Ancient Egyptian technology | Wikipedia audio article
Ancient. Egyptian, technology describes. Devices, and technologies, invented or used in ancient Egypt, the. Egyptians, invented and used many simple, machines such as the ramp and a lever to aid construction. Processes, they. Used rope trusses, to stiffen the beam of ships Egyptian. Paper made, from papyrus and pottery, were mass-produced and, exported, throughout the Mediterranean. Basin the. Wheel was used for a number of purposes but, chariots, only came into use after, the second intermediate period the. Egyptians, also played an important, role in developing Mediterranean. Maritime, technology including. Ships and lighthouses. Topic. Technology. In dynastic, Egypt. Significant. Advances, in ancient Egypt, during the dynastic period include, astronomy, mathematics. And medicine, their. Geometry, was a necessary outgrowth. Of surveying to preserve the layout and ownership of farmland which was flooded annually by the Nile River the. Three four five right triangle, and other rules of thumb served to represent, rectilinear structures. And the post and lintel architecture of, Egypt, Egypt. Also was a center of alchemy, research for much of the Western world. Topic. Paper, and writing. The. Word paper comes from the Greek term for the ancient, Egyptian writing material, called papyrus, which was formed from beaten strips of papyrus plants. Papyrus. Was produced in Egypt as early as 3000. BC and was sold to ancient Greece and Rome the. Establishment. Of the Library of Alexandria limited. The supply of papyrus for others, according. To the Roman historian Pliny. Natural, history records XIII, point, to one as a result, of this parchment, was invented, under the patronage of you means to of Pergamon to build his rival, library at Pergamon, however. This is a myth parchment, had been in use in Anatolia, and elsewhere long before the rise of Pergamon. Egyptian. Hieroglyphs, a phonetic writing system, served as the basis for the Phoenician, for bet from which later alphabets, such as Hebrew Greek and Latin word arrived with. This ability writing, and record-keeping the, Egyptians, developed one of the if, not the first. Decimal system the city of Alexandria retained. Preeminence, for its records, and Scrolls with its library, this. Ancient library, was damaged by fire when it fell under Roman rule and was destroyed completely by, 642. C II with. It a vast supply of antique literature, history and knowledge was lost. Topic. Structures. And construction. Topic. Tools. Some. Of the older tools used in the construction, of Egyptian, housing included, reeds and clay, according. To Lucas and Harris reeds were plastered, with clay in order to keep out of heat and cold more effectually other. Tools, that were used were limestone. Chiseled, stones wooden, mallets and stone, hammers, with. These tools ancient, Egyptians, were able to create more than just housing but also sculptures. Of their gods. Topic. Buildings. Many. Temples, from ancient Egypt are not standing, today some. Are in ruin from wear-and-tear while others have been lost entirely, the. Egyptian, structures are among the largest constructions. Ever conceived, and built by humans, they. Constitute, one of the most potent, and enduring symbols, of ancient Egyptian, civilization. Temples. And tombs built, by a pharaoh famous, for her projects, Hatshepsut were, massive and included, many colossal, statues, of her pharaoh. Tutankhamen's, rock-cut. Tomb in the valley of the kings was full of jewelry and antiques, in. Some late myths PTH. Was identified, as the primordial, mound and had called creation, into being he was considered, the deity of craftsmen, and in particular of stone based crafts. Imhotep. Who was included, in the Egyptian, pantheon was the first documented, engineer, in. Hellenistic, Egypt, lighthouse Tecna was, developed the most famous example, being the Lighthouse of Alexandria.
