Ethiopia and Somalia Compared

Ethiopia and Somalia Compared

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Ethiopia and Somalia or...officially the   Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia  and the Federal Republic of Somalia Two bordering countries in the Horn of Africa,   which is the part of Africa that looks like,  ya know, a horn. It’s not only a peninsula,   but considered a geopolitical region,  with around 140 million people. Ethiopia and Somalia are the two  largest countries in the Horn of Africa,   along with Eritrea and Djibouti, which will likely  be a future video for this series, by the way. Hey speaking of this series, there’s  this guy named Fredo Rockwell   who has a YouTube channel called…Fredo  Rockwell, and he is straight up   MOCKING this series on that channel. Yeah!  It’s messed up. More on that in a bit. Anyway, as a kid watching the  world news, I remember watching   reports coming out of both countries, and  every report seemed filled with despair,   whether it was from war, famine, or environmental  catastrophe. Even today in the United States,  

there is this negative stereotype of these  two countries, but after researching both,   I can confidently tell you these  stereotypes are just plain wrong. First, let’s look at what  both countries have in common. Both are among the fastest  growing countries in the world.   At current rates, Ethiopia’s current population   will double in the next 30 years and Somalia’s  population will double in the next 25 years.

The capital city in both is also the biggest city   in both. And the names of both cities are  so fun to say. Mogadishu and Addis Ababa. Both are members of the African Union and  the United Nations, and both have expressed   interest in joining the East African Community.  Somalia’s also a member of the Arab League. Both have generally young populations, but the  median age is lower in Somalia. (E- 19.5, S- 16.7) Both are becoming quickly urbanized. Both have authoritarian-leaning governments.  While both countries are technically “republics,”  

according to the organization Freedom House, both  are two of the least free countries in the world   due to their citizens having hardly any political  rights and civil liberties. That said, this is   getting better in Ethiopia, and Somaliland, which  does not consider itself to be part of Somalia,   is a glaring exception. Freedom House gives  Somaliland a freedom score of 49 out of 100   compared to just 7 out of 100 for Somalia. Residents of both speak several different   languages. The official languages of Ethiopia are  Afar, Amharic, Oromo, Somali, and Tigrinya, but   Harai and Sidama are also spoken in certain areas.  The official languages of Somalia are Somali,  

Arabic, English, and Italian. More than  80 languages are spoken in Ethiopia. Although this is quickly changing in Ethiopia,  agriculture is still a dominant industry in both. Both were among the earliest lands  to be settled by humans. Yeah,   let’s get into some history…come on let’s do this.

Yeah, some of the earliest human fossils  have been found in modern-day Ethiopia,   with some dating back to more  230,000 years ago. That’s uh,   that’s a few years longer than  we’ve all been alive, I think. Agriculture began in the Horn of Africa  between 3,000 and 6,000 years ago.   During the Egyptian Empire, scholars note of  a mysterious kingdom called the Land of Punt,   in which parts of modern-day Ethiopia and  Somalia were in. There was also the ancient   kingdom of D’mt (yeah that’s how it’s written  ok?), but honestly we don’t know much about it.

After the fall of D’mt in the 300s BC, modern-day  Ethiopia splintered into smaller kingdoms,   but by the first century AD, the notable  Kingdom of Aksum was now a thing. The   Hebrew Bible mentions the Queen of Sheba, who  got with King Solomon and had a son, Menelik,   who went on to become the first king of Ethiopia.  Now this is according to Ethiopian tradition,   and there’s not much evidence this is  how it actually went down. Regardless,  

we do know that Ethiopia, as a country, is  one of the oldest countries in the world,   with it being around probably at least 2,000 years  old. Christianity came to Ethiopia in the 300s,   converting Ezana of Axum, the king dude who also  is known for conquering and expanding the Kingdom   of Aksum. At the kingdom’s peak, it completely  controlled trade that went through the Red Sea. However, after the early Muslim conquests, the  Christian kingdom of Aksum steadily declined,   and by the 900s it was but a shadow of itself,  as its citizens had retreated into the mountains. Meanwhile, and this is now according to SOMALI  tradition, the Macrobians had formed a kingdom   in modern-day Somalia. After their kingdom  collapsed, many city-states emerged in the area,   all competing with each other and causing trade  to thrive. When the early Muslim conquests reached   modern-day Somalia, many of the locals  there converted to Islam peacefully. By  

the 900s the Somalis were a distinct ethnic  group, united by a Cushitic Somali language   and a shared ancestry they claimed went back to  Cush, who himself was the grandson of Noah. Yep,   the Noah from Noah’s Ark from  the aforementioned Hebrew Bible. In the Middle Ages, the Zagwe dynasty ruled parts  of Ethiopia and the Sultanate of Mogadishu ruled   much of modern-day Somalia. In 1270, a  dude named Yekuno Amlak, who claimed he   descended from Solomon, overthrew the Zagwe  dynasty and thus the Solomonic dynasty began.  

