All electricity from renewable sources | Wikipedia audio article

All electricity from renewable sources | Wikipedia audio article

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Renewable, energy commercialization. Involves. The deployment, of three generations. Of renewable, energy, technologies. Dating, back more than 100 years. First. Generation. Technologies. Which, already, mature, and economically, competitive, include. Biomass. Hydroelectricity. Geothermal. Power and heat. Second. Generation, technology, is a market, ready and are being deployed, at the present, time they include, solar heating, photovoltaics. Wind power solar, thermal power, stations. And modern, forms of bioenergy. Third. Generation. Technologies. Require, continued. R&D, efforts in order to make large contributions. On a global scale and include advanced, biomass, gasification hot. Dry rock geothermal. Power and ocean, energy as, of. 2012, renewable. Energy accounts, for about half of new nameplate, electrical. Capacity, installed, and costs, are continuing, to fall public, policy, and political leadership. Helps, to level the playing field and drive the wider acceptance, of, renewable, energy, technologies. Countries. Such as Germany, Denmark, and, Spain have, led the way in implementing. Innovative policies. Which has driven most of the growth over the past decade, as of. 2014. Germany. Has a commitment, to the energiewende. Transition. To a sustainable, energy economy. And Denmark, has a commitment, to 100%. Renewable energy, by 2050. There. Are now. 144. Countries with, renewable energy, policy, targets. Renewable. Energy, continued, its rapid, growth in, 2015. Providing. Multiple benefits. There. Was a new record set for installed, wind and photovoltaic, capacity. 64. Gigawatts, and 57. Gigawatts, and a new high of three hundred and twenty nine billion, United, States dollars, for global, renewables, investment. A key. Benefit, that this investment, growth brings is a growth in jobs. The top countries, for investment. In recent, years were China Germany, Spain. The United States, Italy, and Brazil. Renewable. Energy companies, include, BrightSource, Energy, First Solar go Messer GE, energy gold wind sign oval tar gray Trina, Solar Vestas. And Yingli, climate, change concerns, are also driving, increasing. Growth in the renewable, energy industries. According. To a 2011, projection. By the IAEA, International, Energy. Agency, solar. Power generators. May produce most of the world's electricity within. 50, years reducing. Harmful greenhouse gas, emissions, renewable. Power has been more effective in, creating jobs, than coal or oil in, the United States. Topic. Background. You. Topic. Rationale. For, renewables. Climate. Change pollution, and, energy insecurity as, significant. Problems, and addressing, them requires, major changes.

To Energy, infrastructures. Renewable. Energy technologies. Are essential, contributors. To the energy, supply portfolio. As they contribute, to world energy, security. Reduce, dependency. On fossil fuels, and provide, opportunities. For mitigating. Greenhouse gases. Climate. Disrupting. Fossil, fuels are being replaced, by clean, climate, stabilizing. Non depletable. Sources, of energy. Top. The transition. From coal oil and, gas to wind solar, and geothermal energy. Is well underway, in. The old economy, energy was, produced, by burning something. Oil. Coal, or natural gas. Leading. To the carbon, emissions, that have come to define our economy. The. New energy economy harnesses. The energy in, wind the energy, coming from the Sun and heat, from within the earth itself. In. International. Public, opinion surveys. There is strong support for a variety of methods, for addressing, the problem, of energy supply. These. Methods, include promoting, renewable sources. Such as solar, power and wind power requiring. Utilities. To use more renewable energy, and, providing. Tax incentives, to encourage the, development and. Use of such technologies. It. Is expected, that renewable. Energy investments. Will pay off economically in, the long term, EU member countries have. Shown support for ambitious. Renewable energy. Goals, in. 2010. Eurobarometer. Pulled. The 27. EU member, states about the target, to, increase, the share of renewable. Energy in the EU by, 20% by. 2020. Most, people, in all 27. Countries either, approved, of the target, or called for it to go further, across. The EU. 57%. Thought the proposed, goal was about. Right and, 16%. Thought, it was too. Modest, in. Comparison. 19%. Said it was too. Ambitious as. Of. 2011. New evidence, has emerged that, there are considerable, risks, associated with. Traditional energy. Sources and the major changes. To the mix of energy technologies. Is needed. Several. Mining tragedies. Globally, have underscored, the human toll of the coal supply, chain, new. EPA initiatives. Targeting. Air toxics, coal, ash and effluent, releases, highlight, the environmental. Impacts, of coal and the cost of addressing, them with control, technologies. The. Use of fracking in natural, gas exploration, is, coming under scrutiny with evidence of groundwater, contamination. And greenhouse, gas emissions. Concerns. Are increasing, about the vast amounts, of water used, at Coal Fired and, nuclear, power plants, particularly, in regions, of the country facing. Water shortages. Events. At the Fukushima, nuclear plant, have, renewed doubts about the ability to operate, large, numbers, of nuclear, plants safely, over the long term, further. Cost, estimates, for next. Generation. Nuclear. Units, continue, to climb and lenders, are unwilling, to finance, these plants, without taxpayer. Guarantees. The. 2014. Ren21. Global. Status report says. That renewable. Energies, are no longer just energy, sources, but ways to address pressing social, political economic, and. Environmental. Problems. Today. Renewables. Are seen not only as sources, of energy but also as, tools to address many other pressing, needs including. Improving, energy security. Reducing. The health and environmental, impacts. Associated with. Fossil, and nuclear. Mitigating. Greenhouse gas. Emissions, improving. Educational. Opportunities. Creating. Jobs reducing, poverty. And increasing. Gender equality. Renewables. Have entered the mainstream. Topic. Growth, of renewables. In, 2008. For the first time, more renewable, energy than conventional power.

