Barbara Block, Kyle Van Houtan, et al: "Fixing the Engine that Powers the Planet" | Talks at Google
Here. We are flying above the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Spectacular. View today we've been studying this region for some time and what we've learned is. That the largest migration on earth occurs beneath the sea here. We're. Keeping a life a tradition, of tagging that goes back almost, 40. Years now to when I was a young. Student working, with dr.. Frank Gehry of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Dr.. Kerry was pioneering, deployment, of acoustic, technology a, large, predatory, fish when, a crisis, struck. It. Was 1975. In, the world's first summer, blockbuster. Was released, jaws. Smashed. Box-office. Records and, unleashed, in a rational terror the idea that the only good shark was. A de truth. Joel's. Author Peter, Benchley was, horrified, and, became a dedicated, shark conservationist. He. Joined forces with Kerry when, the first scientific, expedition, to, study white, sharks in the Atlantic. This. Will give us water. Temperature, the depth. Of the fish. Dr.. Kerry believed white sharks hunting ability endurance, and intense, bursts, of speed were enhanced, by being warm bodied. 23.2. The, water is 17. Degrees so the fish is 23. That's a six degree difference that's really want. This. Important, revelation, was, followed by a stream, of scientific, firsts, including Stan. Waterman shooting, this first footage of, a white shark below, American, waters. Perry collected, biological data, is a shark, swam for 110. Miles over. Five days showing. That electronic, tagging was, the wave of the future. The, block was Frank's technician. She. Was inspired and. Took carries pioneering, science, into, the future. Some. 40 years later with, some of the world's. Most advanced, technology, that you can put on an animal in the sea and, what we're hoping to get is a, lot more of the undersea, behavior, what's, really happening from the white shark point of view this year checkup, sharks. Right here. We. Really designed this this process to be a non invasive tagging. Process but, it requires, that the animals, come close to you. And. The idea is that they come within five or six feet of the boat and that's when you clamp that tag on. What. Our entire program is about is figuring out, how do we really see beneath the sea and capture. What's not very transparent, how, many sharks. There are how many tunas, there are how do we prevent the poaching, that our, generation, is unleashed, upon, the. Oceans, that will guarantee. That future generations. See these great predators. Media. Is not a substitute, for social, movements, but obviously social movements depend on it the oxygen. Growing. Communications. Tools that link young people around our blue planet and, create. Social movements, out of common, shared values these. Are the moments. And movements, that one waits a lifetime, to experience, and young people and every part of our blue, ocean, planet are beginning to come together and say, if we just take the extractable, resources, we extract them all and we end up with a wasteland, it's, also a product liability issue, this product, oil used is directed, over heats our planet, and acidifies, our seas, each. Of us can act at so many levels as consumers, as citizens, to really, change the tide and to become part of something larger, it's. An opportunity, we. Really can, build. A kind of citizen movement, and engagement, that, changes, everything. All. Righty good afternoon everybody. So. Let's dive right in so. Maybe as a first opening, question, whoever wants to take it so, why should we care about the, oceans, so what role does oceans actually play, for, us human, beings. Small. Question. Take. A breath or two. Well, it's good that you say that take, a breath.
One Of the things that we say is about 50, 80 % of the oxygen in our atmosphere that, we breathe as as a result, of the. Ocean we. Used to my career I started in the Amazon and the, reason I went to work in the Amazon was. Because it was the lungs of the planet and deforestation. Was this massive concern, at the time that, we thought was contributing. And driving, a lot of climate change that's, true. But, I think what we've learned since is that the and just, even in the last five years we're, learning more and more about how the ocean, is the, underpinning, for, the global climate system we, think of it as like maybe. The the beating heart of the climate system so, it's, hard to underestimate, the. Role of the ocean in creating a habitable planet so, I'll tee that up for, anyone else great, job I mean oceans, literally. Cover 70%, of our planet, and the oceans provide us both with a blue economy that we are dependent upon as humans as well as Kyle, said the, oxygen, we breathe, we're actually, jeopardizing. Right. Now our, sustainability. On this planet by, putting. Heat, into. The ocean. Putting, co2 into, the sea making it much, like a coke. Warming, up on your desk, bubble. Off oxygen that's, vital for animals in the sea and, more. Corrosive because, of the absorption. Of co2 which, means. The gills of the Sharks and the tenez will, be effective, yeah, I mean it's it's respiration. Recreation. Transportation trade. Energy protein, just. That sense of awe and Wonder. When you look out to sea and realize you're part of something larger than yourself and, and all, was that sense that you know the sea was too large impact. In our blink, of an eyelid it's been my lifetime, you've totally. Begin an alter it begun an alteration, of the, largest, living system on the planet. Huh. Richard, any other, comments I, just we're, doing so much to harm, our ocean, and we depend on it so much like everyone has already said but I think one of the most important, things it's bringing, awareness to, how. Vital, and how critical it is and I'm, hearing a lot more people talking. About the ocean especially with climate change. And it's a good thing but. There's still a lot of work to do and I think it can be done on a broad scale it can be done on the legislative, scale it could done on an individual, scale so, the. Mission is really to get, the word out because, it's critical, and it's, vital to our survival. So. What signals, do you see that really make you believe that, we, are at great risk for the future of the oceans so. I the thing that you really see here are the clear, elements that you should see loud and clear of why. We're, at risk. Florida. Just had a red tide a harmful, algal bloom and, kill. Hundreds, of manatees, thousands. Of marine, mammals, billions, of fish and and created, a harmful. Impacts, for human health people were actually coughing. And getting sick that was on on the, gulf coast of florida at the same time you have your green blue, algae repeating. On the East Coast which is called you know green, gunk by the locals.