This dynasty lasted all the way up to 1974.  From the 1200s to the 1600s, the Ajuran   Sultanate ruled much of modern-day Somalia.  However, don’t forget about the powerful Adal   Sultanate that took over MUCH of both modern-day  Ethiopia and Somalia. It probably would have   taken over ALL of Ethiopia if it weren’t for the  Portuguese coming in to help the Ethiopians out. Speaking of Portugal, they got all up in the  business of the Horn of Africa throughout the   1500s, but the Ajuran Sultanate, allied with  the Ottomans, was pretty successful fighting   the Portuguese. After the fall of the Ajuran  Sultanate, the Horn of Africa looked like this,  

splintered yet again but dominated by  the Sultanate of the Geledi. Meanwhile,   between the 1700s and 1800s, Ethiopia went  through what’s known as the Era of the Princes,   when it was ALSO splintered. Tewodros  II was able to unite the country again,   though, thus creating the modern Ethiopia  we know today beginning in the 1860s. But did I say 1860s? Why yes I did. The Europeans Scramble for Africa was  already underway. The British, French,  

and Italians had all been encroaching on  Somali territory with the aim of extracting   resources from the Horn of Africa. By 1887, the  Kingdom of Italy had conquered the Somali coast.   Italy thought it could have its way with  Ethiopia, too, but Ethiopia was like,   “nahhhh,” and the two countries fought a war  from 1887 until 1889, with Ethiopia WINNING it..   Today this is known as the Italo-Ethiopian  War, but there was a sequel you see…the SECOND   Italo-Ethiopian War that happened after Benito  Mussolini took over as prime minister, wanting   to avenge that first Italian loss. Italy did win  this war and they occupied Ethiopia for the next   few years, committing all kinds of horrible war  crimes. That said, they never fully took it over. That’s right. Ethiopia RESISTED European  colonization. It’s the only sub-Saharan  

African country that was never colonized. Well,  technically Liberia wasn’t colonized either,   at least not in the same sense other African  countries were but I digress. This Ethiopian   resistance of colonization has inspired  the rest of the continent ever since,   and you can see this by how many other countries  on the continent have also adopted the red,   yellow, and green combo on THEIR flags, out  of respect to Ethiopia. Ethiopia’s flag was   the first to have those colors, but now  the three colors represent the entire   Pan-African movement, which is  meant to unify the entire continent.

Anyway, Somalia unfortunately did not avoid  colonization, being controlled by both Italy and   Great Britain. After Britain took over ALL  of modern-day Somalia during World War Two,   it became divided into British Somaliland in  the North and Somalia in the South and East.   However, the United Nations was like “nuh-uh  you’d better let them both be independent.”  

By the end of the 1950s, Somaliland  and the rest of Somalia had somewhat   grown apart, but regardless, they united  to become the Somali Republic on July 1,   1960. However, the new country’s new  constitution seemed to favor the south and east,   and the folks up in Somaliland rejected it and  attempted to revolt but it ultimately failed. Now I should say that the State of Somaliland  was actually an independent country for five   whole days before it united with Somalia, and  even was recognized by 35 countries at the time!  Meanwhile, Haile Selassie had ushered  in a period of stability in Ethiopia   and helped modernize the country. However,  he also persecuted many minority groups  

and was pretty authoritarian. After he was  overthrown by self-proclaimed communists,   the country went into a civil war  off and on for the next 17 years. From 1977 to 1978, Somalia and Ethiopia fought  in what became known as the Ogaden War after   Somalia invaded the Ethiopian region of Ogaden.  Ethiopia won the war thanks to major help from  

both Cuba and the Soviet Union, but even today  there’s a land dispute between the two countries   over the region, which is understandable, as  it’s basically the Somali region of Ethiopia. Under the rule of Siad Barre, Somalia had  also modernized, but Barre was also pretty   authoritarian, and by 1991 he had become  so unpopular that his government collapsed,   leading to the Somali Civil War, which  devastated the country for the next 25 years. Again, in the 1990s things were  pretty bleak in both countries,   but since then it has generally been all progress. In 2001, the residents of Somaliland  overwhelmingly voted for independence   from Somalia, and by this point Somaliland  had already been de facto independent for   10 years anyway. That said, Somalia  never recognized its independence,   and to this day neither has the United Nations,  nor any other country for that matter. Still,   ever since, Somaliland has kind of  just peacefully did their own thing,   and they are notably much more progressive  than Somalia…er…the REST of Somalia.

