2018 Peebles Memorial Lecture in Information Technology
May I am very pleased that we are going to have, reprise of, the people's Memorial Lecture which. Took place last month at the, Herman B Wells library, and also. By dr. Craig Stewart and. Craig. Has been my mentor for a very long time I'm very pleased that we're able to have, the talk here again at the cyber infrastructure, building to, let a lot of the uit s employees who might not have wanted to make the trek over to the library that day too. So they have a chance to hear this this really great talk, Craig, is going to take a look back at where I you has been in computing, and cyber infrastructure, assess. The value of IU's current implementation, of information, technology, and support of research scholarship. And creative activity and suggest. Strategies for supporting IU's, excellence, in these areas in the coming years and he, is currently the executive director. Of the pervasive Technology Institute dr.. Stewart take it away Robert. Thank you so much. And. Ladies. And gentlemen thank you let. Me tear right into, the talk and. Actually, the first few slides I'm going to click right past we. Have a diverse audience today, from. 12. Years old. To, considerably. More than 12 years old, and. A diversity of backgrounds, so I've got handouts, that went, out by. Email with, the announcement, and which are on your chairs which. Have a number of definitions. And. I'm not going to read definitions, to you you can look them up if you want and, if you don't need to you don't have to but. What I'm going to talk about today is sort of where. We started, at Indiana, University. In terms of computing, in, support, of research. Scholarship. And creative activities. I'm. Going, to talk, about two, decades of, a, really, steady progress. In. Service. Capability. And service delivery, from. What was originally, called research, and academic, computing and is. Now called research technologies. I'm. Going to do a little bit of a rewind and, recap, some of the history and current structure, and function of the pervasive, technology Institute, but. I'm going to do a little bit more of a rewind to talk about, we are in terms, of national, strategies, and, information technology. And advanced computing, because, that plays a lot into where, we are in our. Current. Environment locally as well as nationally, and. Then I'm going to talk about how we move forward and I want to. Say. A little bit about purposes, at hand and, make. A couple disclaimers. So this talk focuses. On decades, worth of work, by, hundreds, of people most. Of what I'm going to talk about was, done by somebody other than me, I am, particularly, focused, on what research. Technologies. And, the pervasive, technology institute have done often. In collaboration, with the School of Informatics computing, and engineering I'm.
Not Going to talk about things that are relevant to networking and research, and create creative, activity, those. Won't my portfolio, there weren't things that I had to do with and you, could do another really really long talk about all, the cool things that have happened as a result of IU's involvement, and networking, and. Last and not least I, want to mention that. The. Groups that I'm going to talk about were, formed, in their current. Form largely. By Christopher, Peebles and led by him for many many years so. With that I am. Going to tear through, four. Slides of definitions, and not read them to you I will come back to one of them later. You've. Got copies of the definitions, you can read if you want what I really want to do is start, talking. About where, research. Computing, began, at Indiana University, and, it began in 1949. With. A grant from the Office, of Naval Research, to. Indiana, University for, a, mechanical. Card, based calculator. Which. Turned out to be so important. To. Chemistry, and physics. Research in Vienna University that. In. 1953. Then. Then. President, Herman B Wells called. For the creation of a research, computing, Center for, Indiana University. Generally. That, Center, was formed forthwith in in. 1955. Astronomy. Professor marshal, ruble was, named, the, first, director. Of Indiana. University's, research computing Center and he, was not just an eminent, astronomer. He had a real sense for the importance, of computing, and one, of the things that he did as the first director of the research computing Center at IU was. Establish, a principle that. We have lived by every, day from 1955. To today that. Is that the university's, computing. Resources, are a common, good they're. Intended, for use by the entire, university. Community and, in, particular. Professor. Rubles view was, that I use. Electronic, computer, was, was. As important, and should be as accessible, to his astronomy, graduate, students as it, was to his faculty, colleagues, in the business school he. Went on to write a paper in 1960. Called the electronic, computer, as astronomical.
Instrument, That. Really revolutionized. Observational. Astronomy, at the time, sadly. He died on. Sabbatical in 1968. But, he really put research computing at IU on a good solid footing and. And and clearly. Bares. Credit for where we are today on. In. Terms of our computing environment, and in terms of our physical environment because. We are in the rural Commons, in the cyber infrastructure, building, from. That auspicious start, there were in a mitten times of a real distinction, for Indiana University, in, 1964. Two professors of computer science and one, staff member in the computing Center Steve, Young who in some ways is, my, organizational. Great-grandfather. Wrote. A compiler, called fast ran fast Fortran, 2 compiler, for the IBM 709, computers, that. Was one of the first 10 software. Programs, ever protected, by copyright, it. Was as a compiler, faster. Than any compiler ever made. By IBM, for this computing. Series and. The two computer scientists, involved in that project. Credited. Steve Young and his knowledge of the i/o system, the 709, for, why the compiler, was that fast. Going. On, 1968. Computer, science was formed as a distinctive, department in. The College of Arts and Sciences. 1979. Doug, shredder published. Girdle Escher Bach this. Is a photograph of my. Softcover. Copy, of girdle usher Bach. It was an amazing book that revolutionized, a lot of thinking about information. Technology, information. Science, computing. Math and, music. As well in the 1980s. Many. Many people believed Ernie Davidson, might be on his way to winning a Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He. Developed, the Hondo, series. Of. Analytic. Chemistry, software. IU. Invested, a lot of computing resources in, his lab. Unfortunately. Another group got in the bell prize for worked very closely related to what Professor. Davidson was doing so he did not get a Nobel Prize. 1993. IU acquired, an Intel Paragon, IU's. First. Parallel. Supercomputer. For, general-purpose access. Throughout the university, I you had had a couple other parallel, computers, and individual, departments, but, the Paragon which was a brilliant, piece of parallel. Computing, engineering, was. The first, university. Wide accessible. Computing. System run, by the computing. Center for the general IU community. 1995. And 1996. To. Really historic, accomplishments. By Dennis Gannon first he, received their share of university research grant. From IBM, to. Get an IBM, SP, supercomputer. For Indiana, University, and he participated in something called the I way, which. For one week one conference, demonstrated. What could be done. They 10 gigabit, per second. Seashore. De seashore a network link tying together multiple supercomputers. In the u.s. that really was the beginning of, what, we think of today as modern, computing grids, and. Then you know. The. Eighties and nineties research. Computing, at IU wasn't, distinctive, for very much else, other, than for contributing, to a revolving, door effect, in which bright young professors, of, physics. Astronomy and. Chemistry, would come to IU they'd, get tenure and then they would get recruited away to go someplace else with better computing. Resources in Indiana University, had then. Everything, changed, with Miles brand, as president. Of University. When. He recruited. Michael. McRobbie to come to IU as, its, first full, vice president, in information, technology, and miles, brand himself was, not. On. Particularly. And. Acutely. Detailed. In. His understanding of information technology. But he understood the strategic, value of IT from, the university, standpoint so, he set, this goal for IU to be a leader, in absolute, term in. Use, and application of, information technology. Among American, universities, this was such a ridiculous. Goal, at. The time it was set that, that. People working for the computing Center couldn't, suppress their giggles at meetings, it, was just outlandish to think about you being that way and.