Destroying. The economy threatening. Society, and globally. We're seeing increase of these harmful algal, blooms this is just one of the indicators, of a sick ocean, when what we need to help the ocean and, the other one is also coral bleaching right, it's, I mean that's been on an exponential, increase, unfortunately. And that's, that's like the canary in the gold mine and, and this is you know the largest living, system. On earth that you can see from space the Great Barrier Reef and we're seeing if you get a chance to see, chasing. Coral it's a good. Documentary. Film that will yeah. We wouldn't show it the. Anna's. Ocean Film Fest introduced. Our March for the ocean in June and we decided that we would he show certain films like chasing, because I didn't want people crying while they were marching no I, would. Say you know one of the things that, we. Know so little about the ocean and, that's, increasing, with all the technology, and the sensors and the capability, we have to explore the, problem of ocean plastic, has gotten. A lot of attention in the press and I think, we've often been wondering, about that as ocean, scientists because we're like we've been talking about climate change which. Is literally melting the planet, for. Decades and, this. Has, not gotten as much attention as ocean plastic, but what I can tell you is that, most. Of what we know about the ocean we know about the surface if you heard barb, in that first clip she showed one, of the fascinating things about these electronic, tags is they tell us about the, real lives of tuna and sharks. That are traveling all sorts of places that we've never really been one of the things we've learned about plastic, in the ocean which, through. Our work with the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, is that, most of the micro plastic, that's in the ocean is far. Below the surface it's. Several hundred meters below the surface about four times the surface level and everywhere. We looked we found plastic we found it the deepest places we found it at the surface obviously but, everything, that you pretty much know about ocean is micro, plastic is from studies done at the surface which, is an accessible, place and what. We learn the further deep the farthest we go is that it's everywhere and so one of the alarming, things for us is that if you thought micro plastic in the ocean was a problem, it's, a lot worse for problem, than you probably knew because, the further you go the, further deep you go the more you find what. What, you don't want with. With. Technology. For observation. Is you don't want to have like real-time digital. Imagery. Of, ecosystem. And collapse so. When you use good technology, for, you know fisheries. Enforcement as it school is working on when you use it for tracking and science as Barbara's, doing developing. Those kind of applications, of bringing engineers, together with the biologist, as anbari does, then. Hopefully and in places like California the. Discoveries, then the. Science actually gets applied to policy, unfortunately, that's not true at the present time in DC where. Even the basic science is denied but I think we have a moment with the technology, that we, can transform, it into policy.
Women. Of popular, will and we'll talk about that I, think. What we have to think about is as a scientist, we're asking, some really big picture questions, what is earth going, to look like without ice cuts what. Is the consequence, of. Melting. Our. Polar. And Antarctic. Caps. What's going it what is it going to do in terms of submergence. Ocean. Currents changing, the, entire biosphere, that we live on earth, becoming. Different, we're. In the sixth mass extinction, so, how many of you like to eat sushi here you, can admit it. Going. Up Brian, of course. The. Capacity, of humans to eat our way through both. Land and sea is enormous. So we're actually, destroying. Our. Ocean environment, by not being sustainable, about what we eat so she poki, all, those type of restaurants, are contributing, to this problem killing. Not, only tunas, but, killing sharks and sea turtles and seabirds, I think. That there's. Hope in the sense that we have places like Google which. Are using their tremendous resources. Right now not. Only to, do searches that help us understand, what, we're looking for but, also creating. Transparency, in, the ocean through, Google. Oceans and global fish watch creating. A capacity, to now see where humans are impacting, the, planet in, a way that we've never been able to see or force we're able to try on the light switch and see. Where humans are and if we can use big. Data crunching. Combining. Fish and chips as well, as fish and chips. We'll. Be able to potentially, get our hands on some of these problems and, I I think, is with my background 30, years as a journalist, I can't, be an eco optimist, but what, I do say is is we're now at this stage of triage. You. Know that we're gonna save what we can while we can the IPCC. Report, in. 2018, says that if we can keep temperatures. To 1.5, degrees Celsius. We. Can save, perhaps, 10% of our living coral, reef systems, if it goes over 2 degrees we lose it and so, you know with. Existential, threats like this we need big responses. I mean right now I'm working on the blue New Deal the ocean, and coastal aspects, that we want to integrate and I'm going, back east. To DC on Wednesday to talk to, you. Know the people who introduced, the green New Deal which is a great concept, by the time there's hopefully a change in government and we hit the road hit. The ground running in January, 2021, with real legislation. To really do, the transition, that science tells us we, have to and. Then to add to that I think we're. Very. Well-versed. And knowledgeable, what's what's happening in the ocean and really.