Alexandria. Was a port for the ships that traded the goods manufactured. In Egypt or imported, into Egypt, a giant. Cantilevered, hoist lifted, cargo to and from ships, the, lighthouse itself was designed by Stratos of C nidus and built in the 3rd century BC, between, 285. And 247. BC on the island of Pharos in Alexandria. Egypt which, has since become a peninsula, this. Lighthouse was renowned in its time and knowledge it was never lost a. 2006. Drawing, of it created, from the study of many references, is shown at the right. Topic. Monuments. The. Nile Valley has been the site of one of the most influential, civilizations. In the world with its architectural. Monuments, which include the Pyramids of Giza and the Great Sphinx among. The largest and most famous buildings, in the world, the. Most famous pyramids, are the Egyptian, pyramids huge. Structures, built of brick or stone some of which are among the largest constructions. By humans. Pyramids. Functioned, as tombs for Pharaoh's, in ancient, Egypt. A pyramid, was referred to as mer literally, place, of ascendance, the. Great Pyramid of Giza is the largest in Egypt and one of the largest in the world the. Base is over 13, acres, 53,000. Square meters, in area it. Is one of the seven wonders of the world and the only one of the seven to survive into modern times the. Ancient, Egyptians, kept the peaks of their pyramids, with gold and covered their faces with polished white limestone although. Many of the stones used for the finishing, purpose have fallen or been removed for use on other structures, over the millennia, the. Red Pyramid of Egypt C 26th. Century BC, named for the light crimson, hue of its exposed, granite surfaces. Is the third largest of Egyptian, pyramids. Menkaure's. Pyramid likely. Dating to the same era was constructed, of limestone and granite blocks, the. Great Pyramid, of Giza C, 25. 80 BC contains. A huge granite sarcophagus fashioned. Of red, Aswan granite. The mostly ruined black pyramid dating, from the reign of a man Emmet the third once had a polished granite pyramidion, or capstone now on display in the main hall of the Egyptian, Museum in Cairo Sadashiva. Other. Uses, in ancient Egypt. Include columns, door lintels sills, jams, and wall and floor veneer the, ancient. Egyptians, had some of the first monumental, stone buildings, such as in saqqara how. The Egyptians, work the solid granite is still a matter of debate. Archaeologist. Patrick Hunt has postulated that the Egyptians, used emery shown to have higher hardness, on the Mohs scale. Regarding. Construction of the various, methods possibly. Used by builders the lever moved and uplifted, obelisks weighing more than 100, tons. Topic. Obelisks. And pillars. Obelisks. Were a prominent part of the architecture. Of the ancient, Egyptians, who placed them in pairs at the entrances, of various monuments and important, buildings, such, as temples, in. 1902. Encyclopedia. Britannica, wrote the, earliest, temple obelisk still in position, is that of Sena Sree the first of the 12th dynasty at, Heliopolis. 68. Feet high. The. Word obelisk. Is, of greek rather than Egyptian origin because, Herodotus, the great traveller was the first writer to describe, the objects. 29. Ancient, Egyptian, obelisks are known to have survived plus the unfinished obelisk being, built by Hatshepsut to celebrate, her 16th, year as pharaoh it. Broke while being carved out of the quarry and was abandoned, when another one was begun to replace it the. Broken one was found at Aswan and provides, the only insight, into the methods of how they were hewn, the.
Obelisk Symbolized, the sky deity, rar and during the brief religious, Reformation of Akhenaten, was said to be a petrified, ray of the Aten the Sun disk, it. Is hypothesized, by New York University Egyptologist. Patricia, Blackwell, Gary an astronomy, senior, editor Richard Talcott that the shapes of the ancient, Egyptian, pyramid an obelisk were derived from natural phenomena, associated with, the Sun the Sun God rar being the Egyptians, greatest, deity, it. Was also thought that the deity existed. Within the structure, the, Egyptians, also used pillars extensively. It. Is unknown whether the ancient, Egyptians, had kites but a team led by Maureen, Clemens and more eageriy raised, to five thousand, nine hundred pound, fifteen foot 4.6, meters obelisk, into vertical position, with a kite a system, of pulleys and a support frame, Maureen. Clemens developed, the idea that the ancient Egyptians. Used kites for work, ramps. Have been reported, as being widely used in ancient Egypt, a ramp, is an inclined plane or a plane surface set, at an angle other than a right angle against, a horizontal, surface, the. Inclined plane permits, one to overcome a large resistance by applying a relatively, small force through a longer distance than the load is to be raised in. Civil, engineering the, slope ratio of rise run is often referred to as a grade or gradient an, inclined. Plane is one of the commonly recognized, simple, machines. Maureen. Clemens subsequently, led a team of researchers demonstrating. A kite made of natural material, and reinforced, with shellac which according to their research pulled, with 97%, the efficiency, of nylon in a nine miles per hour wind would easily pull an average two-ton pyramid stone up the first two courses of a pyramid in collaboration. With Cal Poly Pomona on a fifty-three stone pyramid, built in rosamund CA. Topic. Navigation. And shipbuilding. The. Ancient, Egyptians, had knowledge to some extent of sail construction. This, is governed by the science, of aerodynamics, the. Earliest Egyptian, sails were simply placed to catch the wind and push a vessel, later. Egyptian, sails dating, to 2400. BC II were built with the recognition, that ships could sail against the wind using, the lift of the sails, Queen. Hatshepsut oversaw. The preparations. And funding of an expedition of five ships each measuring, 70, feet long and with several sails various. Others exist also, ancient. Egyptians. Had experience. With building a variety of ships some.