Yet In. 1997. Vice president McRobbie led, a reorganisation, of the IT organizations. At IU to create what is now University information technology. Services, we, created, an information. Technology strategic. Plan for the university, copy. The cover is right there and what, was really important about that plan was that. It was an IT plan, for the university, not. A strategic, plan for the IT organization it. Covered, the entire university. All of its activities, and enterprises. And the, summary of this plan is get the technology stacks, right, no. Busy no busy signal's, on modems get works right get administrative, systems right and invest. Heavily in research. Computing. And in, 1996. And 1997. President. McRobbie, got. Engaged in, a grant that was just, in the process of being awarded to Indiana, University called. Scamp. Scalable. Array. Of. Something-something. Multiprocessors. And the. Original grant, award, from the NSF was going to buy a supercomputer. And one, visualization. Environment, and. Michael. McRobbie said no we're gonna add some money to that and we're going to make this really important, so what we got out of scamp, was. A 64. Processor. Origin 2000, the, first origin 2000, owned by any individual, University, in the US there. Were other universities. That had origin, 2000's, as part of federal. Facilities but we were the first University, to own our own and then. We built this thing called a cave which. Is a 10 foot, cube. Immersive. Stereoscopic. Visualization, environment, that, makes you feel like you're standing inside a virtual world and. We got to sing called an immersive desk that was put up in Indianapolis which, gives you the same immersive. Stereoscopic. Effect not. Quite as profound as a cave but it's pretty darn good and this, was the very very, first, facility. Of, research. And academic, computing that was installed on the IUPUI, campus and. These students were great hits you know if. If. If, a picture is worth a thousand. Words then, you. Know a 3d, visualization, is worth a lot more than that and in fact when Mikhail Gorbachev, visited Indiana. University, in 1997. He. Took a tour of the cave Erik, Werner and Eric's colleagues, I dolled. Up a 3d. Visualization, of the solar system, to include mirror, and. I wasn't at that meeting but a reportedly. Former. Premier Gorbachev, looked at the, visualization, and said ah risky. So. This, was the beginning of visualization and. Together, being really, really important, both. In supporting, the university, research and making the university, community of marrow aware, of what we were doing and. Then. President. Vice president McRobbie. Worked. With lily endowment, to. Get. What. Was the first of now many, large. Grant awards, from the Lilly Endowment to Indiana University for. Something called if Chris the, Indiana, pervasive, computing, research. Initiative. Thirty, million dollars, half of which went to fund up the new School of Informatics half, of which went to create the pervasive, technology labs. And. This established. The three-legged. Stool of research. Development and delivery that, has been, the. Foundation, of our, support, for. Research. Scholarship. And creative activity at, IU ever since, basic. Research and what is now the School of Informatics computing, and engineering, applied. Rd very, often, taking, new innovations, from SycE and converting. Them into tools, that are usable by everyday researchers. In, the. Pervasive, technology institute, and then. Services. Systems, consulting. Resources. Computer. Storage systems with systems, delivered, by research technologies. And. There. Are those three organizations. Presumably. Many people know of one of the two recreational. Uses of nitrous oxide. There, is a second, which, is to make cars go really, really fast. This. Is the go baby go button which is commonly, installed on, the shifter of cars with a nitrous oxide, system in them and when, you press that button the car goes really fast I. Happen. To have my own go baby go buddy. And, so. I'm going to rip through a whole, bunch of accomplishments. That, research, technologies. And, and PT L and PT I have enabled at Indiana University, so hang on to your seats here we go. 1999. We. Installed, a tape robot, in Bloomington. With, awesome. Very very secure software called HP SS, designed. To make sure that I you could, preserve, the data and materials. Being produced, by, the scholars. And researchers and, artists, of Indiana, University on. We, in 2000. You, go she ated the first, enterprise. Site license, for SPSS. For any university, in the US for, many researchers, at IU the, SPS site license, is the most important, thing that us ever did because, it made it possible for any researcher, than Indiana University, to have the.
Social, Package. Statistical. Package with Social Sciences software. We. Got, a major award from. Lilly, for something called engine, the Indiana genomics, initiative 105. Million dollars, six, point seven million of that went into research, technologies. To improve our, ability to support biomedical. Research and a, couple of digital libraries things, so research technologies, was. Very involved in the digital library project with. Libraries. And on the left is a, is. An example from the US. Steel. Giri works photo collection, here. Is a picture from the Cushman, photo collection, we, also in, 2001. Helped, put online the. Alchemical. Notebooks. Of Isaac. Newton which. Really forced the physics community to. Reassess. Its own history, they. Proved conclusively the, Isaac Newton of the great empirical, scientist, the father of modern physics spent. Most of the last years of his life, diligently. Trying to turn lead into gold well. Now as a physics student I was or when I was a student as an undergraduate in physics classes I was told yeah you know Newton, messed around with that a little bit but it wasn't really serious you read his notebooks online and it's clear that it was the, major part, of his think for. The last years of his life and, I, think that putting, those note books online may be one of the most important, things that Indiana University. Has done as a contribution, to the study of the history of science. 2001. Was a big, year we, added another tape robot, in Indianapolis. And research technologies. Created, software such that people could write data. Simultaneously. To tape robots, in Indianapolis. In Bloomington, so, if a tornado destroyed. Bloomington, or the. The. The the earth opened, up in a giant earthquake, through. The New Madrid fall and swallowed, Indianapolis. As long, as those two events didn't happen on the same day then. The data resources, stored by Indiana University. And what we call the scholarly, data archive, would be preserved this, is one of many examples of.