Appreciate This opportunity to, share what we know and one, thing that keeps popping up that I'm reading, a lot more about is the. Increase in population because. We as humans are the ones that are doing most of the damage and we. Are the ones that need to be educated, but with the increase in population, and, just. It's it's taking its toll on the finite. Resources that, this planet has to offer us and I think that is another component. That plays. Into all of this that we need to start talking about as well. You. Are the experts in this field as a layperson on the outside so what, would you think we should know being, the three largest, challenges, were faced with with the oceans a note, or more that if you would say if you can only fix the first three what would those first three be. Should. We huddle first and then decide. Which one I. Think, I think that one thing that we have to fix are not fixed but actually establishes, a relationship, between us and the ocean you, know I, think Kyle. You brought up the point of you know how come we didn't really have so much pick up in the media about climate change in our plastic pollution well, the reason is because every, one of us uses plastic it's something that that we you know it's it's our children's birthday toys it's our plastic. Knives it's it's lots, of you know chairs in this room so, unless, and until we can start connecting those dots and make it very personal something. That we care because what do people care about they care about their health they, care about their finances. Our children things, that are near and dear to us right so, we have to find those things that. Make the, ocean near and dear to us so. Yeah it would be not, three but when I wrote fifty waited to save the ocean. Number. What is go to the beach because you protect what you love and I, think that's why things. Work in California because, California's. Have a sense of entitlement to the beach and ocean because we have the access, I think. We have to eat, sustainably. So we've got to figure out what that means both on land and sea and. When. You see that brand-new poky restaurant, down the street start, asking the question, when you put a piece. Of tuna in your mouth where did that tuna come from we, don't put, beef in our mouth and do. It without knowing where where is this beef from, what. What type of animal is it and yet we do this with ocean. Food all the time so, I want everyone to take a moment, and think. About what is it I'm eating and it, hasn't been caught sustainably, is it something I should be eating and what kind of waters did it come out of I was. At the our ocean, conference that, John Kerry put on when his Secretary of State Sylvia. Earle came late to the lunch table, and, there's. Just one tray left with sort of great filets labeled fish she. Goes what kind of fish I go oh there's the Assistant Secretary of State let's go ask her drag. Her over and she goes um. So. It's like it's labeled fish she goes well, I asked, the caterers, you know to make sure it was sustainable, she says but it's labeled fish the chickens not labeled bird. I. Think. Whatever. One said is obviously important, climate, change I think we probably agree is the number, one threat facing the ocean and the planet a sustainable. Fishing is absolutely. Up there and I, think that just from his cheer scientific, standpoint I, would say marine, pollution and sewage, and plastic, as part of that is got to be up there and buy, in you. Know Aldo Leopold, said that we love, and we. Grow to love what we understand, and by, engaging, California. I mean I'm not from California but for one of the fascinating things about coming here a couple, decades ago was that the dream, of California, seems to me the. The. Coexistence, of. Relatively. Pristine nature and the most advanced, technological society, that. We have right here in the Bay Area we, have this wonderful open space and we didn't have that by accident we have that on purpose because people loved, the open space and the coast and we have this California, Coastal Commission who vehemently defends. That and that, is the essence of like Surfrider Foundation and organizations, like that on the surfer I don't. Surf in certain days because I don't want the pollution, in the water to, get sick from that and, just engaging and taking care of the place where you are I think is absolutely.
Critical And I when, I wrote the, golden short caliph or his love affair with the sea which I won't flash up here. But. Basically it's, I've been in DC nine years and I came home and a lot of what we do with blue frontiers how do we scale up solutions in time and I realized, California. Is the solution at scale were 40, million people were the world's fifth largest economy, and, we do pretty good with our coasts and ocean because there's. That sense of entitlement and, I also think there's this democracy, of blue interest because. You have, conservationists. And surfers, and fishermen, and the Navy and the ports and all. These different interests, that that value. And when you do right by the ocean you find out it does good by your economy, and mm-hmm, everything. Else mask. Yourself this question to Barbara and to Britta as well, so. This notion of, just. What I eat really make a difference and there's. One person really can make a difference so when you talk about. Knowing. Why cheat where it's sushi poke you whatever that might be how. Would you deal with an individual's, gonna polish you the question, my, individual, actions don't really make a difference because I'm one of now, seven billion people howdy, ultimately, touch that individual, and make him or her belief, that her and his, or axis. Do make a difference well. I would say that you're not just one person you're one of seven billion so, the more of us that think like that it's. Going to be 7 billion people thinking, like this I agree. I mean we've lost our connection to the natural world it's, happening, all, the time as we evolved on this, planet as a human, species I think. That the more that can, understand. That individuals, make a difference, through. Both education, such as the aquarium or through youth. Programs, connecting, humans. To the sea humans. To the land the. Better off this planet will be because, that's, what we've lost across, the globe and the. More we interact with technology the, less we interact with the world around us and that's why I like you guys know that Instagram, egg how. Many of you have seen that the. One that garnered more I mean like the most Instagram, likes ever and so, I think well if I were that one person liking that a guy could have said well I'm just one person I'm not gonna make a change and how many likes this egg has and yet, we've, got 35, or 50 million likes right so, it's we've just got to find that thing that that, makes us hit like, on the ocean in French they say that one egg is enough. But. You know it's really it's it's this false dichotomy. People, say well is it the personal or political it's, like saying do you quit smoking or fight big tobacco I, mean. I don't eat sushi and then we had you know a healthy ocean he'll they were real obvi didn't help pass an eye you you pirate fishing bill so. That we don't deplete, the ocean I mean, your individual, acts you. Know the things you do inspire. To engage with the larger world. So. How do you engage your, audience, so how do you get people actively excited about your world, versus. So many other worlds that are screaming for attention and for, our activism, as well maybe. For you to. Start. With people who love the ocean who live by the ocean we. Reach. Fine and you know build a constituency we. Bring every two years except, this year because it's useless bringing, people together in DC, from, around, the ocean, Connect. Maritime. Conservationists. With maritime communities, realize. They have allies in places, like big institutions. Like the Monterey aquarium the, national aquarium that, you know that, they have allies, with the Commandant, of the Coast Guard or with senators White House or Markey, and go. On the hill we've had healthy.