Of Them survived to this day as Khufu solar ship the, ships were found in many areas of Egypt, as the abide oz bow and remnants of other ships were found near the pyramids, sniffer, is ancient, Sita would ship praise of the two lands is the first reference, recorded, to a ship being referred to by name although, call to rudders were the norm in Nile navigation. The Egyptians, were the first to use also stern mounted, rudders not of the modern type but center-mounted steering, oars. Topic. Irrigation. And agriculture. Irrigation. Is, the artificial application. Of water to the soil was used to some extent in ancient Egypt, a hydraulic, civilization. Which entails hydraulic, engineering, in. Crop production it, is mainly used to replace missing rainfall, in periods, of drought as opposed, to reliance, on direct rainfall, referred to as dryland, farming or as rain fed farming, before. Technology, advanced, the people of Egypt relied on the natural flow of the Nile River to tend to the crops, although. The Nile provided, sufficient watering. Survival, domesticated. Animals crops and the people of Egypt there were times where the Nile would flood the area wreaking, havoc amongst the land there. Is evidence of the ancient, Egyptian, pharaoh a Menem a the third in the 12th dynasty about, 1800. BCE, using, the natural lake of the FAMAS a reservoir to store surpluses, of water for use during the dry seasons, as the lake swelled annually with the flooding of the Nile. Construction. Of drainage canals reduced, the problems of major flooding from entering homes and areas of crops but because it was a hydraulic civilization. Much of the water management was, controlled, in a systematic, way. Topic. Glass, working. The. Earliest known glass, beads from Egypt were made during the New Kingdom around 1500. BC and, were produced in a variety of colors, they. Were made by winding molten, glass around a metal bar and were highly prized as a trading commodity, especially blue beads which were believed to have magical powers, the. Egyptians, made small jars and bottles using, the core form method glass. Threads were wound around a bag of sand tied to a rod the. Glass was continually, reheated, to fuse the threads together, the, glass cupboard sandbag, was kept in motion until, the required shape and thickness was, achieved the. Rod was allowed to cool then finally, the bag was punctured, in the sand poured out and reused, the. Egyptians, also created, the first coloured, glass rods which they used to create colorful beads and decorations. They. Also worked with cast glass which was produced by pouring, molten glass into a mold much like iron in the more modern crucible, steel. Topic. Astronomy. The. Egyptians, were a practical, people and this is reflected, in their astronomy in contrast, to Babylonia, where the first astronomical, texts, were written in astrological. Terms, even. Before Upper and Lower Egypt were, unified, in 3000, BCE, observations. Of the night sky had influenced, the development of a religion, in which many of its principal, deities were heavenly bodies in Lower. Egypt priests. Built circular, mud brick walls with which to make a false horizon, where they could mark the position, of the Sun as it rose at dawn and then with a plumb bob note the northern or southern turning. Points solstices. This. Allowed them to discover, that the Sun disc personified. As raaah took. 365. Days to travel, from his birthplace at, the winter solstice and back to it, meanwhile. In Upper Egypt a lunar calendar was, being developed based on the behavior of the moon and the reappearance, of Sirius in it's heliacal rising, after its annual absence, of about 70, days after unification, problems. With trying to work with two calendars, both depending, upon constant. Observation led to emerged simplified. Civil calendar, with 12 30-day months three seasons of four months each plus, an extra five days giving, a, 365. Year day but with no way of accounting for the extra quarter day each year day.