UITs. And research technologies. Taking, advantage, of the to campus, structure, of Indiana, University to. Mirror data storage, and computing facilities, between, Bloomington and Indianapolis. We. Upgraded, our IBM, SP, supercomputer. To be the first supercomputer, in the u.s. owned. By an individual, University, capable. Of more than a trillion mathematical. Operations, per second, we, received 1.8. Million dollars from the National Science Foundation, to create something called avid advanced. Visualization, for. Instrument, driven data which, put viz and computing, facilities, at, IU Northwest, IUPUI. And IU Bloomington and, really advanced, the capabilities. And and. Computing. Services, available for people that did data intensive science. The. NSF, funded IU's participation. In something called the Terra grid a national. Grid of supercomputers. For. Used, by the national. Research community, this, was the first time that we were really beyond, our own campus, this, was the first time that we had federal money to serve the national research, community, and. Oh. Yeah, and. Eric Werner, John, Huffman the elder the chemistry professor, and John Hoffman the younger, IT professional. Created, something called the Johnny box this one metre cube which. For a few thousand, dollars allowed, anyone, have a stereoscopic. Visualization. Environment. In their lab one, of many things that AVL has done to, make high quality, visualization. Accessible, throughout the university. And. Here on the right there's just an example just a diagram Bloomington, Indianapolis, IU Northwest. Systems. Redundant. Between both campuses, Thurid resentment between both campuses, so that we could keep our systems. Up and running all the time and preserve, I use data reliably, no matter what. From. 2003. To 2005. There, was a real shift in the, national, strategies, for, advanced computing, before, 2003. The. National Science Foundation Department, of Energy the other federal funding agencies, thought of supercomputers. As if. They were time, machines, the function of a supercomputer was to take a person, doing. A very very important, problem and take. Them into the future of computing capabilities. And let, them do something that would be generally, possible for, other researchers, only only years in the future in. 2003. The. National Science, Foundation, coined this term called, cyber infrastructure. And the, idea was that that, it was supposed to be more generally, relevant, to everybody, it was supposed to you know a, tide.
That Lifted, all boats. Enhanced. The capabilities, of all sorts of researchers, and the, NSF didn't actually define, cyber infrastructure. It. Was clear that if you wrote a proposal to the NSF you had to use the word cyber infrastructure, and the, NSF always danced around and they say things like cyber infrastructure, isn't just cyber. Infrastructure, is more than cyber. Infrastructure, is not limited, to there. Was never a sentence, that came out of the NSF that went cyber, infrastructure, is so. Steve, Sims and I and several of our friends, coined this definition, cyber infrastructure. And. It has become the standard definition, and I won't read the whole thing to you but the gist of it is computing. Systems data resources. People. Software. Networks. All tied, together. To. Improve, research, productivity, and to, enable things, that would otherwise not. Be possible and in. This new environment of. Cyber, infrastructure. Designed. To, be broadly, useful to all search of researchers. Throughout the US we, really thrived. 2003. We. Received, funding, to be the informatics, core for a collaborative, initiative, studying fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. In. 2004. I you got, another. Fifty three million dollars, from the Lilly Endowment for something called meta site which, was designed to improve biological. Research on the Bloomington campus. We, received, four and a half million more dollars from, the NSF to be part, of the terra grid we, received. 1.7. Million dollars from, the NSF to create something called the data capacitor, this, was an episode and sleep-deprivation, there. Was like three months in. Which we wrote. Just. Around. Now. Just around sixty, million dollars worth of grant proposals, every last one of them was funded. Boy. We were just stupid tired by the end but. We got some funding, for some really great projects, the data capacitor, in particular stands, out and Steve, Sims was really the architect of this we, decided there were better ways to move data around and then by strapping, your data to burrows the, data capacitor, was designed, to be very large and very fast. For. Collecting, data and then dispersing, it where you wanted to put it to have it be analyzed, oh yeah. In 2005. On April, Fool's Day I was, promoted, to be associate, dean for research technologies. And. In. 2006. We, unveiled, the, big red supercomputer. Which debuted, in 23rd. Place on the top 500 list this. Is a list of the 500 fastest, supercomputers. In the world, it's. The highest we have ever been on that list it was just an amazing feat of compute. Design and implementation. And. Boy, that supercomputer. Was fast we, also in Indianapolis. Installed, a bark over Chua reality, theater an. Immersive. 3d. Stereoscopic, environment. Like the cave only better. 2007. We, helped geoffrey fox get nearly, two million dollars, to study. Arctic. And Antarctic. Ice sheets. 2008. We, received a second round of funding to, convert the pervasive, technology labs into, the pervasive, technology Institute. 2009. With a considerable. Amount of help from us geoffrey, fox received, just just, over 10 million dollars to, create an experimental.