Ocean Hill days where we've had 26, state delegations, and the third biggest was from cholera, because. In April we're gonna have a an inland. Ocean. Action. Summit in Dallas, and we're gonna try and grow the inland ocean movement, and make, people realize every state's a coastal state you connect up it starts, like I say number ones go to the beach it starts with people who love and care and depend. For their livelihoods on, the ocean and then, you just try. And do whatever you can and use whatever tools. You have to. Connect, with people tools, like the International, Ocean Film Festival, and and. The tools of science and make science exciting, the way you. Know barber, gets to commute with great white sharks and, one, of the things in California's, were not afraid there's a sense that if there's not something bigger. And meaner than you were out there it's not really wilderness, and, I think that that just making those connections I always talk about our. Job in the u.s. is to restore the blue and our red white and blue you. Know it's patriotic not, to pollute our living. Seas and. I want to add to that I actually went with David to Washington, DC for one of his blue vision summit's I can't remember how many years ago was now but there, was so many people from all over the country and we, had the opportunity to meet with our legislators. And we were discussing the ocean policy back then and, we had three things that we wanted to talk about and, it was my first time actually being on the hill and. Actually. Being able, to talk to my. Legislators. And I was so impressed with the, impact that we had as a group, coming from across the United States and having. A voice and, communicating. Our interest. In what we needed so getting, people together, and, getting. That voice out there is is what David does and and we do it with the film festival as well so, we. Provide a platform for, people to come together and talk about the ocean and we, show films, from around the world and film is incredibly, powerful. For, telling a message whether it's a 30-second. PSA. Blue. Serengeti, film that we showed, Barbara's. Film that we showed and had a wonderful, panel discussion, about that afterwards, but well when and where might you be doing this thanks. David. Festival. Is coming up March 7. Through 10 and it's a at, Cowell theatre in San Francisco, so, it's, really an opportunity for, us to raise awareness about, what, the ocean and there's, something for everyone, in terms of the. Myriad topics, that we cover because there's so many issues in the ocean that need to be talked about not. Only climate change sea, level rising. Overfishing. Mining. Drilling sand. Dredging. Marine. Wildlife but we also show films that are how. We engage with the ocean, and appreciate, it and have fun with it from surfing, and sailing, and the, joy that it brings us and the peace and the tranquility, that it brings us which is all the more reason to, protect it but. Again it's it's just like David said bringing people together who.
Are Like-minded who, have a common interest and, want to do something and until. You learn about what you can do you're. Kind of at a loss so to speak and so the, films, and David summit it's really just a matter of getting engaged and finding out what's out there and what's available and, last June 9th Anna brought the film festival, the night before in DC. We had a first ever March for the ocean and the, anchor March in DC it was only like three thousand people but there were a hundred fourteen, other marches, that happened around the world and we, discovered, that there's this whole youthful. Cohort, this sort of year class of ten. To eighteen year olds were very engaged around plastic, and so, the dublin march an 11 year old activist, led 500, people in Dublin and out. In the Pacific, there was a 12 in a and a, 16, year old to organize you know the Chamorro is on their island that they got hit by a typhoon, three. Months later so you, know people are. And. We'll do it again on World Oceans Day June 8th but people are marching. For something that's immediately, on top of them I mean what we saw with the hurricane season of 2017. And then. The climate, impacts with. You. Know I mean, I think 2018. Was sort of the year of no denial between, you know Mexico, Beach Florida and paradise. California. And the. Oceans the driver of climate and weather and it takes 90%, of the heat that we put out there so. Skee any any. Climate. Solution, has to also be an ocean solution, I mean, there's another aspect that we have to think about that maybe, someone in the Google environment can help us with we're. Hunters. And gatherers and, I. Asked. My students at Stanford all the time how many are planning. Your. Dinner a week from now anybody. I, see. One hand. In the audience, how. Can we as a species. That's, really been focused, on a very, short-term future. How. Do we get people to worry about something that's gonna be a disaster, less. Than 30 to 50 years away all. Right and that's the challenge, we face as a species, worldwide. And. I think about this a lot. So. Maybe just building, upon this so, I believe, that all of you know extraordinary. Well what the challenges, are we're faced with with the oceans. You. Probably, have. Clarity, as well on what needs to get done so maybe for the audience if you, were in. Control, if you had your magical ones what. Three elements, would you do and how, would you go about so. To meet the question of what needs to get done but, at the same time how do you get it done in today's very polarized, environment, I'll, start. I'm. A researcher. And I get. Flabbergasted. At, how small, amount of money that is needed right now to do some major.