Capacity. Was added in, both the European Union, and United States. Demonstrating. A fundamental. Transition. Of, the world's energy markets. Towards, renewables. According. To a report released by, ren21. A, global, renewable energy. Policy, network based in Paris, in. 2010. Renewable, power consisted. About a third of the newly built power generation, capacities. By the end of 2011, total. Renewable, power capacity, worldwide. Exceeded. 1360. Gigawatts, up 8%. Renewables. Producing. Electricity, accounted. For almost, half of the 208. Gigawatts, of capacity added. Globally. During, 2011. Wind. And solar photovoltaics. PV. Accounted. For almost, 40% and, 30 percent. Based. On ren21. S 2014. Report, renewables, contributed. 19%. To our energy, consumption, and 22%, to, our electricity, generation. In, 2012. And 2013 respectively. This. Energy, consumption. Is divided, as 9%, coming from traditional, biomass. 4.2. Percent as, heat energy non, biomass. Three point eight percent, hydroelectricity. And, two percent electricity. From wind solar geothermal, and. Biomass, during. The five years from the end of 2004. Through, 2009. Worldwide, renewable. Energy, capacity grew. At rates of 10 to 60, percent annually. For many technologies. While, actual, production, grew one-point-two percent, overall. In. 2011. Un, under-secretary-general. Arkham. Steiner said, the, continuing, growth in, this core segment of the green economy is, not happening, by chance. The. Combination. Of government target, setting policy. Support, and stimulus, funds is underpinning. The renewable, industry's, rise and, bringing the much-needed transformation. Of our global, energy system, Within, Reach. He. Added renewable. Energies, are expanding. Both in terms of investment. Projects. And geographical. Spread, in. Doing, so they are making an increasing. Contribution. To combating, climate change, countering. Energy, poverty, and energy, insecurity. According. To a 2011, projection. By the International. Energy Agency, solar. Power plants, may produce most, of the world's electricity within. 50, years, significantly. Reducing. The emissions, of greenhouse gases. That harm, the environment, the. IEA has said, photovoltaic. And, solar thermal. Plants. May meet most of the world's, demand, for electricity, by. 2060. And half of all energy, needs with wind, hydropower. And biomass. Plants, supplying, much of the remaining generation. Photovoltaic. And. Concentrated. Solar power together. Can become the major source, of electricity. In. 2013. China, led the world in renewable, energy, production with, a total, capacity of. 378. Gigawatts, mainly, from hydroelectric, and, wind power as of. 2014. China, leads the world in the production and use of wind power solar, photovoltaic, power, and Smart Grid technologies. Generating. Almost as much water wind, and solar energy, as all of France and Germany's, power plants, combined. China's. Renewable, energy, sector, is growing faster, than its fossil fuels and nuclear power. Capacity. Since. 2005. Production, of solar cells in China has expanded. 100, fold as. Chinese. Renewable. Manufacturing has. Grown the costs, of renewable, energy, technologies. Have dropped. Innovation. Has helped, but the main driver of reduced, costs, has been market, expansion, see, also renewable energy, in the United, States, us figures. Topic. Economic. Trends. Renewable. Energy technologies. Are getting cheaper through technological. Change and through the benefits of mass production and market, competition, a 2011. IEA. Report said. A portfolio. Of renewable, energy, technologies. Is becoming, cost competitive. In an increasingly. Broad range, of circumstances, in. Some, cases, providing. Investment. Opportunities. Without, the need for specific, economic. Support. And. Added. That cost. Reductions. In critical, technologies. Such, as wind, and solar are set to continue, as, of. 2011, there, have been substantial, reductions. In the cost of solar and wind technologies. The. Price of PV modules. Per megawatt, has fallen by 60%, since. The summer of 2008. According, to Bloomberg, New Energy Finance, estimates. Putting, solar power for the first time on a competitive. Footing with the retail price of electricity in. A number of sunny countries. Wind. Turbine, prices, have also fallen, by 18%. Per megawatt, in the last two years reflecting. As with, solar fierce, competition in. The supply chain, further. Improvements. In the levelized, cost, of energy for, solar wind, and other technologies. Lie ahead posing. A growing threat to the dominance, of fossil, fuel generation sources. In the next few years. Hydro. Electricity, and, geothermal electricity. Produced. At favourable, sites are now the cheapest, way to generate, electricity. Renewable. Energy costs, continue to drop and the levelized cost, of electricity, LCOE.

Is Declining, for, wind power solar, photovoltaic, PV. Concentrated. Solar power CSP. And some biomass, technologies, renewable. Energy is also, the most economic, solution, for new grid connected, capacity. In areas, with good resources, as, the. Cost of renewable, power Falls, the scope of economically, viable, applications. Increases. Renewable. Technologies. Are now often the most economic, solution, for new generating. Capacity. Where. Oil fire, generation. Is the predominant. Power generation. Source, eg. On islands, off-grid, and in some countries, a lower-cost, renewable. Solution. Almost, always exists. Today as. Of. 2012, renewable. Power generation, technologies. Accounted. For around half of all new power, generation capacity, additions. Globally, in. 2011. Additions. Included, 41, gigawatt, GW. Of new, wind power capacity 30. Gigawatts, of PV 25. Gigawatts, of hydroelectricity, 6, gigawatts, of biomass. 0.5. Gigawatts, of CSP, and 0.1. Gigawatts, of geothermal power. Topic. 3 generations. Of technologies. Renewable, energy, includes, a number of sources and technologies. At different, stages of commercialization. The. International. Energy Agency, IEA. Has, defined, three generations. Of renewable, energy, technologies. Reaching, back over, 100 years. First generation. Technologies. Emerged, from the Industrial, Revolution at. The end of the 19th, century and, include hydropower, biomass. Combustion, geothermal. Power and heat, these. Technologies. Are quite, widely used, second. Generation, technologies. Include, solar heating, and cooling wind, power modern, forms, of bioenergy, and solar, photovoltaics. These. Are now entering, markets, as a result, of research, development. And demonstration, RD&D. Investments. Since the 1980s. Initial. Investment. Was prompted, by energy, security, concerns, linked, to the oil crises, of the 1970s. But the enduring, appeal of, these technologies. Is due at least in part to, environmental, benefits. Many. Of the technologies. Reflect, significant. Advancements. In materials. Third-generation. Technology. Are still under development and, include advanced biomass. Gasification, by. Refinery, technologies. Concentrating. Solar-thermal power. Hot dry rock geothermal, power and ocean, energy. Advances. In nanotechnology may. Also play, a major role first. Generation. Technologies. Are well established, second-generation.

Technologies. Are entering markets, and third generation. Technologies. Heavily, depend, on long term research and development, commitments, where the public sector, has a role to play. Topic. First, generation. Technologies. First. Generation. Technologies. Are widely used in, locations. With abundant, resources, their, future, use depends. On the exploration of the remaining resource, potential, particularly, in developing countries and, on overcoming, challenges related. To the environment, and social acceptance. Topic. Biomass. Biomass. For heat and power is a fully, mature, technology. Which offers, a ready disposal. Mechanism. For municipal. Agricultural. And industrial, organic. Wastes. However. The industry has, remained, relatively, stagnant, over, the decade, to 2007. Even though demand, for biomass, mostly, wood continues, to grow in many developing, countries. One. Of the problems, of biomass, is that material, directly, combusted. In cook stoves produces. Pollutants, leading, to severe health and environmental, consequences. Although improved, cookstove, programs, are alleviating. Some of these effects. First. Generation. Biomass, technologies. Can be economically. Competitive but. May still require deployment. Support to, overcome public. Acceptance, and small-scale issues. Topic. Hydroelectricity. Hydroelectricity. Is the, term referring, to electricity. Generated. By hydropower, the, production, of electrical, power through the use of the gravitational, force of falling, or flowing water, in. 2015. Hydropower. Generated. Sixteen. Point six percent of, the world's, total electricity. And, seventy percent of all renewable electricity. And, is expected, to increase about, 3.1, percent each year for the next 25. Years. Hydroelectric. Plants, have the advantage, of being long-lived. And many existing, plants, have operated, for more than 100, years. Hydropower. Is produced, in, 150. Countries with, the asia-pacific region, generating. 32. Percent, of global hydropower. In 2010. China. Is the largest, hydroelectricity. Producer. With, 721. Terawatt-hours, of. Production, in 2010. Representing. Around 17%, of, domestic electricity, use. There. Are now 3 hydro, electricity plants. Larger, than 10 gigawatts the, Three Gorges Dam in, China, etai, pou dam across the, brazil paraguay border, and Guri dam in, venezuela. The cost. Of hydroelectricity. Is, low making it a competitive, source, of renewable electricity. The. Average, cost of electricity, from, a hydro, plant larger. Than 10 megawatts, is 3 to 5 US, cents per kilowatt, hour. Topic. Geothermal. Power and heat. Geothermal, power plants. Can operate, 24. Hours per day providing. Base load capacity. Estimates. For the world potential. Capacity for. Geothermal, power generation, very widely, ranging from, 40, gigawatts by, 2020. To as much as 6,000, gigawatts, geothermal. Power capacity. Grew from around one gigawatt, in, 1975. To almost 10 gigawatts in, 2008. The. United, States is the world leader in terms, of installed capacity. Representing. 3.1. Gigawatts. Other. Countries. With significant. Installed, capacity. Include, the Philippines, 1.9. Gigawatts, Indonesia. 1.2. Gigawatts, mexico. 1.0. Gigawatts, italy. 0.8. Gigawatts, iceland. 0.6. Gigawatts, japan. 0.5. Gigawatts, and new zealand. 0.5. Gigawatts. In. Some countries, geothermal. Power accounts. For a significant. Share of the total electricity, supply. Such, as in the Philippines, where, geothermal. Represented. 17, percent of the total power mix at the end of 2008. Geothermal. Ground source, heat pumps. Represented. An estimated, 30 GW. Th of installed, capacity at. The end of 2008. With other direct, uses, of geothermal, heat ie for, space heating, agricultural. Drying and other uses reaching. An estimated 15. GW. Th as, of. 2008. At least 76. Countries, used direct, geothermal energy, in some form. Topic. Second. Generation. Technologies. Second-generation. Technologies. Have gone from being a passion, for the dedicated, feud to a major economic, sector, in countries, such as Germany, Spain. The United, States and Japan.