Remember how I said this Fredo  Rockwell character was mocking me,   well as it turns out, his video mocking  me is being released at the exact same   time as THIS video, and in it, he is  comparing Somaliland to the United States.   I guess go check it out after  you’re done watching this one. Over the past ten years, Ethiopia has had one of  the fastest growing economies in the entire world.   However, since 2020 it has been dealing with  an ongoing civil war between the Ethiopian   pro-federal forces and the anti-federal  forces, led by the Tigray Defense Forces   and Oromo Liberation Army. While  Somalia’s economy has also been   growing and the country is arguably more  stable now than it’s been for decades,   it’s recently been dealing with a major  drought that has led to major food shortages.

Today, Ethiopia and Somalia are quite   different. Let’s look at those differences  for the rest of this video, shall we? First of all, Ethiopia has A LOT  more people. Like, more than SEVEN   times the population of Somalia. (E- 124  million, S- 17 million). Ethiopia has more   people than any other country  in Africa other than Nigeria. Ethiopia is about 1.7 times bigger. Ethiopia is much, MUCH more ethnically diverse.  The vast majority of Somalia’s residents are  

ethnic Somalis. Ethiopia, on the other hand, is  a multi-ethnic state with more than 80 different   ethnic groups. While Ethiopia also  has a sizable Somali population,   the two biggest ethnic groups there  are the Oromo people and Amhara people.

Ethiopia is also religiously diverse, for  real. The most popular religion there is   Christianity. Specifically, Roman Catholic, a  type of Protestant Christianity known as P’ent’ay,   and Ethiopian Orthodoxy. Christianity has  been around in Ethiopia longer than most  

other countries in the world. The second  biggest major religion there is Islam,   with just under a third of the country  identifying as Muslims. Meanwhile,   Somalia is dominated by just one religion- Islam.  It’s also the state religion. Specifically,   Sunni Islam. Some sources estimate that more than  99% of the country identifies as Muslim. Geez. Somalia has 3,333 kilometers  (2,071 miles) of coastline,   baby, the longest of all of mainland Africa.  It borders the Indian Ocean to the east and  

Gulf of Aden to the north. The Guardafui  Channel connects the two. Ethiopia has   NO coastline. Yessir, it’s completely landlocked,  which makes it more expensive to get goods   there from around the world. It’s the largest  landlocked country in the world by population.

Looking at it on a map, Somalia  kind of looks like a sad seven. Most of Ethiopia is in the mountains  and high plateau. The dramatic,   rugged group of mountains that rise out of the  country are known as the Ethiopian Highlands,   and they form the biggest continuous area of  its elevation in the continent. More than half  

of Africa’s mountains are in  Ethiopia. These mountains are   a big reason why Ethiopia has maintained  its independence for so long. Somalia,   on the other hand, is mostly flat, although  there are the Ogo Mountains in Somaliland.

Most of Somalia is desert or semi-desert, although  in those aforementioned mountains they have   a monsoon season where they get rain. Southern  Somalia also generally gets more precipitation,   especially in its grasslands. Overall, Ethiopia  gets way more rain than Somalia, though. It also   has much more climate variation. In the mountains,  it has a monsoon and savanna climate out west,  

but a humid subtropical, subtropical highland,  and oceanic climates throughout most of the   central portions of the country. The rest of the  country is mostly either semi-arid or desert. Hey! Would you look at that! The equator  goes right through Somalia. Due to that,   there’s not much seasonal  variation in its climate,   other than the rainy season and dry season.  Somalia is generally warm to hot most of the year. With a much higher elevation and being a  bit further from the equator, Ethiopia gets   much cooler, especially in the winter, where at  times it can get even below…:gasp:...FREEZING.   Of course, the dry parts of  Ethiopia are often quite hot. The mighty Blue Nile is a major river that  starts out of Lake Tana in Ethiopia. Over in  

neighboring Sudan it empties into the even  mightier Nile River, which I’m sure you’ve   heard of. The Blue Nile provides almost 86%  of the water that ends up in the Nile during   the rainy season. But it’s not just the Blue Nile.  Ethiopia has nine major rivers and 12 major lakes. Somalia, meanwhile, is not known for its rivers.   Its two biggest rivers, as matter of a fact,  mostly originate in neighboring Ethiopia. In addition to the aforementioned drought Somalia  has had to deal with, Somalia also occasionally   has to worry about flooding and tropical cyclones.  Ethiopia has also historically had its share of  

both droughts and floods, but can also get big  earthquakes and has several active volcanoes. The population distribution of  Somalia is more evenly spread out,   but in Ethiopia it’s mos def  concentrated in its highlands. More residents of Somalia are in poverty. In fact,   it’s one of the poorest countries in  the world. Ethiopia, on the other hand,   is quickly becoming an economic powerhouse in  the region. Its GDP per capita is more than three  