Push. Forward in our ocean, knowledge so, imagine a planet where we haven't really explored, the entire planet, we've, got new technology in. DNA. Technology. Bioinformatics. That, allows us to actually go in take, a ziploc, full, of water and figure out who swam by so. We need to develop these types of technologies, to better census our oceans we've. Got, companies. Across. The planet that. Are able, to manage data like Google and. Do, an outstanding, job of bringing together big data right. Now there's not a big data platform, for the oceans that combines, information, in. A way that makes it accessible, to, both, scientists, in the public we need the big data platform, for. Our oceans, as soon as possible, we. Need to develop sensors, sensors. That allow us to know how. The oxygen is changing, in the ocean how, the pH is changing in the ocean and we need to have these tomorrow, and they need to be cheap and they need to be everywhere, so we have this sort. Of bio sensor in. The planet, telling us what's happening, you know before it's too late just, to jump on that, the. Having. Automated, networked. Sensors. Sort of the taking, the research that we do and applying the Internet of Things to it is desperately. What we need we we, just recently I'm a researcher, as well and we just recently put. Together an analysis, which is in review right now which is in our view is the first-ever, global. Map of where, all species are on the planet in land and in. The ocean, usually. When you see something like this you see a picture of the land and then, the ocean is grayed out or you see the picture of the ocean and land is grayed out and what we've done because, of data availability, is we've been able to bring together something. Like a hundred thousand, different species, in their distribution and, then, crucially. Not to say this, is where they are but, use all the available environmental. Data to explain, why. Those pieces are where they are now, this is a first step this is historically. This has been a question, for scientists, for hundreds, of years but, we've just had, to make progress iteratively, by foking, on certain focusing, on certain species. We know like birds or in certain places like South America but. We don't have to limit ourselves that, way anymore we can integrate everything like barb saying but. We certainly need the data streams the, satellites, and to do that barb. Mentioned environmental DNA like, having a ziploc bag of water we're, just about to install. Essentially. A robot, but. It's a 50, gallon drum and, we're, putting this in a stream on the California, coast to count salmon, as they go by and using. Environmental, DNA, to do that this, is revolutionary. Technology. That we. Desperately. Need, to put on mobile, autonomous. Platforms. And survey. To the places that aren't so near, to the coast now we could send divers to, all these dreams and count fish wouldn't. Be a lot easier just to put a sensor in there and do that and that's where we are right now at a technology that we can have and we're just starting to scratch the surface with this in, a sense space technology. Is easy there's a vacuum up there and some micrometeorites. You, know the ocean is this this unbreathable. Corrosive. Liquid medium with upwellings. And surges, and storms, inaccessible. Biologicals. And all these challenges, we're, reaching the technology, now in the media to actually make, the vast everlasting. Sea accessible, to us but. We're reaching it right at that critical moment where, we're facing an existential threat. And, you're in the last century we face - or the rise of fascism and the nuclear balance of terror and, we got past them right. Now because what barber said because we don't respond, to long-term threats. We're, seeing that the it's, all foreshortened, and we're seeing the threats in real time now and so, we need, big. Dramatic responses. We need to respond, to the threat of climate change and, marine pollution and, loss of habitat at. The level I live, in Richmond. Marina my. Sailboat marinas, where they had Kaiser shipyard, number two where. They built 734. Liberty. Ships in four years so that kind of you, know industrial, mobilization. A Manhattan Project is what we need right now and what, this new wave, of young women coming into Congress are proposing, with the green New Deal so, we have to take all the science all the technology, and quite frankly if.
You Look at our economy we've got three major. Sectors, sort of the. The financial sector that crafts the world economy in 2008. We've, got the oil and gas industry, the fossil fuel industry that's literally, crashing, the world and then, the tech industry, based in California, which, for all the problems you've got is. Producing. Goods and services with technological, capability. To, understand, threats and now we need to mobilize large. Parts of our population to respond to those threats we, did it twice in the last century. We'll. Do something in this one. Richard. Or Anna any additional thoughts from us you know some years ago I wrote, a report. On a responsibility, in the media and I actually got to interview. Dear African of the New York Times he's a top class, scientist, science. Reporter and I asked him because. I was at the time working. On climate change and I asked him why is it that, we. Find, we, find it so hard to understand, and kind, of embody in ourselves an understanding, of climate change and he said you know it's very simple we. Don't teach our, young people, how to think critically we, do not teach at, the elementary, school level or you know up until you basically, until you get to university we. Don't teach basic, scientific. Understanding. And and. Thinking he, said if we can so if I had my magic wand I would do can I have two magic wands analogous to it I would do two things I would first introduce, you, know study of the maybe scuba diving is a required curriculum and, you know coastal states something. Like that we need to bring it down to that level and second. Popular, culture, popular, culture, you know like can we have a blue panther movie, can, we have can, we have you know coral spongebob, or. Coral you, know whatever his name is so, I think we need to tell more stories now, Carla. Carla. Coral yeah Hollywood, you listening so, you know I think we need to tell more stories and, I don't mean kind, of didactic beating beat them over the head about, you know you, know maybe there's a movie. About coral. Bleaching or something like that not that but somehow. Find stories that that, take the mythology, and the fascination, with with, the ocean because. God knows you, go down deep enough and it's all science fiction down there so. That's using. A great issue that's one just, Friday we were discussing, at Stanford, so there. Really is an ocean literacy, problem, I'm working on a project, right now trying, to think, about at the collegiate, level how. To bring about ocean. Literacy we also are working with Aspen high seas, trying. To figure out if we could do it ocean, conservation core, so. What if there was a way to get youth engaged at a very early age that you. Know was global, so. I think that we've done a lot of that in our land ethic but, we've done a little less because of its, inaccessibility.