Many. Large industrial, companies. And financial institutions, are. Involved. And the challenge, is to broaden the market, base for continued, growth worldwide. Topic. Solar, heating. Solar. Heating, systems, are well known second-generation. Technology. And generally, consist of solar, thermal collectors. A fluid, system, to move the heat from the collector, to its point of usage, and a reservoir or, tank for heat storage. The. Systems, may be used to heat domestic, hot water swimming. Pools or homes, and businesses, the heat. Can also be used for industrial process. Application. So as an energy input for other uses, such as cooling equipment in, many warmer, climates, a solar, heating, system, can provide a very high percentage. Fifty, to seventy-five percent, of domestic hot, water energy, as, of. 2009. China, has 27. Million rooftops. Solar, water heaters. Topic. Photovoltaics. Photovoltaic. PV. Cells. Also, called, solar cells, convert, light, into electricity. In. The 1980s. And early 1990s, most. Photovoltaic, modules. Were used to provide remote area, power supply, but from around 1995. Industry. Efforts have focused increasingly, on, developing. Building, integrated photovoltaics. And. Photovoltaic power. Stations for. Grid connected, applications. Many. Solar photovoltaic, power, stations have. Been built mainly, in Europe as, of. July 2012. The largest photovoltaic, PV. Power, plants. In the world of the AG WA Caliente, solar project, USA. 247. Megawatts, Cherenkov. Solar park, India. 214. Megawatts, Golmud, solar, park China, 200. Megawatts, Provo. Solar park, Russia 100. Megawatts, Sarnia. Photovoltaic, power. Plant Canada. 97. Megawatts, Brandenburg. Brist solar, park germany, 91, megawatts, solar, park fin out our germany, eighty four, point seven megawatts, mont alto de, castro, photovoltaic, power, station. Italy eighty four, point two megawatts egg urbex solar park, Germany, eighty three, point six megawatts, senton. Burg solar, park germany, eighty two megawatts, installed, solar. Park, germany. 80 point, seven, megawatts, economy, covo solar park, russia 80 megawatts. That burry solar, farm, Thailand seventy-three, point one six megawatts, row, Vigo photovoltaic, power. Plant Italy. 72, megawatts, and the libros, photovoltaic, Park, Germany, seventy, one point eight megawatts there, are also many, large plants, under construction.

The. Desert sunlight solar, farm, under construction. In Riverside County. California and. Topaz solar farm, being built in San Luis Obispo, County, California, of, both five hundred and five 50 megawatt, solar parks, that will use thin-film, solar photovoltaic, modules. Made by First Solar, the. Blyde solar, power project. Is a 500. Megawatt photovoltaic, station. Under construction, in Riverside County California. The. California Valley, solar ranch CBS. R is a 250. Megawatt, MW. Solar photovoltaic, power. Plant which is being built by Sun power in the Kara's Oak Lane northeast. Of California. Valley, the. 230. Megawatts, Antelope, Valley solar, ranch is, a first solar photovoltaic, project. Which is under construction in, the Antelope, Valley area. Of the Western, Mojave Desert. And due to be completed, in 2013. The. Mesquite, solar, project, is a photovoltaic, solar. Power, plant being built in Arlington, Maricopa. County Arizona owned. By Sempra, generation. Phase. 1 will have a nameplate capacity of. 150. Megawatts. Many of these plants are integrated. With agriculture. And some use innovative, tracking. Systems, that follow the sun's daily, path across the sky to generate. More electricity than. Conventional. Fixed, mounted, systems. There. Are no fuel costs or, emissions, during operation. Of the power stations. Topic. Windpower. Some. Of the second-generation. Renewables. Such, as wind power have, high potential, and have already realized. Relatively. Low production, costs. Wind. Power could become cheaper, than nuclear power global. Wind power installations. Increased, by thirty five thousand, eight hundred megawatts. In 2010, bringing, total installed, capacity up. To one hundred and ninety four, thousand, four hundred megawatts. A twenty, two point five percent increase. On the one hundred and fifty eight thousand, seven hundred megawatts. Installed at, the end of 2009. The. Increase, for twenty ten represents, investments. Totaling, forty, seven point three billion euros, 65. Billion United, States dollars, and for the first time more than half of all new wind power was, added outside, of the traditional markets. Of Europe and North America mainly. Driven by the continuing. Boom in China which accounted, for nearly half of all of the installations. At sixteen, thousand, five hundred megawatts. China. Now has forty. Two thousand, three hundred megawatts. Of wind power, installed. Wind. Power accounts. For approximately nineteen. Percent of electricity, generated. In Denmark, nine percent in Spain and Portugal and, six, percent in Germany, and the Republic, of Ireland, in. Australian. State of South Australia. Wind power championed. By premier Mike Rann, 2002. To 2011 now, comprises, twenty, six percent of the state's electricity. Generation, edging, out coal-fired, power, at. The end of 2011, South, Australia. With 7.2. Percent of, Australia's, population had, 54. Percent, of the nation's installed, wind power capacity, wind power share, of worldwide, electricity. Usage, at the end of 2014, was, 3.1. Percent, these are some of the largest wind farms, in the world as. Of. 2014, the wind industry in the USA, is able, to produce more, power at lower cost. Using, taller wind turbines, with longer, blades capturing. The faster, winds at higher elevations. This. Has opened up new opportunities, and in Indiana Michigan, and Ohio the, price of power from wind turbines, built, 300 feet, to 400, feet above the ground can, now compete, with conventional. Fossil fuels like coal. Prices. Have fallen to about four cents, per kilowatt hour in some cases and, utilities, have been increasing, the amount of wind energy in, their portfolio. Saying, it is the cheapest, option. Topic. Solar. Thermal power, stations. Solar. Thermal power, stations. Include, the, 354. Megawatt, MW. Solar energy, generating. Systems, power plant, in the u.s. sold, over solar, power station. Spain. 150. Megawatts, andis, all solar, power station. Spain, 100. Megawatts, Nevada, solar one u.s.. A 64. Megawatts, PS, 20, solar, power tower Spain, 20, megawatts, in the PS 10 solar power tower Spain, 11, megawatts. The. 370. Megawatts, Eve ampere solar power facility. Located. In California's. Mojave Desert. Is the world's largest solar, thermal power, plant, project currently under construction. Many. Other plants, are under construction. Or planned mainly, in Spain in the USA, in. Developing. Countries, 3 World Bank projects, for integrated. Solar thermal combined. Cycle gas turbine. Power plants, in Egypt, Mexico. And Morocco, have been approved. Topic. Modern, forms, of bioenergy. Global. Ethanol, production for, transport, fuel tripled, between 2000. And 2007. From, 17, billion to more than 52.