Grid And computer, system called futuregrid. 2010. We partnered with a private company called wham cloud to improve the software that, runs the. Data capacitor, then and now. 2011. Notably. We received, funding for, the National Center for genome analysis, support this. Was, another. Big step for us in getting federal, funding, to support federal, recent. National research. Communities. So, the national center for genome analysis, support. Supports. Any researcher, in the u.s. doing non-classified research who needs help with genome assembly or transcriptome. Assembly, and. In. 2011. We were, funded, to be a major partner, in something called Exede, it's. A terrible name I know everybody. Knows it's been a terrible name since its inception just. Stands for the extreme science and engineering, discovery, environment it, is the coordinating. And support, function. Funded. By the National, Science Foundation, to support all of its supercomputers. And cloud computers. And then, in 2012. We got three point two million dollars to, operate. Something. Called the open science grid so. The open science grid is a very large grid of a lot of computers. Particularly. Designed to. Analyze, data from Large Hadron Collider at CERN and. Seven. By 24 by 365. That system was kept up and running by, people in Bloomington, Indianapolis, so, at this point Indiana, University, is a major player on the, national, scene in research, computing we're, involved and exceed were, involved, in the open science grid we're. Getting lots of federal money we're, doing lots of very very cool stuff but, we weren't done in. 2013. We dedicated, big red to the. First one, petaflop. Supercomputer. Owned, by an individual, university, that's a thousand, trillion mathematical. Operations, per second. Also. The only big only, supercomputer, dedication, that I can think of, that. Was attended by, an. Oscar, winner and a, Grammy winner and. That. Computer is with us today it is the backbone of our supercomputing. Environment, here at IU in. 2014. We. Received a grant from the National Science Foundation, to create Jetstream, which, was the first NSF. Funded, cloud, system, for general purpose research so. Here we've gone beyond, the, first thing that some university, can afford, to. Beating the major national, supercomputing centers. To. Get NSF. Funding to run a cloud resource, for. The national research community, and. We named it by analogy with the. With. The jet stream in the upper atmosphere which, is at the boundary of two large. Bodies. Of air up in the upper atmosphere, the, idea behind jet, stream was that it was to sit at the boundary between the existing NSF funded, computing. Infrastructure, and its users and the. Rest of the research community that. Was not using, NSF, funded systems because, the. Needs of these people were. Not well met by the existing, NSF, supercomputers. And we succeeded. Something. Over 80% of the people who get accounts on jet stream are getting their first account on. Funded, computing resource we, have more biologists. Using jet stream than any of the other NSF, funded, computers, and. Major major, major use in other areas, of science on geology, and atmospheric, science in particular. Yeah. And we we just sort of the hits keep keep, kept on coming. So. That's. Been kind of a quick. Whirlwind, here the grants we got here are the things we did we want to talk a little bit about, some of the persisting, impact, that we've had in. Research, scholarship, and creative activity. We've. Supported a bunch of cool research there, was a particle, just, a few years ago by David poly of IU and one of his colleagues at. University, of nebraska-lincoln. That, proved that everything, we thought we knew about the evolution, of limitlessness. In snakes, was wrong that research. Was done using, our quarry, computer. We've. Made. Important contributions to, the understanding of, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. We, have supported, data analysis. From one of the best earth-based, telescopes in. Existence, this. M51, galaxy picture here was taken with the one degree imager out. Of cat peak in arizona on just. A lot of really cool science, a. Lot, of impact on the arts. Amongst. Fine, artists. One. Of the first. People. In the u.s. who. Had. Virtual. Reality, as their, primary, means of artistic expression. Received. Tenure I you, murdered. Alinsky who's one of our collaborators and, partners and. Is shown here on the left Nicole, jacquard, sculptor, uses. 3d printing and her art, Rob. Shakespeare, has one of the been one of the big users of our supercomputers, from. The very inception and, here, is a picture of the light totem, which. Is really one of the top items if you tour IU Bloomington. So, we've. Supported some very very cool artistic work on. We. Have really, really, impacted. The. University's. Access. To, visualization. Systems. This right, here is a, pretty, top Jonny box that, is photographed. In the Indianapolis, Museum of, Art showing, some of Margaret Gilinsky art this.
Is A a, now-retired. Visualization. System, that, was up in indianapolis that allowed you to look at very, very large very, detailed, images. This. Picture here is of something, called an IQ, wall it's part of a series of technology. Developed. By the advanced virtualization, lab there's. An IQ tilt, out. In, the, atrium. This. Is being used in a lecture about. A collection, of photographs taken in South Africa, in the 1950s. This. Picture doesn't do it justice when you see the photographs, of. The conditions, under which miners, worked in South Africa, in the 50s blown. Up to 6 feet by 8 feet it's. It's. There's. Just no good words to describe it, and that, is made possible that. Sort of impact, of that photographic. Art is made possible by the immersive desk this. Is an immersive visualization. System. That's right next door in the Innovation Centre this. Is me and Governor Daniels in. The barco VR theater up in Indianapolis we are looking at the results, of the simulation of, proton, Neutron, interactions, on the, surface of the neutron star so. Really cool stuff in the visualization environment. This deserves more than one slide, this, thing here, is called the science on a sphere, it's. Right, outside this lecture room it's great for any sort of data that you have that you can project on a giant ping-pong, ball pictures. Of the surface of the earth on. Temperatures. Of the surface, of the earth the, world's, entire history, of the, balls used, in World Cup soccer, championships. Cool. Stuff they're also. Chauncy friend has invented, a very very cool immersive. VR. Environment, called pipes you, sit in it with VR goggles and, you, get. Scent. And. Temperature. And airflow so. When you walk outside into, a actual reality, garden you, smell the flowers you feel the Sun and you feel the wind it is a very, very intense, immersive. Virtualization. Environment. That's. Chauncey right there and he does have a startup that's, commercializing. This technology. Performing. Arts burner Hertzog was here a few. Years ago. Research. Technologies, advanced visualization, lab has been very very involved in the IU cinema, when, Hertzog was here, AVL. Created, the digital cinema packages. For all of the Hertzog movies that were screened, that's. Essentially, a digital compilation. Of everything you need to both show the movie and understand, it and those become persistent, artifacts. Once, you've done that that's what everybody else uses, we. Have enabled an Internet, required, opera, about global, warming now, you may not have even known that there was an opera about global, warming but there is it's called oxalic, it. Was written by. Scott. Deal percussionist. Of IUPUI, and one of his collaborators, and the only, way you can experience it is on the internet because it is explicitly, designed to. Be performed. By multiple, groups of performers, in multiple, locations and the only way to experience the whole thing is to throw a headset on and watch it on the web so. Some really cool, arts. On, digital. Humanities. Research. Technologies. Has gotten very very involved, in what's called photogrammetry, where. You take lots of 2d pictures of 3d objects, and then you create a 3d, reconstruction so. Here we have the mermaid from showalter foundation, fountain. We, have here, a 3d. Image of a. Pre-columbian. Settlement. And. Set. Of religious buildings, in Mexico, that, was done with thousands. Of 2d photographs, that were taken from, a little drone and then stitched together so. You can fly through this in virtual reality in 3d or you can print it out, with. A digital, printer and see it as, a as, a big piece of starch. As well. Digital. Humanities, I'm going to come back and talk a little bit more about this topic a couple minutes but. This is an analysis of word, use in Kurt. Vonnegut's, novel cat's. Cradle. I'm. Not a Vonnegut, expert, I'm. Certainly. Not an expert on word analysis, but what this graph shows is, the, relative use of a, set of key terms over. The course of this novel, that helps. Writing. Scholars, and scholars of English. Understand. What Vonnegut, was doing with. This book and. I'm, going to I'm going to ask a very quick question how.
