. Rolls. Topic. Telecom. Equipment engineer. A telecom. Equipment engineer. As an electronics. Engineer that, designs equipment, such as routers switches. Multiplexers. And other specialized, computer, electronics. Equipment designed. To be used in the telecommunication.
Network Infrastructure. Topic. Network. Engineer. A network. Engineer as, a computer, engineer who. Is in charge of designing, deploying. And maintaining, computer, networks, in, addition. They oversee, network operations. From a network operations. Center designs. Backbone, infrastructure. Or supervises. Interconnections. In a data center. Topic. Central. Office engineer. A central. Office engineer. Is responsible for, designing and, overseeing, the implementation of. Telecommunications. Equipment in, a central, office Co for short also referred, to as a wire center, or telephone, exchange, a co engineer. Is responsible for. Integrating new technology. Into the existing, network assigning, the equipment's location, in the wire center and providing, power clocking, for digital equipment and alarm monitoring, facilities. For the new equipment, the. Co engineer. Is also responsible. For providing more, power, clocking, and alarm monitoring, facilities. If there are currently not enough available to support the new equipment being installed. Finally. The co engineer. Is responsible for, designing how, the massive, amounts of cable, will be distributed. To various equipment. And wiring, frames throughout, the wire center, and overseeing, the installation. And turn-up of all new equipment. Topic. Sub, roles. As structural. Engineers, co engineers. Are responsible, for the structural, design and placement, of racking, and bays for the equipment to be installed, in as well as for the plant to be placed on as. Electrical. Engineers, co engineers. Are responsible, for the resistance, capacitance. And inductance our CL design, of all new plant to ensure telephone, service, as clear and crisp and data service, as clean as well as reliable. Attenuation. Or gradual, loss in intensity, and loop loss calculations. Are required to determine cable, length and size required, to provide the service called for in, addition. Power, requirements. Have to be calculated. And provided, to power any electronic. Equipment being. Placed in the wire center. Overall. Co, engineers. Have seen new challenges, emerging, in the co environment. With. The advent of data centers, Internet, Protocol, IP facilities. Cellular. Radio, sites, and other emerging, technology. Equipment, environments. Within telecommunication. Networks, it is important, that a consistent, set of established, practices, or requirements. Be implemented. Installation. Suppliers, or their subcontractors. Are expected, to provide requirements. With their products, features, or services. These. Services might. Be associated. With the installation. Of new or expanded, equipment. As well as the removal of existing equipment. Several. Other factors must, be considered, such as. Regulations. And safety and installation. Removal. Of hazardous, material. Commonly. Used tools to perform installation. And removal of equipment. Topic. Outside. Plant, engineer. Outside. Plant OSP. Engineers, are also often, called field, engineers, because they frequently, spend much time in the field taking, notes about the civil environment, aerial, above, ground and below ground. OSP. Engineers, are responsible, for taking plant, copper, fiber etc. From a wire center, to a distribution, point, or destination, point directly, if a, distribution point. Design, is used then across connect, boxes, placed in a strategic, location to, feed a determined, distribution. Area, the. Cross connect, box also, known as a serving, area interface. Is then installed to allow connections. To be made more easily, from the wire Center to the destination. Point and ties up fewer facilities by, not having dedication. Facilities, from the wire Center to every destination point the. Plant is then taken, directly, to its destination point. Or to another small closure, called, a terminal where access, can also be gained to the plant if necessary. These. Access, points are, preferred, as they allow faster, repair times for customers, and save telephone, operating, companies, large amounts, of money, the. Plant facilities, can be delivered, via underground facilities. Either direct, buried, or through conduit, or in some cases laid under water via, aerial, facilities, such as telephone, or power poles or via microwave, radio, signals, for long distances. Where either of the other two methods, as too costly. Topic. Sub, roles. As structural. Engineers, OSP. Engineers, are responsible for, the structural, design and placement of cellular, towers, and telephone, poles as, well as calculating. Pole capabilities. Of existing, telephone or power poles, onto which new plant is being added. Structural. Calculations are, required when, boring, under heavy traffic areas, such as highways, or when attaching to other structures, such as bridges. Shoring, also, has to be taken, into consideration for. Larger, trenches, or pits. Conduits. Structures, often include encasements. Of slurry that needs to be designed to support the structure and withstand, the environment, around it soil type high-traffic, areas, etc as.
Electrical. Engineers, OSP. Engineers, are responsible for, the resistance, capacitance. And inductance, RCL. Design, of all new plant to ensure telephone, service, as clear and crisp and data service, as clean as well as reliable. Attenuation. Or gradual, loss in intensity, and loop loss calculations. Are required to determine cable, length and size required, to provide the service called for in. Addition, power, requirements. Have to be calculated. And provided, to power any electronic. Equipment being. Placed in the field, ground. Potential, has to be taken, into consideration when. Placing equipment. Facilities and, plant, in the field to account for lightning, strikes high voltage, intercept, from improperly, grounded, or broken power company, facilities and, from various, sources of electromagnetic, interference. As civil. Engineers, OSP. Engineers, are responsible, for drafting plans either by hand or using computer-aided. Design, CAD, software for, how telecom, plant facilities, will be placed. Often. When working with municipalities, trenching. Or boring permits, are required and. Drawings, must be made for these, often. These drawings include, about seventy percent or so of the detailed, information required. To pave a road or, at a turn lane to an existing, Street, structural. Calculations are. Required when, boring, under heavy traffic areas, such as highways, or when attaching to other structures, such as bridges as, civil. Engineers telecom. Engineers, provide the modern communications. Backbone, for all technological. Communications. Distributed. Throughout civilizations. Today. Unique. To telecom, engineering, is the use of air core cable, which requires, an extensive network, of air handling, equipment such, as compressors. Manifolds. Regulators. And hundreds, of miles of air pipe per system that connects to pressurized, splice, cases, all designed, to pressurize, this special, form of copper, cable to keep moisture out and provide, a clean, signal, to the customer, as. Political. And social ambassador. The OSP engineer. As a telephone, operating. Companies, face and voice to the local authorities, and other utilities. OSP. Engineers, often, meet with municipalities. Construction. Companies, and other utility, companies, to address their concerns and educate, them about how the telephone, utility, works and operates. Additionally. The OSP engineer. Has to secure, real estate to place outside facilities. On such, as an easement to place a cross connect, box on. Equals, equals, see also.