Billion, Liters while, biodiesel. Expanded. More than tenfold from, less than 1 billion to almost 11. Billion liters. Biofuels. Provide, 1.8. Percent of, the world's transport, fuel and recent, estimates, indicate. A continued. High growth, the. Main producing, countries, for transport, biofuels. Are the US Brazil, and the EU Brazil. Has one of the largest renewable. Energy, programs, in the world involving. Production, of ethanol fuel from sugarcane and ethanol now provides, 18%. Of the country's automotive. Fuel as a. Result, of this and the exploitation, of, domestic, deep water oil sources. Brazil. Which for years had to import, a large share of the petroleum, needed, for domestic, consumption, recently. Reached complete, self-sufficiency. In liquid, fuels. Nearly. All the gasoline, sold, in the United, States today is mixed, with 10% ethanol a, mix known as e 10 and motor vehicle, manufacturers. Already produce, vehicles, designed to run on much higher ethanol. Blends. Ford. Dame LA Chrysler, and GM are among the automobile. Companies that, sell flexible. Fuel cars trucks, and minivans, that, can use gasoline and ethanol blends, ranging. From pure gasoline, up to 85%, ethanol. 85. The. Challenge, is to expand, the market for biofuels. Beyond, the farm states where they have been most popular to, date the. Energy, Policy Act, of 2005. Which, calls for 7.5. Billion US, gallons 28. Million cubic meters of biofuels. To be used annually by 2012. Will also help to expand, the market the growing ethanol, and biodiesel, industries. Are providing, jobs in plant construction. Operations. And maintenance. In, rural communities. According. To the Renewable, Fuels Association. The. Ethanol industry, created. Almost one, hundred and fifty-four, thousand, US jobs, in, 2005. Alone, boosting. Household, income, by, 5.7. Billion dollars. It. Also, contributed. About, 3.5. Billion dollars, in tax revenues. At the local, state, and federal levels. Topic. Third, generation. Technologies. Third generation renewable. Energy, technologies. Are still under, development and, include advanced, biomass, gasification by. Refinery, technologies. Hot dry rock geothermal. Power and ocean, energy, third. Generation, technologies. Are not yet widely, demonstrated. Or have limited. Commercialization. Many. Are on the horizon and, may have potential, comparable, to other renewable, energy, technologies. But still depend, on attracting, sufficient, attention and, research, and development funding. Topic. New, bioenergy. Technologies. According. To the International. Energy Agency. Cellulosic. Ethanol by, refineries. Could allow biofuels. To play a much bigger role, in the future than organizations. Such as the IEA previously. Fought. Cellulosic. Ethanol can, be made from plant matter composed, primarily, of inedible, cellulose, fibers, that form the stems and branches of, most plants. Crop. Residues, such, as corn stalks, wheat, straw and rice straw, wood waste and municipal solid. Waste of, potential, sources of cellulosic, biomass. Dedicated. Energy, crops such.

As Switchgrass are, also promising, cellulose, sources, that can be sustainably. Produced in, many regions. Topic. Ocean. Energy. Ocean. Energy is all forms, of renewable energy. Derived, from the sea including wave. Energy, tidal, energy river. Current, ocean, current energy offshore. Wind salinity. Gradient, energy, and ocean thermal gradient, energy, the Rance tidal, power station. 240. Megawatts, is the world's first tidal, power station. The. Facility, is located on, the estuary of the Rance River in Brittany, France. Opened. On the 26th. Of November. 1966. It is currently, operated. By electricity de. France and is the largest tidal, power station. In the world in, terms of installed capacity. First. Proposed, more than 30 years ago systems. To harvest, utility-scale. Electrical. Power from, ocean waves have, recently, been gaining momentum as, a viable technology. The. Potential. For this technology is, considered, promising, especially on, west facing coasts. With latitudes. Between 40. And 60, degrees. In. The United, Kingdom for, example the. Carbon, Trust recently. Estimated the, extent, of the economically. Viable offshore. Resource, at 55, terawatt-hours, per, year about, 14%, of current national, demand. Across. Europe, the technologically. Achievable, resource, has been estimated to, be at least 280. Terawatt-hours. Per, year in. 2003. The US Electric, Power Research Institute. EPRI, estimated. The viable, resource in, the United, States at. 255. Terawatt. Hours, per year 6%, of demand. There. Are currently nine projects, completed. Or in development off the coasts of the United Kingdom. United States, Spain, and Australia, to harness the rise and fall of waves, by Ocean Power Technologies. The. Current maximum power output is, one point five megawatts, Reedsport. Oregon, with development, underway, for 100. Megawatts, Coos Bay Oregon. Topic. Enhanced. Geothermal systems. As. Of. 2008. Geothermal. Power development. Was underway, in more than 40, countries partially. Attributable, to the development. Of new technologies. Such, as enhanced. Geothermal systems. The. Development. Of binary cycle power, plants, and improvements. In drilling and extraction, technology. May enable enhanced geothermal, systems. Over, a much greater, geographical. Range than, traditional. Geothermal. Systems. Demonstration. EGS, projects. Are operational. In the US Australia Germany. France. And the United Kingdom. Topic. Advanced. Solar concepts. Beyond. The already, established, solar, photovoltaics, and. Solar, thermal power, technologies. As such advanced, solar concepts. As the solar updraft tower. Or space-based. Solar power, these. Concepts. Have yet to if, ever be commercialized. The. Solar. Updraft tower, SUT. Is a renewable, energy power, plant for, generating, electricity, from, low-temperature solar, heat. Sunshine. Heats the air beneath a very wide greenhouse, like roof, collector, structure, surrounding, the central base of a very tall chimney, tower the. Resulting, convection. Causes, a hot air updraft, in the tower by the chimney effect, this. Airflow drives, wind turbines, placed, in the chimney updraft, or around, the chimney base to produce electricity. Fans. For scaled up versions, of demonstration. Models, will allow significant. Power generation, and may allow development, of other applications. Such as water extraction. Or distillation, and agriculture. Or horticulture. A, more. Advanced, version of a similarly, themed technology. Is the vortex, engine Avenue. Which aims to replace large, physical chimneys. With a vortex, of air created. By a shorter, less expensive. Structure. Space-based. Solar power SB, SP is the concept. Of collecting, solar power in space using. An SPS. That. Is a solar. Power, satellite. Or a, satellite. Power, system. For. Use on earth it, has been in research, since, the early 1970s. SB. SP, would differ from current, solar collection, methods, in that the means used, to collect energy, would reside, on an orbiting, satellite instead. Of on Earth's surface. Some. Projected, benefits of such a system, or a higher collection. Rate in a longer, collection, period due to the lack of a diffusing, atmosphere. And night time in space. You. Topic. Renewable.