Do You suppose it was that. People got a hold of a copy of a. Copy written book that, they could then analyze. With. Computers, I will answer that question for you in a few minutes, so. I'm going to do a quick rewind, here, and. I want to talk just a little bit about the pervasive, technology, Institute. In, isolation. Of research. Technologies, and the other things I've talked about so. PPI is sort of grown up it's persisted, from 1999. To today, it, has a, group of centers, that have done some very very important, research and like, I said importantly, have persisted, and. Very. Very quick history established, in 1999. Second. Round of funding in 2008. And. In 2008. Even it was it was still sort of very inwardly focused. We. Got money from the Lilly Endowment we're gonna go spend that money we're gonna do good research, and. Then. In. 2017. There was a really. Significant, organizational, change. My. Job got split into two pieces. My. Old job running research technologies, at, that point went in that link which I'm very happy about and. I'm focused, exclusively on, the pervasive, technology Institute. And I just want to run through the center's and say a little bit about they do the. Center for Applied cyber security research. The. One, of the oldest of the PPI centers, and one of the most important, we live in a dangerous world the, world. Is filled with, bad actors, who. Want. You to believe, fake. Things on Facebook may. Want to mess with our ability, to do research by messing with people's, research data may. Want to hijack, your accounts, at, your bank CAC. Are works. With funding, from a variety of government sources to. Help secure. Critical. Military. Infrastructure. Scientific. Infrastructure, and, our. Everyday computing, infrastructure, so if you've ever listened, to a moment, of security, on the radio that is AC AC our product, and they, serve the nation in improving. The security of. Our. Network. Computing, resources, with. A very. Strong focus on research computing resources. The. Science gateways Research Center the, science, gateways Research Center creates. Technology. That isn't at all obvious, to see but. What it does is that it ties together, multiple. Supercomputers. Multiple. Data storage, systems. Visualization. Software. And. It makes running, a very, very complex. Engineering, analysis, data analysis, or computer simulation, seem, very simple through a web portal because, they're very very sophisticated web, portal so people who are everyday. Ordinary practicing. Scientists, can. Do chemical. Engineering, and docking, potential. Drugs against drug targets. We've. Got some very very sophisticated, educational. Gateways, and these, things are created by the science gateway Research Center the National. Center for genome analysis, support, has. Helped researchers, all over the US, assemble. The genomes, and transcriptomes. A bunch, of organisms. Ranging. From, things that are economically important. A lot, of these you know cows are economically, important, diatoms. Ocean. Invertebrates. Very important, very, cool you know very cool tiger salamanders, this, is just a sampling, of the organisms. Whose genomes, and transcriptomes, have been assembled with help from the national center for genome analysis, support, the.
Data To insight center led, by Beth play Lee who's currently on leave at the National Science Foundation his. Focus generally, on turning. Data into insight, one. Of the things that's happening right now is, that the HathiTrust, Research, Center, is. Being carved, out from, the data to insight Center and is being created. As its own Center, the. HathiTrust, Research Center is related. To the. Hotha trust the, place that has copies. Of all, of the google books from the google books, project. 16. Million volumes. Of. Text. In a variety of languages. 10. Million of those, 16, million volumes, are protected. By copyright. So. I asked the question you know how do you analyze one. Book that's in copyright, you know how you know you can you can analyze one by buying a digital copy and, having a scanned and maybe you can do that with ten but. If you want to analyze word. Usage, and look at say a thousand, or a million or five million books, that are protected, under the copyright, and you, don't want to be sued it's. A very hard thing to do, what the HathiTrust, Research Center creates, is, something, called the data capsule, that is modeled. After. Social. Science research centers where people analyze, very very sensitive data so, all that copy written text, is kept, inside that, data capsule, and when, you want to analyze it you send your query into, the data capsule, and. The. HathiTrust. Research Center. Computing, tools do, the analysis, and they send the results, back out. Without. Sending out enough, text, to violate, copyright rules, and this. System is secure enough, that. It is approved, by all of the lawyers at all of the big publishing, companies, that have text there in it so, it makes possible humanities. Research that would be. Impossible. Without. A way to, electronically. Analyze, and manage copy written texts. The. Digital Science Center is led by Geoffrey, Fox School. Of Informatics computing. And engineering. Manure. Crime, airily in the area of developing, software for big, data, and. Collectively. RT, and PTI have aided the economy, of Indiana and the, research scholarship. And creative activity. Economics. Of I you know, I talked a little bit about money for a couple minutes here we've. Been running this positive, feedback loop where we go out we get grant awards, we, do good stuff we hire smart staff, then. We go write more grant proposals, we get more money hire, more smart people do more good stuff we've been running this positive, feedback loop, for decades it, has worked really well on, just. As one indication, of how important, our computing. Resources, are the community, there, are a hundred and thirty-four, different, departments, at Indiana University. Where, some. Researcher, in that department makes some use of our computational. Systems so, this pre, diagram, here shows usage. Of big red two in calendar, 2017. The, size of the box corresponds. To the amount of computing, use a given department has made so. The biggest box is physics and, then there's chemistry. But. There's biomedical, research there's, geology, there's medical and molecular genetics in Indianapolis, there's, a interior. Design, and apparel merchandising. History. Of science all sorts, of departments make, use of our supercomputers. 134. Departments, tremendous. Reach within, the university, community. Much, more than at our peer, schools and pure computing, organizations, we. Have a tremendous, impact on grant. Competitiveness. Of IU, faculty members, so, in 2017. IU, researchers. Brought in a total of 508 million dollars of external grants and contracts. If you, ask okay. Of that 508. Million dollars, the. People, that brought in that money do. They use our cyber, infrastructure, systems, or not and, the answer is that.