The High seas places, like that for, oceans but it. Really begins, at. The basic, problem teaching, how. Oceans, were so, if you went down the street in a beautiful, place like Monterey and I asked, for. Individuals, well what's, the basic concept, of how oceans, and, atmosphere are oceans, and climate or, even just oceans, what. Do you think about how, they work and I don't think we'd get very clear answers because we. Leave it out of our basic education, we leave biosphere. Out, of our education so what we're thinking about at our university, is how, do we get it back in and how, do we make it so accessible that a business student an, English, major or anybody, wants to learn about the planet, we do it right, now through a course called Stanford at sea it's. Related, to sea Education, Association of Woods Hole these. Are, opportunities. For high school college students, to actually have, an immersion experience, but, we need more people to engage in that immersion, and. Along those lines at the festive like when. You mentioned that Barbara, I was just you just made. Me think ocean. Literacy is is kind of a new concept and, it's not introduced. In middle. School or high school level, and it's. It's. Such an important. Part of our education, and I think it's becoming, more and more critical to reach kids at that, particular age and you, know and, like you said it needs to be on a global level. At the festival we do we do a free, program for middle, school and high school students. To come and see the films for free and so. Many of the teachers are so excited, about it because they, just don't have the time, or the bandwidth, to include, something like ocean, literacy in their, program, so they, use the films as an opportunity, to get the kids excited about, that we, also have a student film competition, kids, all over the world send, in a film five, minutes or less that tell us about the ocean we. Use the Monterey Bay Aquarium has, great curriculum online, for, ocean literacy but I, don't think we can stress enough how much we need to start engaging. Really. Young kids, at the, middle school and high school level, to start thinking, about this and make it a part of our core curriculum and one of our projects, Blue frontier projects, in, this year 2019. Is a blue beat program. Which is just, basic. Idea that the only resource not fully explored in the oceans good storytelling, yeah, and to do media trainings, for scientists, like we've done it at IU, cn4, also, just grassroots, activists. To. Understand you know how to talk to journalists, have to tell stories how to use the tools at. Hand or. Phones and otherwise to produce. Not. To do campaigns, to tell stories because that's what connects with people and it you, know it's instinctual with their young activists, they're all, using. Those tools but it's it's a challenge, I mean I want to translate, 50. Ways save the ocean to Spanish is one of you know they mediate needs so it's not Carl, it's Carlos. The. Storytelling, is absolutely, critical I mean I'm I'm, a, researcher at heart but I I try, to be I try, to tell stories, and anything.
From The book of johna to Moby Dick is the. The ocean has captivated. Our imagination. For millennia and. Obviously. It's our goal of the aquarium to inspire people about the ocean, we get about two million visitors a year and most, of them, geographically. Or because of their own physical limitations, cannot, actually go into the ocean they're from Kansas, or they, have they have physical limitations and. And. So one of the amazing things for us is to see the transformation, that people have when, they go in the door to when they do, when they leave and, yesterday. Two, days ago Saturday morning I was speaking to a hundred. Elementary. And middle school science, teachers, in the state of California, and everything, that we've been saying right here we just need to inculcate, these. Ideas, into curriculum in public, schools so, that is not like an exception, but it is the norm that, people have a first-hand. Experience, of the ocean and what it is as well as strong curriculum in math and science it. Absolutely has to happen and I, apologize, always I think insulting. Your sea otters earlier but we're sort of unique in California, we got these two connected, marine predators, white sharks, and sea, otters that are vital for the environment, and it's, one of the only places where one apex, predator, occasionally, eat the other. Probably. Happens, more than you think of you. Alrighty. I have one more hopeful question, and then we'll open up the the. Room, for our Q&A as well as the dory so. That's. Maybe another hopeful, note are, there, around the world societies. That you believe are really getting it and we're, actually society. Combination, of governments, local groups are actually taking action. California. Portugal. Palau. I. Think we hit on something earlier when we said you know we are in a very ideal place California. Is not. Normal. With respect to the United States I think that we are leading the charge in a lot of ways with environmental, legislation preservation. Especially with the ocean our, marine life Protection Act, the, Monterey Bay Farallones. National, marine. Sanctuaries these. Don't exist in a lot of places around the country so we're very fortunate I think we need to replicate the California, model in other places mm-hmm. Alright. Questions. From the audience, given. The the volume of plastic currently, produced in the world which is about 300, million tons per year since. The 1950s, just went exponentially, I. Heard, that it's probably gonna double by 2050, so as any one kind of model out what an oceans gonna look like in 2050. Well, I'll jump on that one cuz we've been in. Looking at this question you know so one, of if you remember, one of the first scientific. Sort. Of pieces of information which, led, to our understanding of climate change was Charles, Keeling's, co2. Curve from the top of mount Aloha in Hawaii, and that showed the oscillating, annual, atmospheric, concentration, of co2 and, it, wasn't just seasonally, moving around it was trending upwards that's, started about 1958. And I think that was a very important. Piece of. Science. That led us to say wait second this is a problem, right we, don't, have that right now for plastic we don't have a Keeling curve we're. Working, on understanding, that but one of the things that we toss around is, you know with, respect to climate change if we could magically turn, off the spigot, of carbon dioxide and, greenhouse gas equivalents, we'd probably, dealing with climate change for, about a thousand, years just because of how convoluted, the Earth's climate system is if, we could magically turn off the spigot for plastic, how, much longer will we have plastic in the ocean I think it's far less probably, around fifty years so.