And Night were split into 24, units each personified. By a deity a sundial. Found on SETI the first Cenotaph, with instructions, for its use shows us that the daylight hours were at one time split, into 10 units with 12 hours for the night in an hour for the morning and evening Twilight's. However. By city the first time day and night were normally divided into 12 hours each the length of which would vary according, to the time of year, key. To much of this was the motion of the Sun God ray and his annual movement, along the horizon at sunrise, out. Of Egyptian myths such as those around rar and the sky goddess nut came, the development, of the Egyptian, calendar timekeeping. And even concepts, of royalty, an, astronomical. Ceiling in the burial chamber of Ramesses the six shows the son being born from not in the morning traveling, along her body during the day and being swallowed at night, during. The fifth dynasty six, kings built Sun temples, in honor of Raya the, temple complex is built by near Surya Daboo group and user karffard abuse' have been excavated, and have astronomical. Alignments, and the roofs of some of the buildings could have been used by observers, to view the stars calculate. The hours at night and predict the sunrise for religious festivals. Claims. Have been made that precession of the equinoxes. Was known in ancient Egypt, prior to the time of Hipparchus, this. Has been disputed however, on the grounds that pre Hipparchus, texts, do not mention precession, and that it, is only by cunning interpretation. Of ancient, myths and images, which are ostensibly about, something, else that precession can be discerned in them aided by some pretty, esoteric, numerological. Speculation. Involving, the 72, years that mark one degree of shift in the zodiacal, system, and any number of permutations by. Multiplication. Division, and addition. Note. However that the Egyptian observation, of a slowly changing, stellar alignment, over a multi-year period does not necessarily, mean that they understood, or even cared, what was going on for. Instance from the Middle Kingdom onwards, they used a table with entries, for each month to tell the time of night from the passing of constellations. These. Went in error after a few centuries because of their calendar and precession, but were copied with scribal, errors long after they lost their practical, usefulness or the possibility, of understanding and, use of them in the current years rather than the years in which they were originally used. Topic. Medicine. The. Edwin Smith papyrus is. One of the first medical documents. Still extant and perhaps the earliest document. Which attend to describe and analyze the, brain given, this it might be seen as the very beginnings, of neuroscience. However. Medical historians. Believe that ancient Egyptian, pharmacology. Was largely ineffective. According. To a paper published by Michael, d Parkins 72, percent of 260. Medical prescriptions, in the hearst papyrus, had no curative, elements, according. To michael d Parkins sewage, pharmacology. First began in ancient egypt and was continued, through the Middle Ages and while the use of animal dung can have curative properties it is not without its risk. Practices. Such as applying cow dung to wounds ear piercing, tattooing, and chronic, ear infections were, important, factors in developing, tetanus, Frank. J snork wrote that Egyptian, medicine used, fly specks lizard, blood swine teeth and other such remedies, which he believes could have been harmful mummification, of, the Dead was not always practiced, in Egypt once. The practice began an individual. Was placed at a final resting place through, a set of rituals and protocol, the. Egyptian, funeral, was a complex, ceremony, including, various, monuments prayers, and rituals undertaken. In honor of the deceased the poor. Who could not afford expensive tombs. Were buried in shallow graves in the sand and because of the arid environment, they were often naturally, mummified. Topic. The wheel. Evidence. Indicates, that Egyptians, made use of potter's wheels in the manufacturing. Of pottery from as early as the 4th dynasty. Chariots. However, are only believed, to have been introduced, by the invasion of the Hyksos in the second Intermediate, Period during, the New Kingdom era, carrier, tree became central, to Egypt's, military.