People. Use our systems, brought. In 409. Million of. The 508. Million dollar total, grant money brought in to Indiana University and, then if you ask the money by the way if, you ask the money question is, it cheaper to have our own stuff or to buy it off the market, we. Did a cost comparison where, we pretended. The. Amazon, Web Services, was as good for supporting, computing, research as big red to is by, the way it's not for. Technical reasons that I won't go into having. To do with internal, networks in this but if you pretend that Amazon. Is as good for supporting, our research, as big red to is our, own. Systems, are, stole two to three times less, expensive than, buying resources. Off, of Amazon, so, we're helping IU competitively. Win federal. Grant monies and we're, doing and cost-effectively. We've. Created hundreds. Of years. Of. Jobs. In. The, central, and south central Indiana area, so, this graph here shows growth. Of IT, staff, and research technologies. And PPI over time this. Is base funded, staff and research technologies, right here this, is grant funded staff in research technologies. This is grants, funded staff in pti so. Dozens, of people hundreds. Of persons, years of employment. At. Indiana. University, and Indianapolis, and Bloomington, and a lot of these people serves, the national, research. Community, and and. We're very careful that between eight and five we, serve the national research community, equitably. But. The, people serving that national, research community, live, in this community so. They run into researchers. And students in the grocery store, in. In meetings, at lunch, at. The binford Rogers, Spring. Festival I once did two hours of consulting. My granddaughter's, Spring Festival at the inter Rogers because I ran in her professor, ran, into a professor, at the spring festival who. Was there with his kid who, was having a problem and. And. While his. Kid and my granddaughter, were off winning cakes at, the Benford Rogers festival. We, were spending two hours solving, one of his problems so the fact that these people supporting. The national research community, are here makes. A difference to. The quality, of the. IT resources, and. Skills. That, IU researchers. Staff and students have accessible, to them. We have done a lot to inspire, the next generation of, technologists. This, is a picture of robot camp hundreds. Of students have gone through a robot, camp over, well, over a dozen years they. Come in here this is a picture taken in this room they come in here they take spend a number of days learning how to program, robots. And, they go out and spired to, pursue careers in technology, so, it's a really great thing we've done to, the future economy of Indiana along. The way we have supported, research that has led to three, Nobel. Prizes -. In 2013. Through. Our involvement, in the Terra grid and Exede we, supported. The. 2013. Nobel Prize in Chemistry through. Our involvement in the open science grid we supported, the 2013.
Nobel Prize in Physics which, was given out for the demonstration. Of the Higgs boson and also, through the open science, grid we. Supported, research, and verifying. The existence of gravitational waves, that, led to the 2017. Nobel, Prize in Physics this by the way is a picture, from the Large Hadron Collider at, CERN and. It's. Really big to. Give a sense of how big you, know this is a big a, big wire spool here these, are essentially, you know human size guardrails. Right there and. A lot of this work that. Led to Nobel prizes was. Research. That was done at the LHC and, analyzed, with computing, that we run, so. Quick, rewind, to talk about national. Strategies. In advanced computing, in. The 1940s. The purpose of the, fastest, supercomputers, in the US was really clear there. Were defense instruments, this is ENIAC. This, system, was used to, calculate. Artillery. Trajectories. And, it was also used, in one of the first feasibility, studies of thermonuclear weapons. In. The 1960s. Our national, priorities and science and technology, were really clear they, were set by President, Kennedy put, a man on the moon and. That was seen as a symbolic. Effort, in. The. International. Campaign. For, the hearts and souls of people throughout the world in the battle between democracy, and communism, in. The 1980s. There was a lot of clarity in computing, as well this. Concept, of the time machine. The. Department, of Energy supercomputers. Were the fastest, in the world and. Oh. Yeah, there are all sorts of industrial, uses as well building. A big bulldozer, is expensive, and when, a big bulldozer tips, over it's really bad and this bulldozer, is really big that's you know. That's. A person size door right there, caterpillar, simulated. This. Bulldozer. At, supercomputers. Of the National Center for supercomputing applications, in, Champaign Urbana Illinois and. Simulated. It to the point that they were sure they knew how to build it before they ever built their first prototype. So. Lots. Of great things in the 80s and also during the 80s, something. You know something was just generally true was that new processors, were built for supercomputers. First and, then filtered, out into, the consumer, market in. The, 1990s. We. Had the. Comprehensive. Test Ban Treaty and. Supercomputing. Was viewed as again. A defense asset, the, idea was that we would out compute. The Russians and we, would be able to maintain our, nuclear, deterrence. More. Effectively, than the Russians, in, the absence, of testing, because, we could simulate nuclear. Weapons and even build nuclear weapons whoever. Wants testing them as a result of our super team of. Our superiority, and supercomputing. That. Sort of began, to change in the 2000s. When for the first time. Somebody. Other than the US had the fastest, supercomputer, in the world, the, Japanese, first simulator, was actually the number one supercomputer. In the world for about two and a half years and, there's about one week of shock in Washington. In, which people say oh my god we have lost leadership, in supercomputing, this is really bad we need to do something about this and after. About a week people realized, that it was actually cheaper to say you know the. Japanese supercomputer. It's really special purpose, it isn't generally useful, we. Shouldn't worry about it, the. Fact that it's number one on top 500 list is an anomaly, Worstell, number one. There's. Even less clarity now we. Had this National strategic. Computing. Initiative, signed by President, Obama in 2015. Which. Was designed to put the u.s. back in a position of global leadership in supercomputing. But, in fact we're. Not were. Distinctly. Second, behind China China. Has and, has had the fastest, supercomputer. On earth at. Least that. We know about in. Terms of the top 500 list if, you look at the top 10 fastest, supercomputers. On that list China. Has a larger, fraction of the total capacity, in the top ten than the US has if. You look at the capacity of the top 500 list. China, has larger. Capacity, total, of its supercomputers, combined, than the US has and China. Has more supercomputers. On the top 500 list in the u.s. house and. And, China, is going to beat the u.s. to an X of flops that's, a thousand peda flops for a thousand. Thousand, trillion mathematical. Operations, per second China's, going to beat the USD having an exaflop supercomputer. Probably, by two years. The. Do e announcements.