I'm More much more hopeful, about the, the, change that we can make with plastic, yes you are correct that we are and by, the way the plastic, and the climate problem are not unrelated because, plastic is made out of petrochemicals. So, it is an oil-based, look. For the most part there is a recycled, and there's agricultural. Based products but, probably, around 50, years if we could cut it off today but, there's more and more going into the ocean so it's clearly a very significant. Problem but, we don't yet, know how big a problem that is, we. Need that Keeling curve but they're all linked to Rock oil they're all linked to petroleum, you know though offshore, drilling the plastics, the protection. Of our shores at risk. You. Know we just need to move on I mean coal and oil with great energy systems, for the 16th, and 19th century. Now. It's as I said it's a product liability used. As directed its oil to everything so let's move, on and do what we did after. You, know when Rock oil replaced. Whale oil the economy, expanded, with the green New Deal it's gonna expand again we'll have jobs and clean future, if, we choose to then there's an upstream and downstream problem, right - so it's how, much plastic are we producing from, what I understand, some of the big plastic producers, you know all the single-use cups and tubs and all that stuff apparently. They want to produce more which is a big problem, and. On the other side is let's. Clean up what we've got so you guys, probably heard of buoyance Latin system, 0:01, and he so he's trying right now to. Clean up the Great Pacific Garbage Patch right, so there's and there's, controversy meaning, well why are you focusing on that when you should be focusing on upstream and the manufacturer, I think, we really need to do both because, you need it's it's like you know you've messed up your room when you got to clean up your room and then, see, if you can find you know more sustainable, toys to fill it with one. Question from the Dory when it comes to sensing, ocean data can talk a little about the difference in data needed in, into what we can measure with earth observation. Satellites, what. Is the role of yo satellites, in building our understanding, of the ocean, so. The earth satellite, system, has done a fantastic job, about, telling us about the skin of the. Ocean the surface, but. The volume of the ocean is is much larger, and so we know a lot about the top. Portion. Of the ocean, but we don't know a lot about the depths and part of the the. Mystery. Of Earth's circulation. Is that without knowing the. Conditions, beneath, the sea and by. Not having a complete, sensor. System on the planet, we, have surprises. That. Are going to happen so I believe, that it'll, be in. This, next 50 years that we, do a very remarkable, job, of instrumenting. The oceans, which has been behind, the. Rest of the planet and we're going to do it with cheap. Small. Sensors, that. We have to figure out how to seed the ocean currents without creating if you will pollution, we're, gonna do it with a series of buoys and gliders and, all. Sorts of new instrumentation. We could only imagine and we're going to need big, data companies. Who. Are committed to making it public data, being. Behind these efforts and, then contributing, to. This, incredible. Analysis, that has to happen that will increase, our understanding of our planet. Because. The original question was about Earth Observation, data and, so that's kind of traditional satellites in that way and so I think in the last five years we're, doing things that were impossible seven, years ago and that way and so, a lot of what we are doing with satellites at sea ship positions. That's. Just with fishing Watch emissions. That are coming off of sulfur, plumes who doing air quality, measurements, from, those large cargo. Vessels that's, all available now and now, the next thing is love the. Public. Radar. Systems that, are available we're, measuring all the dark fleets aren't broadcasting, and things like that so that continues to evolve but. I was curious to Barbara Hewitt said what you really wanted was a big data system for the ocean, are. There big, data systems for the land that. You think are great models or other ones that. We, could really look to to say well how do we tweak that for the ocean, good. Question, tough one Brian. But. But I think you want to keep, in mind that when we say fish and chips or fish and chips what we really want to do is bring these big data sets together so what, we need to do it is in a public forum where it's not being monopolized.
