5 New Battery Technologies That Could CHANGE EVERYTHING
Batteries, are everywhere in today's hyper-connected. Electrically, propelled, society. I bet a battery is powering the device you're watching this video on right now, do you have low battery status. What if you didn't have to charge your phone again for another month. What if your electric car could travel 1000, miles on a single charge. Charge in 10 minutes, and last for 1 million miles. For this video, we collaborated, with a team of scientists, to sort through the current battery research, and evaluate, the most promising new technologies, based on performance. Practicality. And economics. We waited to publish this video until after tesla's battery day so we could take their announcements, into consideration. And have the most accurate snapshot, of the current battery landscape. Today, just about every electric car uses lithium-ion. Batteries, they're pretty good but ultimately, are heavy and have long charging times for the amount of energy they can store. To add insult to injury, the energy density, of decomposed, organisms, destructively, drilled from the earth still achieve more than 100 times the energy density of the batteries used in most electric cars. One kilogram, of gasoline, contains about 48 megajoules, of energy, and lithium-ion. Battery packs, only contain about 0.3, megajoules, of energy per kilogram. What's more, lithium batteries degrade with each charging, cycle, gradually, losing capacity, over the battery's lifetime. Researchers, often compare batteries by the number of full cycles until the battery has only 80 percent of its original energy capacity, remaining. According to elon musk, battery modules, are the main limiting, factor in electric vehicle life, in 2019. He said the tesla model 3 drive unit is rated for 1 million miles, but the battery, only lasts for 300, 000 to 500, 000 miles, or about 1500. Charge cycles. While energy density and lifetime, improvements, to batteries, appear to be the most crucial issues, there are environmental. And geopolitical, problems, associated, with current lithium-ion, batteries which are equally, if not more pressing to solve to reach the battery of tomorrow. Over 80 percent of the world's lithium deposits, are found in china, leading to questions of international, dependence, on this monopoly, of an element, on which the world depends for technology, to function. Current technology, also relies heavily on cobalt. An element mostly found in the democratic, republic of congo. The mining industry of the world's largest producer, is often made up of competing, rebel militias, that use child labor. Much is illegally exported, and directly, funds armed conflict, in the region. Additionally. The camps often create conditions, which drive deforestation. And an array of human rights abuses. To handle the predicted, demand explosion for electric vehicles, over the coming decades. We'll need to create better batteries that are cheaper, longer lasting, more durable, and more efficient. We must also address the issues of political and environmental, sustainability. To ensure batteries remain tenable, in an increasingly, electric, future. Many questions were answered after tesla's, long-awaited, battery day took place on september, 22nd. The palo alto automaker, announced a larger, tables. 4680. Battery cell with improved energy density, greater ease of manufacturing. And lower cost. The king-size, cells make use of an improved design that eliminates, the tabs normally found in lithium-ion, batteries that transfer the cell's energy to an external, source. Instead, tesla, basically took the existing, foils laser-powdered, them and enabled dozens of connections, into the active material, through this shingled spiral. This more efficient, cell design alleviates, thermal issues and simplifies, the manufacturing, process. Tesla, also introduced, high nickel cathodes, that eliminate the need for cobalt, and improved silicon battery chemistry, in which they stabilize, the surface with an elastic, ion conducting, polymer coating, that allows for a higher percentage. Of cheap commodified, silicon, to be used in cell manufacture. Altogether, these changes create an expected, 56. Improvement in tesla's cost per kilowatt hour, and the new 4680. Cells expect to achieve a five times increase in energy storage. A sixteen percent increase in range, and a six times increase in power. Tesla hopes the improved cell design will allow them to achieve an eventual production target of three terawatt, hours per year by 2030. And help scale the world's transition, to ubiquitous. Long-distance, electric. Vehicles. After tesla's, recent battery day the world's attention is now more focused on batteries than ever before, but tesla isn't the only show in town.