Energy, Industry. Total. Investment, in renewable, energy, reached, 211. Billion dollars, in 2010, up from, 160. Billion dollars, in 2009. The. Top countries, for investment, in 2010. Were. China. Germany, the, United, States Italy, and Brazil. Continued. Growth for the renewable, energy sector is, expected, and promotional, policies, helped, the industry weather the 2009. Economic, crisis, better than many other sectors. Topic. Wind, power companies. As. Of. 2010, Vestas, from Denmark is the world's top wind turbine, manufacturer. In terms of percentage, of market volume and sign oval from China is in second, place, together. Vestas. And sign oval delivered, ten thousand, two hundred and, twenty eight megawatts, of new wind power capacity, in 2010. And their market, share was twenty, five point nine percent. GE. Energy USA. Was in third place closely. Followed, by gold, wind another Chinese, supplier. German. Enecon, ranks, fifth in the world and is followed, in sixth place by, Indian, bases lon. Topic. Photovoltaic. Market. Trends. The, solar PV market has been growing for the past few, years. According. To solar, PV, research, company, PV, in sites worldwide, shipment. Of solar modules, in 2011. Was around 25, gigawatts. And the shipment year-over-year, growth, was. Around 40 percent, the. Top 5 solar, module, players in 2011. Interns a Sun Tech First Solar Yingli. Trina and Sungmin, the. Top five solar, module, companies, possessed. 51.3%. Market. Share of solar, modules. According, to peeve insights, market, intelligence report. The. PV industry has. Seen drops in module, prices since, 2008. In. Late 2011, factory. Gate prices for, crystalline, silicon, photovoltaic, modules. Dropped, below the $1, per W mark the. $1.00 per W installed, cost is often regarded in, the PV industry as, marking, the achievement, of grid parity for PV, these. Reductions, have taken, many stakeholders. Including. Industry, analysts, by surprise, and perceptions. Of current solar power economics. Often, lags behind reality. Some. Stakeholders. Still have the perspective that Solar PV remains too, costly, on an unsubsidized. Basis, to compete with conventional. Generation, options. Yet. Technological. Advancements. Manufacturing. Process, improvements. And industry. Restructuring mean. That further price reductions. Are likely, in coming, years. Topic. Non, technical, barriers, to acceptance.

Many, Energy, markets. Institutions. And policies, have been developed, to support the production, and use of fossil, fuels. Newer. And cleaner technologies. May offer social, and environmental benefits, but. Utility, operators. Often reject, renewable, resources, because, they are trained to think only in terms of big conventional. Power plants. Consumers. Often ignore, renewable, power systems. Because, they are not given accurate, price signals, about electricity. Consumption. Intentional. Market, distortions. Such as subsidies. And unintentional. Market, distortions. Such as split incentives. May work against, renewables. Benjamin. Caso vocal has argued, that some. Of the most surreptitious. Yet, powerful. Impediments. Facing, renewable, energy, and energy efficiency in. The United, States are more about, culture, and institutions than. Engineering, and science. The. Obstacles. To the widespread. Commercialization. Of renewable, energy, technologies. Are primarily, political, not technical, and there have been many studies which. Have identified. A range of non, technical. Barriers, to. Renewable, energy use, these, barriers, are impediments which, put renewable, energy, at a marketing. Institutional. Or policy, disadvantage. Relative, to other forms, of energy. Key. Barriers, include. Difficulty. Overcoming, established, energy systems, which includes, difficulty. Introducing. Innovative energy, systems, particularly. For distributed. Generations. Such as photovoltaics. Because. Of technological lock-in. Electricity. Markets, designed, for centralized, power plants, and market, control, by established. Operators. As the. Stern Review on the economics. Of climate change points, out national. Grids, are usually, tailored, towards, the operation. Of centralized. Power plants. And thus favor their performance. Technologies. That do not easily, fit into these network. May struggle to enter, the market, even, if the technology itself. Is commercially. Viable. This. Applies, to distributed. Generation, as, most grids are not suited, to receive, electricity. From many small sources. Large-scale. Renewables. May also encounter, problems. If they are sited, in areas, far from existing. Grids. Lack. Of government, policy, support, which includes the lack of policies, and regulations, supporting. Deployment. Of renewable, energy, technologies. And the presence, of policies, and regulations, hindering. Renewable, energy, development, and supporting, conventional. Energy development. Examples. Include subsidies. For fossil fuels. Insufficient. Consumer, based renewable, energy, incentives government. Underwriting, for, nuclear, plant accidents. And complex, zoning, and permitting processes, for, renewable, energy. Lack. Of information, dissemination. And consumer, awareness. Higher. Capital cost of, renewable, energy, technologies. Compared, with conventional energy. Technologies. Inadequate. Financing. Options, for renewable, energy projects. Including. Insufficient. Access to affordable, financing. For project, developers, entrepreneurs and. Consumers. Imperfect. Capital, markets, which includes, failure, to internalize, all costs, of conventional energy. Eg effects. Of air pollution risk, of supply disruption. And failure, to internalize. All benefits, of renewable energy. Eg cleaner. Air energy security. Inadequate. Workforce, skills, and training which includes, lack of adequate, scientific. Technical, and manufacturing. Skills required, for renewable, energy production, lack, of reliable, installation. Maintenance and, inspection. Services. And failure, of the educational. System to, provide adequate, training, in new technologies. Lack. Of adequate codes, standards. Utility. Interconnection. And, metering, guidelines. Poor. Public perception. Of renewable, energy, system, aesthetics. Lack. Of stakeholder. Community, participation. And cooperation in. Energy choices and, renewable, energy projects. With such a wide range of, non-technical, barriers, there is no silver. Bullet, solution, to, drive the transition. To renewable, energy so. Ideally, there is a need for several. Different types of policy, instruments. To complement, each other and overcome, different, types of barriers a policy, framework must, be created, that will level the playing field and, redress the imbalance of.