Recently Notwithstanding. Unless. There's something that, that. Wasn't declared public. As. Part, of the do e strategies. The, do e strategies, that are announced, at least will in fact not, put the us back in a position of national of, international. Leadership and supercomputing. It. Will just keep us number two behind time so, we have really lost what we thought of as being, a key US. Strategic. Asset, that we. Held onto for decades and a lot of other things changed. In. Processor. Development, it's now the commodity, market that is dog and supercomputers. At our tail so, rather than having processors, built for supercomputers. And bleed out into, the consumer. Market we, have processes. That are built for the consumer market and then adapted, to supercomputing. The. Long-standing, trend, of processors, getting smaller. Faster and cheaper is, coming, to an end after. Years, of pressure, from. The NSF, in particular for. Computer. Facilities, and computer intensive research to be more generally, useful there's, a lot of pressure now to very. Quickly say. What you're going to do and how long and what the practical benefit is going to be and there's, less federal funding, and, it's worse than that state, funding for universities, and colleges, is going down in, the next few years. Hundreds. Of institutions. Of, higher education are going to go bankrupt smaller. Colleges, in the university, we're, facing worse, and very different security. Threats. Than we ever have before the, one thing that hasn't changed is, there's still no money from. The federal government for, arts and humanities, and so, we've, got some real challenges moving forward at the university, level and at the national level in terms, of IU funded resources, one. Of the things we have to do is just continually, demonstrate, the value of what we do to the University we. Have to demonstrate the financial, soundness of, our strategies, and we, are working, very very hard to broaden the scope of utility, of, the, facilities, that we provide to the university, in terms, of federal funding we've just got to work hard to doubt there's, left-foot there's, less federal money and, getting. Grants is harder and we just have to work, really hard, and. And. We've got work in society, to do as well, because. There are very difficult things happening, at the national level and they're, not going to get better without smart, people being engaged and involved in those conversations, I, want. To talk a little bit about some of the things that we're doing specifically. Along, the lines of what I just described, research. Technologies. Matt link Robert, Henschel Dave Hancock, and their colleagues are developing, this thing called read the research desktop. Which, is designed, to make it even, easier than it already is to. Use I use supercomputers. So, you get something that looks like a standard, graphical. User interface.
You Might see in a laptop or a desktop computer, only. In running I use supercomputers, and massive data storage systems. We. Are at the other end, supporting. I use Grand Challenges, with the new supercomputer, called big red 2 plus which. Is dedicated, to I use, Grand Challenges, in precision, health preparing. For global change and battling. The addictions. Crisis, as, well as being used to address us grand challenges, and exascale computing. Particularly. Working with faculty members in the School of Informatics computing, and engineering to. Build software that. Will enable the u.s. to be back in a leadership position in exascale, computing on. Federal. Research funding. Exists. To help the nation support. Doing good things in. 1945. When there was a debate going about the creation, of the National Science Foundation. James, Brian Cohen who laid who was at that point the president of Harvard University, wrote. A letter to the editor of the New York Times it was really a promotional, piece lobbying. For the creation of the National Science Foundation, and I have taken the liberty of updating, his language, he. Wrote there's only one proven method of assisting the advancement, of pure science that, of picking people of genius, backing. Them heavily and leaving. Them to direct themselves. The. Research technologies. Division of uit s backs. The people of genius. In, the IU community. Backs, them strongly, and trust. Them to be do doing, great and important, work. Kind. Of also said there's like one prove method of getting results in applied science and, that is to take people of genius, back, them strongly and keep them on target, that's, really what the pervasive, technology institute does we. Are a group, of centers that do things that the federal government, wants done and we, do them the way the federal government wants them done and, and. Conant. Didn't say a darn thing about humanities, and the arts but, research technologies. And pti both support, humanities, in the arts as an, important part of what this university does, and, I. Already said that so, the stuff on this slide I said I, want. To talk a little bit about Indiana, University, and grant getting on. Indiana. University, brings in a fair amount of grants, it. Underperforms. On large. Grants, as compared. To many of its peers. 110. Million dollar grant award is worth more, than, 10 1, million dollar grant awards in terms of its impact, because. That ten million dollars, you've got multiple faculty members, working together you're. Working on a really big and important problem, you're doing a lot of dissemination, you're telling a lot of people about what you're doing and. You. Know I, use, performance, in the 10 million or not category, as an issue in the past 15, years there. Have been a dozen of. These, national core, Awards, that tend to be very large, to. The School of Medicine in Indianapolis. Where they're doing some sort of service on behalf. Of the national research community, we've. Got one in Bloomington in the National Center for genome analysis, support, we. Don't have any of, the, large NSF, Center grants the so-called Science, and Technology, Center grants, if. You look in the last 15, years for. Awards, that were greater than 10 million, there's, 21 of them to the School of Medicine there's. Two to PTI there's. One other to, ovp. IT and, three. Others to Bloomington, there, are a few more large ones if you add up sequences. Like our involvement, in Tara grid in osg but, when it comes right down to it the. Place the Indiana University, underperforms.
And Getting large grants, is IU Bloomington, and. And, I think one of the real challenges is. That responsibility. Center management, creates. Barriers, to, creating very very large collaborations. That make. These large grants possible, where, we are right now is, the Grand Challenges, program is. IU's. Best. And most important, attempt, to, facilitate, very large scale collaborations and. PTI and RT are written very very hard to support the Grand Challenges. And. Pt. I in particular is, just doubling, down on. Getting. Grant funding, to do things that are both important, at the national, level and. Consistent. With. I use, mission so, we go after things that are consistent with IU values, and important, to. The federal government, and we're also working right now to look for non-federal. Funding sources. We. Have historically, done really, well at keeping staff members, employed. Keeping. People going year after year after year after year and grant money and. And. We've slipped, I've. Used this picture for many many years now this is a picture from a dude ranch in upstate New York with, one guy doing what's called Roman, riding he's got one foot on each of two horses and and I like, to think about our funding support, as having. You. Know being being comprised of two horses the horse of IU funding, and the, force of federal funding and the, temptation, is to focus, on the horse of federal funding because that's the one that feels like it's going to fall out from underneath you, but, but what we believe is, if we lost all of our federal funding and, all, we had was our IU fine, that would hurt like the dickens lots, of people would lose their job, important. Stuff would go undone, but, you would still be able to recognize the. Organization, that we are on the, other hand if we lost the support of the University what, would be left would not be recognizable. And would not be a service to IU so. So we try to pay really close attention to, both horses and for, the first time ever the horse of federal funding has stumbled, we. Have had a group that lost its funding and we. Lost its we, lost funding, for this group of about five people, not. Because we wrote a bad proposal. Not. Because we did a bad job. We. Lost funding for this group of people because the government, shutdowns, that, have plagued Washington. In the last year made. It impossible, for, the. Federal, funding agencies, to, put out the grant solicitations. To which we plan to respond, and keep, this group funded, so. Through. No overaction. The. Simple, interruption. Of government, functions, has, wiped out a group, of research, support, professionals. At Indiana University. Who. Will find other jobs, but. Once that group is gone there's no putting it back together again and this is just one example of, how precarious. We, are in terms of our national dialogue, and scientific. Research in the US, and. That, national dialogue. Isn't. Going to get better without our participation. You. Know it's clear to me that many of the ideals, behind. The. Computer revolution the, internet world wide web a lot of the ideals under which these things were created have now been subverted. On. The Internet and on the internet nobody knows you a dog used to be really, funny on. The internet nobody.