In The following video we're going to explore five exciting new battery technologies, that could change everything. Metal air batteries have been around for a while, you might find a little zinc air button cell in hearing aid for example, but scaled up aluminum, and lithium, air chemistries, are also promising for the automotive, and aerospace, industries. The potential for lightweight, batteries with high energy storage, makes this battery technology, promising. Lithium air batteries could have a maximum, theoretical, specific, energy, of 3, 460. Watt hours per kilogram. Almost 10 times more than lithium, ion. Realistic, battery packs would probably be closer to 1000, watt hours per kilogram, initially, but this is still three to five times higher than lithium-ion, batteries can achieve. As usual this technology, is not without its drawbacks. Current electrodes, of lithium-air, batteries tend to clog with lithium, salts after only a few tens of cycles. Most researchers, are using porous forms of carbon to transmit air to the liquid electrolytes. Feeding pure oxygen to the batteries, is one solution, but it's a potential safety hazard in the automotive, environment. Researchers, at the university, of illinois, found that they could prevent this clogging by using molybdenum, disulfide, nanoflakes, to catalyze, the formation, of a thin coating of lithium peroxide, on the electrodes. Their test battery ran for 700, cycles, compared to just 11 cycles of an equivalent, with an uncoated, electrode. While this isn't enough lifetime, for a car it's a promising hint of things to come, more on nanotechnology. Later. Nasa researchers, have also been investigating, lithium-air, batteries for use in aircraft, they believe that once their research, cell is optimized. They should be looking at around 800, to 900, watt hours per kilogram. Powerful enough to reach the high power requirements, of takeoff. But they too are struggling, with low battery life, for them the solutions, will boil down to improvements, in the electrolyte. In an interview with chemical and engineering, news, researchers, commented. From an organic chemistry perspective, the challenge of lithium oxygen is that you're basically asking electrolyte. To face many of the harshest, reactive, oxygen species, possible. They are now investigating. Molten salt electrolytes. But hope to carry over the research into solid state alternatives, in the future, to improve battery lifetime, and cyclability.
This Technology, still has a long way to go before you take your next business trip in an electric passenger, jet but the promise of such high specific, energy will hold researchers, interest for the foreseeable, future, driven on by the promising advances, made in recent years. Nanotechnology. Has been a buzzword for several decades, but is now finding applications, in everything from nanoelectronics. To biomedical, engineering. And body armor to extra slippery clothing irons. Nanomaterials. Make use of particles, and structures, one to 100, nanometers. In size. Essentially, one size up from the molecular, scale. The magic is that they behave in unusual, ways because this small size, bridges the gap between that which operates, under the rules of quantum physics. And those of our familiar, macro, world. As we've seen one of the challenges, in battery design is the physical expansion of lithium electrodes, as they charge. Researchers, at purdue, university, made use of antimony, nano chain electrodes, last year, to enable this material, to replace graphite, or carbon metal composite, electrodes. By structuring, the metalloid, element in this nano chain net shape. Extreme, expansion, can be accommodated, within the electrode. Since it leaves a web of empty pores. The battery appears to charge rapidly, and show no deterioration. Over the 100, charge cycles tested. Carbon nanostructures. Also show great promise, graphene, is one of the most exciting of these, graphene, is made up of a single atomic thickness sheet of graphite. And it turns out that this material has very interesting, electrical, properties. Being a very thin semiconductor. With high carrier mobility. Meaning that electrons, are transmitted, along it rapidly in the presence of an electric field, as inside a battery. It is also thermally conductive, and has exceptional, mechanical, strength, about 200, times stronger than steel. Grobat, a spanish, nanotechnology. Company are pursuing, graphene, polymer, cathodes, with metallic, lithium, anodes, a highly potent combination. If their electrolyte, can adequately protect the metallic, anode, and prevent dendrite, growth. This battery, promises to be lighter and more robust, than current technology, while charging and discharging, faster and with greater energy capacity. Samsung, have patented a technology, they call graphene, balls, these are silicon, oxide, nanoparticles. Which are coated with graphene, sheets that resemble popcorn. These are used as the cathode, as well as being applied in a protective, layer on the anode. The researchers, found increases in the volumetric, density of a full cell of 27.6. Compared to an uncoated equivalent. And the experimental, cell retains, almost 80, capacity. After 500, cycles. Additionally, charging is accelerated, and temperature control, is improved. Nanograph, meanwhile, are using graphene, sheets to produce carbon silicon, batteries to increase stored energy by 30 percent. Amprius, goes one stage further with their anodes of 100. Silicon, nanowire. The maker claims that they can achieve 500, watt hours per kilogram, which is in the range suitable for enabling, electric, aircraft. Airbus, space and defense, announced a partnership, with the company last october. The silicon, nanowires. Are attached to a thin foil by vapor deposition. In a continuous. Roll roll production, process. Helping keep manufacturing. Costs down. The clever part is is that these finger like projections, are porous on a micro, and macro, scale, allowing them to swell freely without significant, expansion, of the whole electrode. Just as trees swell with leaves in spring, but the forest remains the same size. Some internet, sleuths concluded, that the company was recently acquired by tesla because amprius, recently moved their headquarters, right next to a tesla facility. But elon musk debunked these claims on twitter. Saying, but actually nothing was surprised to hear there across the road, adding silicon to carbon anode makes sense we already do question is just what ratio of silicon to carbon and what shape, silicon expands like crazy during discharge and comes apart, so cycle life is usually bad. Nanomaterial. Research is promising, the university, of california, irvine have even produced electrodes, good for 200, 000 cycles, using gold nanowires, and manganese, dioxide, with a polymer gel electrolyte. And many other research efforts are ongoing with other diverse, materials.