Traditional, Approaches, associated. With fossil fuels the. Policy, landscape must. Keep pace with broad, trends, within the energy sector, as well as reflecting. Specific, social economic. And environmental priorities. Some. Resource, rich countries, struggle, to move away from fossil fuels, and have failed thus far to adopt regulatory. Frameworks, necessary. For developing, renewable energy. Eg Russia. Topic. Public. Policy, landscape. Public. Policy, has a role, to play in renewable, energy, commercialization. Because. The free-market system has, some fundamental, limitations. As the. Stern Review points. Out, in. A liberalized, energy, market, investors. Operators. And consumers, should face the full cost of their decisions. But. This is not the case in many economies, or energy, sectors. Many. Policies, distort, the market, in favor of existing, fossil fuel, technologies. The. International. Solar, energy, society, has stated, that, historical. Incentives. For the conventional. Energy resources. Continue. Even today to bias, markets. By burying, many of the real societal. Costs, of their use. Fossil. Fuel energy systems. Have different production. Transmission. And end-use costs, and characteristics. Than do renewable, energy, systems, and new, promotional, policies, are needed to ensure that renewable. Systems develop. As quickly and broadly, as is socially, desirable, Lester. Brown states, that the market, does, not incorporate, the, indirect. Costs, of providing goods. Or services. Into prices, it does not value nature's. Services. Adequately. And it does not respect, the sustainable. Yield thresholds. Of natural, systems. It. Also favors. The near-term over, the long term thereby, showing limited, concern, for future, generations. Tax. And subsidy, shifting, can help overcome these problems though. Is also problematic, to combine different, international, normative. Regimes, regulating. This issue. Topic. Shifting. Taxes. Tax, shifting, has been widely discussed and, endorsed, by economists, it. Involves. Lowering income, taxes, while raising levies, on environmentally. Destructive activities. In order to create a more responsive. Market. For. Example a tax on coal that included, the increased, healthcare costs, associated, with breathing, polluted air the costs, of acid rain damage, and the costs of climate disruption. Would encourage investment. In renewable, technologies. Several. Western, European, countries, are already shifting, taxes, in a process, known there as environmental. Tax reform, in 2001. Sweden. Launched, a new ten-year environmental. Tax shift designed, to convert 30 billion kroner, 3.9. Billion dollars, of income taxes, - taxes, on environmentally. Destructive activities. Other. European. Countries, with significant. Tax reform, efforts, of France Italy, Norway. Spain. And the United, Kingdom. Asia's. Two leading economies. Japan, and China are, considering. Carbon, taxes. Topic. Shifting, subsidies, just as, there is a need for tax, shifting, there is also a need for subsidy. Shifting. Subsidies. Are not an inherently, bad thing as many technologies. And industries emerged, through, government, subsidy, schemes, the. Stern Review explains. That of 20 key innovations. From the past 30 years only, one of the 14, was funded, entirely, by the private, sector and, 9 were totally, publicly, funded, in. Terms, of specific, examples. The internet was the result, of publicly, funded links, among computers. In government, laboratories, and research institutes. And the. Combination. Of the federal tax deduction. And the robust, state tax deduction, in California. Helped to create the modern wind power industry Lester. Brown has argued, that a world facing, the prospect of economically. Disruptive. Climate change can no longer justify, subsidies. To expand, the burning of coal and oil. Shifting. These subsidies, to, the development. Of climate, benign energy, sources, such, as wind solar. Biomass. And, geothermal power. Is the key to stabilizing, the earth's climate. The. International. Solar, energy, society advocates. Leveling, the playing field, by redressing, the continuing, inequities, in public, subsidies, of energy technologies. And R&D. In which the fossil, fuel and nuclear power, received, the largest, share of financial support, some, countries, are eliminating. Or reducing climate. Disrupting. Subsidies, in Belgium, France, and, Japan have, phased out all subsidies, for coal.

Germany. Is reducing. Its coal subsidy, the, subsidy, dropped from five point four billion dollars, in 1989. To 2.8. Billion dollars, in 2002. And in the process. Germany, lowered its coal use by 46. Percent. China. Cut its coal subsidy, from, 750. Million dollars, in 1993. To, 240. Million dollars, in 1995. And, more recently, has imposed, a high sulfur, coal tax. However. The United, States has been increasing, its support for the fossil, fuel and nuclear industries. In November. 2011, an IEA, report entitled. Deploying, renewables, 2011. Said subsidies. In green energy technologies. That were not yet competitive. Are justified. In order, to give an incentive to investing, into technologies. With clear environmental. And energy security. Benefits. The. IEA s report, disagreed. With claims that renewable. Energy technologies. Are only viable through, costly, subsidies, and not able to produce energy reliably. To meet demand, a fair and efficient, imposition. Of subsidies, for renewable, energies, and aiming, at sustainable. Development, however, require, coordination. And regulation. At a global level as subsidies. Granted, in one country can easily disrupt, industries, and policies, of others, thus underlining, the relevance, of this issue at the World Trade Organization no zation. Topic. Renewable. Energy, targets. Setting. National renewable, energy targets. Can be an important, part of a renewable, energy policy. And these targets, are usually, defined, as a percentage, of the primary, energy and/or. Electricity. Generation, mix. For. Example the European, Union, has prescribed, an indicative, renewable. Energy, target, of 12%. Of the total EU energy, mix and 22%. Of, electricity, consumption. By, 2010. National. Targets for, individual, EU Member States have also been set to meet the overall target, other. Developed. Countries, with defined, national, or regional targets. Include, Australia, Canada, Israel. Japan Korea. New Zealand, Norway, Singapore. Switzerland. And some US states national. Targets are also an important, component of, renewable, energy strategies. In some developing, countries. Developing. Countries with. Renewable energy, targets, include, China India. Indonesia Malaysia. The, Philippines, Thailand. Brazil, Egypt. Mali and South, Africa, the, targets. Set by many, developing, countries, are quite modest, when compared, with those in some industrialized. Countries, renewable. Energy targets, in most countries, are indicative, and non-binding, but they have assisted government. Actions, and regulatory, frameworks. The. United, Nations, Environment, Program has suggested. That making, renewable energy. Targets, legally, binding, could be an important, policy tool, to achieve higher, renewable energy. Market, penetration. Topic. Leveling. The playing field. The, IEA has identified. Three, actions, which will allow renewable, energy, and other clean energy technologies. To more, effectively. Compete, for private, sector capital. First. Energy, prices, must, appropriately. Reflect, the true. Cost of energy, eg. Through carbon, pricing. So that the positive and, negative, impacts, of energy production, and consumption, of, fully taken, into account. Example. New UK, nuclear, plants, cost 92. Pounds and 50 pence per megawatt, hour whereas. Offshore, windfarms. In the UK is supported, with 74. Euros, and 20 cents per megawatt, hour at, a price of, 150. Pounds in 2011. Falling, to 130. Pounds per megawatt, hour in, 2022. In. Denmark, the price can be 84. Euros, per megawatt hour. Second. Inefficient. Fossil fuel, subsidies. Must, be removed, while ensuring. That all citizens, have access to affordable energy. Third government's, must develop policy. Frameworks, that encourage, private, sector investment. In lower carbon, energy options. Topic. Green, stimulus. Programs. In response, to the global financial, crisis. In the late 2000s. The world's major governments. Made green. Stimulus. Programs. One of their main policy, instruments. For supporting, economic, recovery, some. 188. Billion United, States dollars, in green stimulus, funding, had been allocated to renewable. Energy and energy efficiency to.