By, A company to be sold back to us there's. A little bit of that going on in the world right now mm-hmm, so what we need I want to just emphasize that, one of the more important, papers in ocean science came out last week in science by, a Duke team it. Was about really. Basic, aspects, of how the Atlantic. Circulates. And creates, you. Know what, we call the bottom water that's critical, for pushing. The. System and it, it isn't working like we think, it's working and they found that out by seeding. The ocean with buoys, that were able to go very deep and then come back to the surface and transmit, their data so what do we really need to solve on planet earth communications. Across the globe all. Right one of the challenges, we have it's sending ocean data working, sensors. In the ocean because we don't have the, ability right, now in the 21st century to, communicate, from everywhere, on the planet solving. That. Communication. Problem is the key to solving in part, getting some of these sensors, in place that will tell us about the planet so, we need to take some of the, economy. That we're spending across. This planet and put it towards increasing. Our knowledge of Earth and as, soon as we do that we'll be stepping towards, our future in a positive direction yeah. Like Thursday, I'll be in DC covering. The triple, a s that's a American. Association for the Advancement science, biggest, science, gathering, on earth and, if you question. Whether scientists, and nerds they have it every every year Valentine's, Day. But. It's interesting, to see this contract it's create excitement with the hard scientist, and the natural scientists, are like ready to slit, their wrists, and I think that taking. Taking those hard. Scientists. And term hard, sciences, that involve, you know data gathering, and big data and all and. Putting. The natural scientist in charge of, or having the access to use them that's right to identify this these challenges. As, long as they're not eating sushi while they're doing it. What's. One thing you think Google's doing wrong that's harming the osius what can we do different. You. Like feedback well, I would say that Google Earth, has been transformative, and I'd, like more of that I think. They even they started off with just basic imagery and then they start with time series of imagery and then you could download it and then with, added. Features I think that has been transformative, for, people that especially. The user interface, and, I think providing, more platforms, for for. Large data sharing like Barbara's been talking about is absolutely critical the local fishing watch. There. Is one, of my favorite websites is called null, school which is just a visualization of environmental, data like wind and and real-time, temperature it's amazing if you guys have seen it we. Just need more tools, like this and make them accessible for. Non-technical, data. People that, can use them in intuitive, formats. Yeah. Shout out to our Google oceans friends, they, are a small unit here that basically, have done more for the oceans in the last decade. Than people. Realize so we really need, more. Of that type of quality effort, that then is inviting the community from the globe to sit down with them and create. The type of data, bases and data sets that are, distributed. Publicly, that we need to improve our planet and I'm not just second or third that to say you know we gave one of our Peter Benchley ocean awards to Google Ocean early. On and we're seeing an evolution and I'm just hoping you know if Silicon, Valley we get it as excited. About using. It its capabilities. To save, the living. Salty, heart of the planet as they are about self-driving, cars then I'd be really so. More of the same is what we'd say and on a larger, scale scale it up to the challenge, so, maybe maybe maybe more of that unless school buses maybe on. The road alrighty, before we close britches anything. From you I say. More, Google Doodles about the ocean. We've. Been planning for this voyage for over three years. I've. Been thinking about it for over a decade and, what we're going to do is depart, from Honolulu, for the white shark cafe. This, is a place the. Only way we know about it is white, sharks took us there and in this region there's, a gathering place and why these animals, gather here we don't know I mean, all of us under incredibly. Excited, and this white, shark cafe is one of those lasts real, expeditions. We know. Very little about it we have no idea about why this massive, brother is leaving California coming.
Here. It. Must be something so. Important, here part. Of this is about discovering. What's. In the ocean and the. White sharks are leading a city. Why. Do the Sharks come out to this remote, part of the ocean one. Of the ways we approach. Answering. That question is, to characterize the, habitat then, we've put together a. Variety, of tools, and, approaches. To let us do that. What. Are the conditions, in the water, column itself temperature, oxygen, the salinity. And. Be sending, sound waves into. The water column to see, what reflections, of, that sound tell, us about the concentrations. Of animals, versus, depth we're. Using a DNA to, tell us how, different, species, of animals occupy. Its, space. What's breaking news here oh, my. God. First, try, Wow. We've, been using the sale room just skumps the, sale zones have been out here surveying. The region in advances, of our rival, and they will continue to serve a hit while, here, and, they can alert us to things that may. Be just. Over the horizon, it. Communicates. To us a lot of the sensor data we. Get summaries to give, us an idea for example where we should be sampling, on this vessel based on what they put the sail groans I've seen early, there's no substitute. For direct. Observation. I want to see what's there if, I can't go down myself then, the best thing is to use is, an underwater. Vehicle, I've remotely, operated vehicle. One. A-two right. Here guys it's in visual range right, here. And. We're, now recovering. Each of these instruments, as it comes up when we get the tag back, it has, second-by-second. Behavioral, data an, environmental, data on what the white sharks do. Nice. One man. It's a female, it's. Been on for five, months. Three. Second interval, data wow we got a bite on it - look at this. With these deep chips. Get out a lot of, rapido. So we're heading here this is spanning, one. Two three four five days, and. Intensive, diving, that just continues, oh look at this. This, guy is active. So this, is right, up when the until, the tag popped up it's got the most intense. Diving. About. Here that's. Really cool, we're. In a spot where grabbed. A lot also toy diving is like really, intense right yeah because day, and night gold, you guys. Gold. In the form of data. Although. Otis is mainly focusing, on the oceanography. And measuring, what's, going on underneath. The surface of the ocean, Otis can also listen. For tags. That are in different species so we can kind, of use, Otis, as a sentinel. Underneath, the ocean kind, of spying on who's down there for us while we're up on the ship doing, all the other amazing, science. The. High seas, covers, almost half, this planet, and, in the high seas there. Are very, few rules it's almost a Wild West and, so if we're going to save white sharks, and other iconic, animals, such as tudas. And other, sharks for, the next generation, we have to start thinking, about where the boundaries should be where the protection should be this, cruise is actually. A beginning, in, which we're going to go out offer the. Opportunity. For policy, changes, that protect. A region, that no, one would think about needs protection, for white sharks through. New knowledge, we can reduce ignorance. And then translate, that into action.
All, Right I think with that we're at the top of the hour I want to thank you very much for your participation for. Frankly, being here the, audience for spending an hour with us and I. Think to. Be continued, there's a lot of works to be done thank. You very much thank you. You.