Topic. Other developments. The. Egyptians, developed a variety of furniture there. In the lands of ancient Egypt is the first evidence for stools beds and tables such, as from the tombs similar to Tutankhamun's. Recovered. Ancient Egyptian furniture, includes, a third millennium, BC bed, discovered, in the Tarkin tomb a seat. 2550, BC gilded set from the tomb of Queen Hetepheres the, first and AC. 1550. BC store from Thebes. Some. Have suggested that the Egyptians, had some form of understanding electric. Phenomena, from observing, lightning and interacting, with electric, fish such as mal Epirus Electric Asst or other animals, such as electric, eels the. Comment about lightning, appears to come from a misunderstanding of, a text referring to high, polls covered, with copper plates, to. Argue this but dr. Volkow stern has written in detail explaining. Why the copper covered tops of poles which were lower than the associated. Pylons, do not relate to electricity, or lightning pointing, out that no evidence of anything used, to manipulate, electricity, had been found in Egypt and that this was a magical, and not a technical, installation. Those. Exploring, fringe theories of ancient technology, have suggested, that there were electric, lights used in ancient Egypt. Engineers. Have constructed, a working model based on their interpretation of, a relief found in the Hathor temple at, the Dendera temple complex. Authors. Such as Peter crusher and Reinhard, havoc have produced a basic theory of the devices operation, the. Standard, explanation however. For the Dendera light which comprises, three stone, reliefs one single in a double representation. Is that the depicted, image represents, a lotus leaf and flower from, which a sacred, snake is spawned in accordance, with Egyptian, mythological, beliefs this. Sacred snake sometimes, is identified, as the milky way the snake in the night sky the leaf Lotus, or bulb. That. Became identified with, Hathor, because of her similar association. In creation. Topic. Later, technology. In Egypt. Topic. Greco-roman. Egypt. Under. Hellenistic. Rule Egypt was one of the most prosperous regions. Of the Hellenistic civilization. The. Ancient, Egyptian city of ricotta's, was renovated, as Alexandria. Which became the largest city, around the Mediterranean, Basin under. Roman rule Egypt was one of the most prosperous regions. Of the Roman Empire with Alexandria. Being second, only to ancient Rome in size. Recent. Scholarship suggests that the waterwheel, originates, from Ptolemaic, Egypt where, it appeared by the 3rd century BC. This. Is seen as an evolution, of the paddle driven water lifting, wheels that had been known in Egypt a century earlier according. To John Peter Olsen both the compartmented. Wheel and the hydraulic, nuria may have been invented in Egypt by the 4th century BC, with the Sakia, being invented, there a century, later this. Is supported by archaeological finds, that fire each IFFT where the oldest archaeological evidence. Of a waterwheel has been found in the form of a Sakia dating, back to the 3rd century BC, a papyrus. Dating, to the 2nd century BC, also found in fire mentions, a waterwheel used for irrigation a 2nd century BC, fresco, found that alexandria, depicts a compartment, at Zakia and the writings of calyx eNOS of roads mentioned the use of a Sakia in Ptolemaic, Egypt during, the reign of Ptolemy the 4th in the late 3rd century BC, ancient Greek technology, was often inspired by the need to improve weapons, and tactics in war, ancient. Roman technology, is a set of artifacts, and customs, which supported, Roman civilization. And made the expansion, of Roman commerce and Roman military possible. Over nearly a thousand, years. Topic. Arabic. Islamic, Egypt. Under. Our rule Egypt once again became one of the most prosperous regions, around the Mediterranean. The. Egyptian, city of Cairo was founded by the Fatimid, Caliphate, and served as its capital, city at, the.
Time Cairo, was second only to Baghdad capital, of the rival Abbasid Caliphate, after. The fall of Baghdad, however Cairo overtook, it as the largest city in the Mediterranean. Region until the early modern period. Inventions. In medieval, Islam covers, the inventions, developed, in the medieval Islamic world, a region, that extended, from al-andalus in Africa in the West to the Indian subcontinent in, Central, Asia in the East the. Timeline, of Islamic, science and engineering covers. The general development of, Science and Technology, in the Islamic, world. Topic. See, also. List. Of Egypt related, topics. Egyptian. Chronology. History. Of ancient Egypt. History. Of Technology. Egyptian. Mathematics. History. Of Science in early cultures. Astrology. And astronomy. Archaeoastronomy. Hand-drill. Hieroglyph. Emotive. Hero. Of Alexandria. Equals. Equals nodes.