One Thing that seems to be sure though is that as soon as it's possible, to mass-produce, suitable nanotechnology. We will be seeing it in our batteries, in some form, and quite possibly in conjunction, with silicon. Lithium, sulfur batteries are one emerging, technology, that can offer greatly improved energy densities, compared to lithium ion. The theoretical, maximum, specific, energy of this chemistry, is. 2567. Watt hours per kilogram, compared to lithium-ion's. 350, watt hours per kilogram, maximum. This is a huge improvement. A lithium sulfur battery could be up to seven and a half times lighter than its current equivalent. Right now lithium sulfur batteries are nowhere near their theoretical, limit, but the alise. A pan-european. Collaboration. Are working towards attaining a stable automotive, battery, of 500, watt hours per kilogram, based on this technology. In terms of economics. Sulfur is much cheaper than the cobalt, and manganese, it would replace, and can be extracted, as a byproduct, of fossil fuel refinement. Or mined from abundant, natural deposits. Existing, lithium-ion, batteries, are made up of an anode and a cathode, between which a liquid electrolyte, allows dissolved, lithium ions to travel. Lithium, sulfur batteries are constructed, similarly. Except that the active element in the cathode, is sulfur, while the anode remains lithium-based. Researchers, are facing a few challenges, in bringing this technology, to market. Firstly, sulfur is a poor conductor, of electricity. Typically the sulfur atoms are embedded within the matrix of carbon atoms and graphite. An excellent electrical, conductor. This arrangement, is vulnerable to a process known as shuttling, which causes batteries to drain when not in use while also corroding metallic, lithium anodes, reducing, capacity, as the battery is cycled. Next and most significantly. The electrodes, physically swell up as the lithium, ions bond to them, this is more dramatic with lithium sulfur than existing chemistries. The sulfur cathode, expanding, and contracting, by as much as 78 percent as the battery cycles. Or eight times more than cathodes, typically used in lithium-ion. Batteries. As might be expected, from this kind of repeated, strain, polymer, or carbon-based, supports and binders, fragment, and can disintegrate, as the battery cycles. Reducing, capacity, and performance. One approach to solving this is to bind the cathodes, with different polymers, and to reduce their thickness, so that the absolute, change in dimension, is not so extreme. Many lithium-based. Batteries, also must deal with dendritic, growth, thin fingers of metal which grow away from the surface, and can eventually, reach across to the cathode. Creating a short circuit and rapid discharge. This is the same thermal runaway, malfunction, which has caused lithium-ion. Battery fires in the past, so research for coping with this effect can be carried over to lithium sulfur technology. Including exciting uses of graphene. And other nano structures to act as scaffolds, for the deposition, of lithium. Solid-state, electrolytes. Could also offer solutions to these issues. Lithium sulfur batteries are not just ivory tower ideas. Airbus defense in space flew a 350. Watt hour per kilogram, battery, made by scion energy back in 2014. Powering their zephyr high altitude, pseudo, satellite. Researchers, at monash, university, in australia, announced in 2020. That they anticipate, having a product ready for commercialization. In two to four years which could provide electric, cars, with a 621. Mile. Range. A common theme in emerging, technologies, so far has been researchers, desire to develop, solid-state, electrolytes. These would replace flammable, organic liquids with stable, crystalline, or glassy state solids, or polymer base. It's hoped that using these solid electrolytes, would enable the use of metallic, lithium electrodes. To provide higher output voltages, and allow for increased, energy density. Additionally, battery safety improves in vehicle crashes. And becomes more resistant, to overheating, and short circuiting. In part due to physical blocking, of the dendritic, growth of lithium and other electrode, materials. Which currently plague lithium batteries. Apart from its theoretical, promise, we can be confident that we will see solid-state, batteries powering us along the road in the near future. Because car makers as diverse as volkswagen. Toyota, bmw, and hyundai. Have all been investing in the technology. Volkswagen, for example put 300 million dollars into quantum, scape, a stanford, university, spin-off.