Be Spent mainly, in 2010. And in 2011. Topic. Energy. Sector, regulation. Public. Policy, determines. The extent to which renewable. Energy re is to be incorporated. Into a developed, or developing countries. Generation. Mix. Energy. Sector, regulators, implement. That policy, thus. Affecting, the pace and pattern of reinvestments. And connections, to the grid energy. Regulators. Often, have authority to. Carry out a number of functions, that have implications for, the financial. Feasibility of, renewable. Energy, projects. Such. Functions. Include, issuing, licenses, setting. Performance, standards, monitoring. The performance of regulated, firms determining. The price level and structure, of tariffs, establishing. Uniform systems. Of accounts, arbitrating. Stakeholder. Disputes, like interconnection. Cost allocations. Performing. Management, audits, developing. Agency, human resources. Expertise. Reporting. Sector, and Commission activities, to government, authorities and, coordinating. Decisions, with other government, agencies. Thus. Regulators. Make a wide range of decisions, that affect the financial, outcomes. Associated, with, reinvestments. In. Addition, the sector regulator, is in a position to, give advice to the government regarding, the full implications. Of focusing, on climate, change or, energy, security. The. Energy, sector, regulator, is the natural, advocate, for efficiency. And cost containment, throughout, the process of designing, and implementing, read, policies. Since. Policies, are not self implementing. Energy, sector, regulators, become, a key facilitator. Or blocker, of renewable, energy, investments. Topic. Energy. Transition. In Germany. The, energiewende, German. For energy transition. Is the transition, by Germany, to a low-carbon. Environmentally. Sound reliable. And affordable, energy. Supply, the. New system, will rely heavily on renewable. Energy particularly. Wind, photovoltaics. And, biomass. Energy, efficiency. And energy demand, management. Most. If not all existing. Coal-fired generation. Will need to be retired, the. Phase-out, of Germany's, fleet of nuclear, reactors, to be complete, by 2022. Is a key, part of the program legislative. Support, for the energiewende, was. Passed in late 2010. And includes, greenhouse, gas, GHG. Reductions. Of 80 to 95, percent by. 2050. Relative, to 1990. And a renewable, energy target, of 60 percent by 2050. These. Targets, are ambitious, the, Berlin based Policy, Institute Agora. Energiewende, noted. That while, the German, approach is not unique, worldwide, the speed and scope of the energiewende, are, exceptional. The. Energiewende, also. Seeks a greater transparency, in, relation, to national. Energy policy, formation. Germany. Has made significant. Progress on, its GHG. Emissions, reduction, target achieving. A 27, percent decrease. Between, 1990. And 2014. However. Germany, will need to maintain an, average GHG. Emissions, abatement, rate of 3.5. Percent, per annum to reach its energiewende, goal, equal, to the maximum, historical. Value thus far Germany, spends, 1.5. Billion euros, per annum on energy, research, 2013. Figure in an effort to solve the technical and social issues, raised, by the transition. This. Includes, a number of computer, studies, that have confirmed, the feasibility, and, a similar cost relative. To business, as usual and, given that carbon, is adequately, priced, of the energiewende. These, initiatives, go, well beyond, European, Union legislation.

And The national, policies, of other European, states, the. Policy, objectives, have been embraced by the German, federal government, and has resulted in a huge expansion. Of renewables, particularly. Wind power. Germany's. Share of renewables. Has increased, from around five percent in, 1999. To twenty two point nine percent in, 2012. Surpassing. The OECD. Average of, 18 percent usage, of renewables. Producers. Have been guaranteed, a fixed, feed-in, tariff for 20 years guaranteeing. A fixed income. Energy. Cooperatives, have, been created, and efforts, were made to decentralize. Control, and profits. The. Large energy, companies have. A disproportionately. Small share of the renewables, market. However. In some cases poor. Investment. Designs have caused bankruptcies. And low returns, and unrealistic. Promises. Have been shown to be far from reality. Nuclear. Power plants, were closed and the existing, nine plants, will close earlier, than planned in 2022. One. Factor, that has inhibited, efficient, employment, of new renewable, energy, has been the lack of an accompanying, investment. In power infrastructure. To bring the power to market, it. Is believed. 8300. Kilometers of power lines must, be built or upgraded. The. Different, German states have varying, attitudes. To the construction, of new power lines. Industry. Has had their rates frozen, and so the increased, costs, of the energiewende, have. Been passed on to consumers, who have had rising, electricity bills. Topic. Voluntary. Market, mechanisms. For renewable, electricity. Voluntary. Markets, also referred. To as green power, markets, are driven by consumer, preference. Voluntary. Markets, allow a consumer. To choose to do more than policy decisions, require, and reduce the environmental impact. Of their electricity. Use. Voluntary. Green power products, must offer a significant. Benefit, and value to, buyers to be successful. Benefits. May include zero. Or reduced, greenhouse gas, emissions, other pollution.

Reductions. Or other environmental. Improvements. On power stations. The. Driving, factors, behind voluntary. Green electricity, within, the EU are the liberalized, electricity. Markets, and the res directive. According. To the directive. The EU member states must ensure, that the origin, of electricity, produced. From renewables, can be guaranteed and, therefore, guarantee. Of origin, must. Be issued article. 15. Environmental. Organizations. Are using the voluntary, market to create new renewables. And improving sustainability of. The existing, power production, in. The u.s. the main tool to track and stimulate, voluntary. Actions, is greenie program. Managed, by center, for resource solutions. In. Europe the main voluntary. Tool used, by the NGOs, to promote sustainable. Electricity, production is echo energy, label. Topic. Recent. Developments. A number. Of events in 2006. Pushed renewable, energy, up the political, agenda including. The u.s. midterm, elections, in November which confirmed, clean energy, as a mainstream issue. Also. In, 2006. The Stern Review made, a strong, economic case, for investing in, low-carbon. Technologies, now and argued, that economic, growth need, not be incompatible, with cutting energy consumption. According. To a trend analysis, from the United, Nations Environment Programme. Climate, change concerns, coupled, with recent, high oil prices and, increasing, government support. Or driving increasing. Rates of investment. In the renewable, energy and energy efficiency, industries. Investment. Capital, flowing into renewable, energy, reached a record, 77. Billion United. States dollars, in, 2007. With the upward trend continuing. In 2008. The. OECD. Still, dominates, but there is now increasing. Activity from. Companies, in China India and, Brazil. Chinese. Companies, were the second, largest recipient of, venture, capital, in 2006. After the United, States in. The, same year India, was the largest net buyer of companies, abroad mainly, in the more established, European, markets, new government, spending, regulation. And policies. Helped, the industry weather the, 2009. Economic, crisis, better than many other sectors. Most. Notably, US, President, Barack Obama's. American, Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Of 2009. Included. More than 70, billion dollars in direct spending and, tax credits for, clean energy and, associated. Transportation. Programs. This. Policy, stimulus, combination. Represents. The largest federal, commitment. In US history for, renewables, advanced. Transportation. And energy conservation. Initiatives. Based. On these new rules many, more utilities. Strengthen. Their clean energy, programs. Clean. Edge suggests. That the commercialization. Of energy, will help countries, around the world deal, with the current economic malaise. Once. Promising, solar, energy, company Solyndra. Became involved in a political controversy, involving. US President, Barack Obama's. Administration's. Authorization. Of a, 535. Million dollars, loan guarantee. To the corporation. In 2009. As part of a program, to promote alternative, energy. Growth, the. Company, ceased all business, activity. Filed, for chapter, 11 bankruptcy, and. Laid off nearly all of its employees, in early September, 2011, in his the 24th, of January, 2012, State, of the Union address. President Barack. Obama, restated. His commitment, to renewable energy. Obama. Said, that he will, not walk away from, the promise of clean energy. Obama. Called, for a commitment, by the Defense, Department. To purchase, 1,000. Megawatts, of renewable energy. He. Also mentioned. The long-standing, Interior. Department, commitment, to permit 10,000. Megawatts of, renewable energy. Projects. On public land, in 2012. As of 2012, renewable. Energy plays a major role in the energy mix of many countries, globally. Renewables. Are becoming increasingly, economic. In both developing. And developed countries. Prices. For renewable, energy technologies. Primarily. Wind power and solar power, continued. To drop making, renewables. Competitive. With conventional energy, sources. Without. A level, playing field however, high, market, penetration of. Renewables, is still dependent, on robust, promotional. Policies. Fossil. Fuel subsidies. Which, are far higher than those for renewable. Energy remain. In place and quickly need to be phased out United. Nations secretary-general, ban ki-moon. Has, said that renewable. Energy has, the ability, to lift, the poorest, nations, to new levels of prosperity. In, October, 2011, he, announced, the creation of, a high-level group to drum up support for, energy access energy. Efficiency. And greater use of renewable. Energy, the. Group is to be co-chaired, by candarian, Keller, the chair of un energy and Director, General, of the UN Industrial, Development Organisation.