times higher than Somalia’s. (E- 936  USD per capita, S- 309 USD per capita) Despite having much poverty  and a lower GDP per capita,   Somalia has a much higher cost  of living, at least overall. In addition to agriculture, major industries  in Ethiopia include food processing,   metals processing, and textiles. Major  industries in Somalia also include textiles,   but additionally sugar refining and  telecommunications. The majority of   Somalians depend on farming and livestock in  order to make money. Much of the livestock  

are camels. Yep, it’s the REAL  camel capital of the world. Somalia is much more urbanized,  with 47% of its residents living in   an urban area. Although this is quickly  changing, Ethiopia remains one of the   least urbanized countries not only  in Africa, but the entire world. Based on my research, Ethiopia is probably  generally safer to visit, although the recent   civil war has changed that. Plus, Somalia  is WAY safer to visit than it used to be,   especially since the terrorist group Al-Shabaab  has lost power in recent years and have retreated   to the rural areas of the country. So just stay  in the cities or in Somaliland if you visit, ok? The life expectancy is higher  in Ethiopia. (E-66.6, S-57.4)

Ethiopia also has a higher literacy rate  and generally more educated population. More people in Somalia have access  to clean drinking water. That said,   more people in Ethiopia have access to  electricity and the internet. In fact,   Somalia is one of the most difficult countries in  the world to access the internet. Only around 2%   there have access. Then again, it’s not much  better in Ethiopia, where around 19% have access.

Odds are, if you are watching this  video, you’re not watching it from   Somalia or Ethiopia. But please  let me know if you actually are! Somalia’s written languages are Latin-based,   while Ethiopia’s written  languages are Ge’ez (geez)-based. Ethiopia borders more countries (E-6, S-3) Ok, how about some other random, fun stuff. Most people don’t realize this,  but Somalia has beautiful beaches.

Ethiopia uses a different calendar  than the majority of the rest of the   world. They basically have 13 months on their  calendar, so it’s actually 2014 there I think? Due to world news reports and Captain  Phillips, the film based on the story of   the Maersk Alabama hijacking, many are aware of  the occurrence of piracy off the coast of Somalia   over the past couple decades. However, it’s  important to know this piracy was at least   partially a response to foreign fishing vessels  illegally fishing on and polluting these waters.   Also, Somalian piracy doesn’t happen much anymore. Ethiopia has the gateway to hell. Well, that’s  just a silly nickname. What they’re referring to  

is the Danakil Depression, where nearby there’s a  lava lake and where it often reaches a temperature   higher than 120 degrees Fahrenheit  (48.9℃), making it the hottest place   on earth. There’s some hot springs there  that uh, yeah that doesn’t look like earth. Somalian homes often smell really, really  good, due to the common practice of them   burning frankincense. Somalia is the number one  producer in the world of frankincense, by the way. Speaking of good smells, some of the best coffee  in the world comes from Ethiopia. For real. It’s  

probably because COFFEE FREAKING ORIGINATED  THERE. Oh heck yeah thank you, Ethiopia. Also speaking of good smells,  Somalia is known for sambusa,   which is like Hot Pockets but 1,000 times  better and ya know, it’s actually real food. Many Ethiopians rarely or never eat meat. But I do, and I’m getting  hungry, so let’s wrap this up. In conclusion, while Ethiopia and Somalia  continue to have their challenges,   they both continue to have promising futures. And in recent years, Ethiopia and Somalia have  got along fairly well, although Somalia’s new   president, Hassan Sheikh Mohamud has kind of  given Ethiopia a cold shoulder. Regardless,  

if these two countries want to continue to  improve, they must continue to work together.   And watching them both improve throughout my  lifetime has been exciting and inspiring to watch. Your personal information is being sold online  without you even knowing about it. The good news  

is that you have the right to request data brokers  to delete your personal information in order to   protect your privacy. The bad news that  it would you years to do it manually. Enter Incogni. Incogni helps you protect your privacy by  reaching out to those data brokers on your behalf,   requesting your personal data removal  while also dealing with their objections.   Incogni automates the entire process. You  just create an account and tell Incogni   which personal data you wanted removed. After  you grant Incogni the right to work for you,   Incogni will contact the data brokers to  remove your info from their databases.  

Incogni will keep you updated on  their progress every step of the way. The first 100 people to use this code at  the link in the description of this video   will get 20% off of Incogni! Thanks to Incogni for sponsoring this video! In all seriousness, it's pretty flattering that  Fredo has decided to emulate the style of the   compared videos for his video he just released  comparing the united states and Somaliland   speaking of the de facto state of Somaliland  Fredo has a lot of videos on his channel about   Somaliland it's a fascinating place so subscribe  to his channel while you're over there also   two African countries should  i compare next for this series   let me know down below thank you  for watching this motion picture

2022-09-06 23:29

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