Knows That you, are a professional Russian. Troll is, a very, very dangerous thing. And. I saw a poster, that said, mislead, people make mislead, decisions. That. Benefit, the misleaders, not, the mislead in divisiveness. Plays, I would, argue that, Breitbart. News and, HuffPost have, essentially, identical, business. Models. What. Breitbart, and HuffPost both do is they. Scream, to group a about. Group B the. Only difference between Huff, Post and Breitbart, is, which group is group a and which group is Group B and. And. As people, who who, think and believe. In the value of truth. These. Discussions, that are going on in the national, level, aren't. Gonna get better unless we're. Willing to participate. In them and. I think as computer, people or is a particular obligation on, us as well to. Think about what the computer revolution has, done for the economy, of the u.s. there are countries and Germany is one of them that, have chosen high tech and high quality employment. That. Doesn't seem to be the choice that the US is made no, what's up what's our role in now we. Need to be we, need to be part of these national discussions. Because, they aren't gonna go well without us I, want. To say just a very few things that I learned from Chris Peebles. About. Living in challenging, times, trust. In the excellence, of the faculty of Indiana University. They really are excellent, some, of them are a bit goofy some. Of them a bit difficult on, average. They're excellent by serving them we serve some of the best intellects, in the world be. Human and to be human is to be kind, and. Don't take it all very seriously, Christmas. To say I am, sometimes thrown, to the faculty, as one might throw poison, meat to, wolves, they chew on me a while eventually find, me distasteful. And throw me back, and. And. Chris. Was a great, leader who believed in the value of the University and didn't, take it too seriously, I. Want. To say one comment, about my path forward, and there are research technologies. So. Last fall I gave up two pieces of my old job Matt, link became the associate vice president for research technologies. Dave. Hancock, became the principal investigator, of Jetstream, and I, am now focused, on Petey, it. Is with utmost, confidence, that. I. Look, at Dave, and Matt as leaders, of Jetstream research technologies. Generally and. I've got my work cut out for me for the next few years. There. Are tremendous, challenges ahead, of us. One. Of the challenges, that is given to us by, President, McRobbie is. To help Indiana, University. Become one of the great universities of, this century and I, believe, that we are up to this task and. The things that we do in. Research technologies. Pti, and. University. Information technology. Services, generally. Will. Help I you become. One of the great universities of, this century, and. There you have it we, have changed, the world some already, we. Just need to keep doing it and we need to do it more. With. That I. Want. To thank a bunch, of people the, Lilly Endowment. Boy. If you want to look at one organization, that got us from where we were in 1996. To where we are today, the, repeated, injections of.
Thoughtful. Support, from the lowly endowment, have been absolutely, critical. We've. Done. A lot of research, with, a lot of support from a bunch of federal funding agencies, all. Opinions, presented, here are those of the speaker and. May not necessarily, reflect the opinions of any federal funding agencies, and certainly. Some things I have said would be disavowed, by essentially. Any federal, funding agency I am sure. And. I want to thank a bunch, of people want to thank my family my, wife Marion. Hi. George. Madeline. All. Right Tony Kristin. And Ellen and. Marla. Where's, Marla yep so thank, you all very much, I. Want. To thank all of my colleagues, one, of the things that I've always said is that I never mistake. The. Leader for the team when. I was leader, of research technologies. I was just the leader. Team that matters. And. I want to thank everybody. In our team PPI past and present but, especially the, the sort of the brain trust Eric Maurice, Miller Steve Sims Matt link Dave, Hancock Robert Henschel Vaughn Welch Marlon Pierce Mike. Boyles, who. Did a lot of the work behind a lot of this systems that we've talked about. Early. Leaders Mary Papa Thea and willing to hostile want to thank Winona snap child's, who edits. Me better than any other editor ever has. The. People at OU VPI t who supported, me particularly, in the last 14, months and. As I have been. Overcoming. Cancer, the. Largest, care package, I got was from the finance office. You. Know. The. Finance, office, now. I will say that they got they got advice, from Matt Allen so they got good advice but, financed. Off Richard Mirage has been a great help to me, in. This time as well Rodina Honeycutt where's. Rodina Rodina stand-up. Rodina. Has, ruled. My days from, eight to five and, when I have traveled, for just. About 13, years. We. Have come to the conclusion that no human being deserves to, have to be Matt Link's boss and my, boss so. So. Matt gets to keep Rodina and I don't and I thank Rodina many. Years I want. To thank the faculty staff, and students, of IU a services, organization.
Is Worthless without people, to serve the, IU community. Gives us great, people to serve, and. I want to end by thanking my, mentors. Particularly. Chris. Peebles Brad wheeler and Michael, McRobbie, and. With that are. There any questions. Thank. You all very much. I. Love. The talk because I. Reminded. Me of what I joined, up which was around the Haven time remember, this and. I don't know if it came through for everybody, else but it sure came through for me as it. Was a lot of fun man oh we, had, some fun so, we we have we, have done some awesome and fun work. And. We've, invented a bunch of stuff, it's. Been really cool and one thing I should say so Scott was involved, in building one. Piece of the Large Hadron Collider. So. The. Senior, most person. Involved. In the, Large Hadron Collider, within. The US was. Harold Oberon physics professor, at Indiana University, and one. Part of one, of the two experiments. That. That, constitutes, the major reason, for the existence of the Large Hadron Collider was. Constructed. On Third Street in. In, Swain Hall, so. Our involvement, in the open science grid and Large Hadron Collider, from. The computing, standpoint, very. Definitely. Drafts. The. Leadership. And excellence of the, physics. Community here, at IU and it has been a lot of fun and it, will continue to be fun because I am not done yet, so. Other. Questions. With. That let me thank you all for your attention this will be the last time ever. That I give a talk like this because from now I'm talking about the history of our. Key is. Matt's. Job and other people's in research technologies. Job so. Thank you all very much for your attention and have a great day. You.