And, Charles, Holliday, chairman, of Bank of America worldwide. Use of solar power and wind power continued. To grow significantly. In 2012. Solar. Electricity, consumption. Increased. By 58, percent to. 93, terawatt-hours. Twh. Use. Of wind power in 2012, increased. By 18 point 1 percent to. 520. 1.3. Terawatt-hours. Global. Solar and wind energy installed. Capacities. Continued. To expand, even though new investments. In these technologies. Declined, during 2012. Worldwide. Investment. In solar power in 2012, was. 140. Point four billion dollars, an 11, percent decline from 2011. And wind power investment. Was down 10.1, percent to, 80 point, 3 billion dollars, but. Due to lower production costs for, both technologies. Total, installed, capacities. Grew sharply, this. Investment, declined, but growth in installed, capacity. May again occur in 2013. Analysts. Expect, the market to triple by 2030. In. 2015. Investment. In renewables, exceeded. Fossils. Topic. 100%. Renewable, energy. The, incentive, to use 100%. Renewable, energy, for electricity, transport. Or even, total, primary energy supply, globally. Has been motivated. By global. Warming and, other ecological as. Well as economic. Concerns. The. Intergovernmental. Panel on, Climate Change, has, said that there are few fundamental. Technological. Limits to integrating. A portfolio. Of renewable energy. Technologies. To meet most of the total, global energy demand. In. Reviewing. 164. Recent, scenarios, of future, renewable, energy, growth the report noted that the majority, expected. Renewable, sources to supply more than 17%. Of total energy. By 2030, and, 27%. By, 2050. The highest forecast, projected. 43%. Supplied, by renewables. By 2030, and, 77%. By, 2050. Renewable. Energy use has grown, much faster than, even advocates, anticipated. At, the national, level at least 30, nations, around the world already, have renewable, energy, contributing. More than 20%. Of energy, supply. Mark. Z Jacobson. Professor. Of civil and environmental, engineering. At Stanford University. And director, of its atmosphere and, energy program says, producing. All new energy, with wind power solar. Power and, hydropower.

By 2030. Is feasible, and existing. Energy supply arrangements, could be replaced by 2050. Barriers. To implementing, the renewable, energy plan are seen to be primarily. Social. And political not. Technological. Or economic. Jacobson. Says that energy costs, with a wind solar, water, system, should be similar, to today's, energy, costs, similarly, in the United, States the independent. National Research, Council, has noted, that, sufficient. Domestic. Renewable resources. Exist. To allow renewable. Electricity, to, play a significant. Role in future, electricity, generation. And, thus help, front issues, related. To climate change, energy, security. And the escalation, of energy, costs, renewable, energy is an attractive, option because. Renewable. Resources, available. In the United, States taken. Collectively can. Supply, significantly. Greater amounts. Of electricity. Than the total current, or projected. Domestic, demand. The. Most significant. Barriers, to the widespread implementation of. Large-scale renewable, energy. And low-carbon. Energy strategies. Are primarily political and, not technological. According. To the 2013, post-carbon. Pathways. Report, which reviewed, many international, studies, that key road blocks are climate, change denial, the fossil, fuels Lobby political. Inaction, unsustainable. Energy consumption. Outdated. Energy infrastructure. And financial. Constraints. Topic. Energy. Efficiency. Moving. Towards, energy sustainability. Will, require, changes. Not only in the way energy is supplied but, in the way it is used and reducing. The amount of energy required, to deliver various. Goods or services, is essential. Opportunities. For improvement, on the demand side of the energy, equation are. As rich and diverse as, those on the supply side and often, offer significant. Economic benefits. A sustainable. Energy economy. Requires commitments. To both renewables. And efficiency. Renewable. Energy, and energy efficiency are. Said to be the twin. Pillars of. Sustainable. Energy policy, the, American, Council, for an energy-efficient. Economy has explained, that both resources, must, be developed, in order to stabilize and, reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Efficiency. Is essential, to slowing, the energy, demand growth so that rising, clean energy, supplies, can make deep cuts in, fossil, fuel use if. Energy, use grows too fast renewable. Energy development, will, chase a receding, target. Likewise. Unless clean energy, supplies, come online rapidly, slowing, demand growth, will only begin to reduce total, emissions, reducing. The carbon content, of energy sources, is also needed the, IEA. Has stated. That renewable. Energy and energy efficiency, policies. Are complementary. Tools for the development, of a sustainable energy, future and should be developed, together instead, of being developed in isolation. Topic. C also. You. Topic. Lists. Topic. Topics. Equals. Equals, equals, people.

2019-07-05 19:53

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Bei meiner über 20 Jahre alten PV-Anlage kostet mich das kWh von Sonnenaufgang bis Sonnenuntergang ca. 0 Cent, also an 3500 bis 4000 Stunden im Jahr und es kommen immer noch leicht über 1000 kWh/kWp. Das kann kein Kernfusionsreaktor kein Kernkraftwerk oder Kohlekraftwerk zu dem Preis an meine Steckdose liefern. Solarstrom ist die günstigste Stromquelle für den Bürger aber nicht die einzige.

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