Quantum Scape has been holding its cards close to its vests as the website, offers no information, on their product. Only a long list of new job openings. Implying, company expansion, and confidence, in their product. It's notable that they hold patents on sulfide sulfide-based. Lithium-ion. Technology. And seem to be interested, in thin sintered ceramic films, and lithium-impregnated. Garnet. One of the difficulties, in solid-state, electrolyte, design, is dealing with the expansion, of electrodes, which is more difficult to manage in solid materials. A solid electrolyte, must be sufficiently, flexible to permit this, yet also tough enough to resist dendrite, penetration. Quantum scape hold a patent for composite, electrolytes, to allow them to customize. And adjust the physical properties, of their electrolytes. For such conflicting, requirements. Panasonic, have also been looking into solid-state, electrolytes. It's notable that tesla have been partnered with panasonic. In their existing lithium-ion. Manufacturing, capacity. But it's toyota, who have publicly announced their collaboration, with panasonic. To develop next-generation. Solid-state, batteries. Samsung, 2 are working on solid-state, batteries. And in may 2020. Describe their technology. Based on a silver and carbon anode. Claiming this could give a generic, electric car a 500-mile. Range, and survive, over 1 000 charging cycles. This is probably good news for your phone and laptop, too given their current commercial, interests. It may just be a matter of time before solid state electrolytes, are in your pocket and in your. Car. Two carbon electrodes, and a non-toxic. Electrolyte. What's not to like, add the ability to extract more power than from conventional, lithium, ion, and their ability to charge 20 times faster. And these lithium-ion. Variants could be the future for electric vehicles. Pjpi. An offshoot of japan power plus have developed this technology, with the national kaiushu, university, in fukuoka. And are currently supplying, their cambrian, batteries, to an electric bicycle, company, marushi's, cycle. Currently, these are single carbon electrode, batteries, and details of their exact makeup are hard to find, but they are simultaneously. Working on a fully, dual carbon battery, with two carbon electrodes. Eventually to be manufactured, from natural, agriculturally. Grown products. They anticipate, achieving a performance, similar to graphene, based batteries. Although their cambrian, batteries have a lower specific, energy, and lower energy density than lithium ion, meaning that their batteries are both heavier and bulkier, than their equivalents. They boast higher specific, power, for the same massive battery as a lithium-ion, based alternative.
It's Possible to extract the energy much faster, translating, into faster vehicle accelerations. In addition to this, unlike lithium-ion. These carbon-based, batteries can be discharged, fully, the maker claims that this changes the equation for actual usable, energy density. Boasting a 40, improvement, in range over lithium-ion, batteries, of the same capacity. Moreover. They say that the battery runs cool and does not require the heavy cooling systems, of current electric vehicles. Their claim that a proof of concept battery degraded, only 10 percent. After 8 000 cycles, is very promising. They plan to gradually, upscale from low volume applications. Such as medical devices, and satellites. Towards mass-market, aerospace, and automotive, customers, with a battery made from carbonized. Cotton fibers, rather than exotic, toxic, metals. With fast charging and exceptionally, low battery degradation. Over thousands of charging cycles. Maybe these will provide long-term. Sustainable, solutions, for commercial, vehicles, in the coming decades. So much diverse, research is underway in battery technology, that it's almost impossible, just to pick five selections. Lithium batteries are found in almost any modern battery-powered, product. Cars computers, cameras and phones. Quadcopters. And drones have come about because of advances in battery technology, as well, and uses for these machines are mostly held back by current battery life limitations. Better batteries, are also important for the advancement, of stationary, storage from renewable, energy sources such as solar power, tesla is also making headway into this sector, with products like the power wall home battery, and power pack commercial energy storage products. Consumers, technology, companies and industry are all clamoring, for safer, lighter, more energy dense solutions. And concern is also mounting worldwide, at the environmental, impact of this growing demand for batteries. With all these exciting new battery technologies, on the horizon, it's clear the future will be electric. A great first step to prepare for the coming electric revolution. Is to learn the fundamentals, of electricity, and magnetism. Brilliant does a great job of taking complicated, science and breaking it down into bite-sized, pieces with fun, and challenging, interactive, explorations. Master concepts, and build a base of knowledge, so you can develop your intuition, to better understand how the world is changing, i've taken brilliant courses on electricity, and magnetism, and solar energy and was really impressed with how well they structured their lessons, with clever analogies, examples, and quizzes to test your knowledge. It almost makes learning feel like a game and i found myself eager to advance through the course. Brilliant, offers a wide range of other content, in topics from mathematical, fundamentals. To quantitative. Finance, from scientific, thinking to special relativity. From programming with python, to machine learning. To all those who believe the future will be electric. Go to brilliant.org. Electric, future, and sign up for free, and also the first 200 people that go to that link will get 20, off the annual premium subscription. The technologies, discussed in this video could have huge implications, on different battery-powered, transportation. Options besides, just electric cars. Imagine the potential, in everything from electric, bikes to electric, scooters. And electric, boats to electric airplanes. Consumer, electronics. Also stand to experience, vast improvements, in battery life, in devices, such as smartphones. Laptops. Cameras and more the future is electric. We showcase, cutting edge sustainable, technology, if you enjoyed this video please give it a like and subscribe, to our channel, you may be interested, in watching one of these videos next. Thanks for watching, and have a great. Day. You.