2017 AM: Executive Session: Beyond the African Burial Ground:
All, right good afternoon. Welcome. To beyond. The African burial ground. Anthropological. Transdisciplinary. Innovations, in theory methods and, technologies. This. Is one of two sessions on the topic, the, second of which anthropology. Beyond the African burial ground project. Epistemologies. Ethics. And interpreting. The African diasporic and Native American pasts. Immediately. Follows this one at 4:15. In the. Lobby level of the Omni Shoreham. Across. The street, we. Hope you will be able to see the full range of studies, influenced, by the New, York African, burial ground, the. African burial ground began began. The client Ajmal that, arguably, and arguably, public. Engagement. More broadly in American. Archaeology. Working. For what we joined as the. Descendant, community, our. Ethical, client helped. Foster not only their empowerment of themselves, but, shifted, the locus of research design, away. From the. Gated intellectual. Community of. Anthropologists. To the questions, generated, by a community that while. Outside of anthropology. Was. The one most affected, by the history, we. Might write. The. Resulting, watershed. Project, involved, a large eighteenth century, African archaeological. Population, in downtown. Manhattan. Cemetery. In New, York, it. Gathered, diverse, disciplines of, science and the, humanities to. Address four questions. Largely. New to anthropology, one. What. Were their African, origins - in what. Ways were these founders, of African America, transformed. Culturally, and biologically. Three. What was the physical quality, of life during their enslavement, in, New York and four. How. Did they resist, slavery. Over. 200 anthropologists. And cognate scholars, and their students, worked, on this project in nine different universities, and laboratories. The US and else and elsewhere in the world the, analysis, of which cost six, million dollars, a. Substantial. Cost. Justified. By, high public, interest in a project that belonged to the african-american. Descendant. Communities, I've, heard folks, occasionally, said well you had all of that money well. We had all that money because, we did things, people. Were interested. Answered. Questions that, the people were interested in having us answer. At. The resulting, twenty five hundred pages, of volumes, still. Represent, as we. Met a couple of years ago to. Sort, of scan the horizon and see what was out there still. Represents, the most sophisticated, bio.
Archaeological. Study. Yet produced and. As. Well as a US National Monument, and, a. Visitor center. To. Commemorate. The reburied. Remains, and to, teach what, is now known about them. We. Begin with and, of course we're looking at projects, that have been influenced, by or that relate in one. Way or another to, the way in, which we approached. Bio. Archeology, at the African burial ground that have developed. Since that time so. We're beginning with Matthew. Reeves of, Montpelier. James. Madison's, Montpelier, a paper, entitled. Reversing. The narrative, using. The archaeology, of African American spaces, to, interpret, history at, a United, States, presidential. Home. All. Right thank you Michael it's really. Really. An honor to be part of this, session and as, you said Michael the, work we've done at Montpelier, has, been very much inspired, by the African, burial project. And the community-based, research, that came from, from that research that was done and. The, case study I want to talk about today is one. That's at the the, plantation, home of James Madison, located, in central Virginia, and. It's what, we've been using. The. Archaeology, of African. American sites of Montpelier to do is not, only using, sites to help the, public understand. The contributions, that African Americans. Made not. Just to Montpelier, but to this, country, and also, use these these. Archaeological sites and the research on them to, into, to. Inspire, and get an get the local, community and descendants involved, not, just in the research but, also framing. The questions that we're using to, address back to the public that comes to visit Montpelier, and one. Of the there's, really three, different aspects. Of Montpelier. That. Have. Allowed this to happen to. The degree that has occurred so far were, you know first we're, at a presidential. Home site James Madison's, home and. It's a plantation, home of course there was over hundreds in enslaved, individuals at the Madison zone that lived, and worked and built a community over a hundred years and. James, Madison was not just the fourth President of the United States he. Was you know the architect of the Constitution, he was the the, father of the Bill of the right of Bill of Rights and, as, a. Virginian. And is that a planter, he. And the other founding fathers designed. The Constitution. And the Bill of Rights to do a couple of things one of them was to, ensure the, protection of, race-based. Slavery, I mean that's what the Constitution is all about is protecting that economy, and with, the citizens, that the citizenship, question you know what the founding fathers always, get credit for of course what was written into we the people you know who were we the people we the people were those, white males who are landowners. And by landowners, by. Proxy. That also means slave, owners which equates to property, at the time period so this Constitution. Was, really designed to protect the, elites, investment. In human, chattel, property and, this is something we're, trying to get across to visitors at the, home of James Madison, where it's very personal, Madison at his home was, a slave owner he was not a he, was a constitutional, scholar here at the Virginia Plan up in the library, as we talked about but, there's, a sudden major undertones, in that that are baked into our country the race-based.
Economy. That still you know has legacies, today is still there so you, you've got this this power replace, with Montpelier, where, we can talk about the, intersection between race and the Constitution. The, other the other part about Montpelier, that makes it an incredible, site for this is really, the preservation, and where this comes from is. James. Madison dies in 1836. Dahle sells the property in 1844. And what she sells in the property, isn't, just the land in the home and the furnishings, she, also sells, those hundred individuals, that have made their home that community there for over a hundred years and so, with that that ends, this community, of surviving. And with, the end of that community there's never as many, slaves at Montpelier, as there was before 1844. So a lot of the sites that were, there the slave quarters of the work areas are completely abandoned, never, to be occupied again and what we found in the, archaeology, is these, sites are incredibly well-preserved all, through the 19th and 20th century, they remained unplowed on the 2700, acres that we've got at Montpelier, and what, we found is intact household, remains of the slaves that lived and worked there so we're able to new, document, their presence, to the point we're actually able to not only do research, on these these buildings, but also reconstruct. Them in an authentic way so if people couldn't recognize the presence of, african-americans. On the landscape, in this pivotal part of this country's history the. Other part of the landscape, that we've got is the really. Is, is this. Post. Madison. Landscape. That gets into the legacies of the Constitution, one of the first, sites were restored, and I'm going to be talking about this in a little more detail is the Gilmore cabin which was built in 1873. By two former, slaves of James Madison. Emancipated, by the Emancipation. Proclamation after. The Civil War and, this. Structure, was, one of the first we were restored with working with a local community and, then the other is a train station there, was built in 1911 billed, as a segregated, train station, with, separate, white and colored entrances, and these, two buildings represent. You know this path of citizenship, that had you know this initial victory, with the Civil War which, was quickly. Quickly eclipsed, by the Jim Crow era and what's, great about these two sites is they're, on the, main route which is route 20, so, they really are the face of Montpelier.
And It really with, the community, these are these, are some of the first sites were restored, because, they were most visible to the local community, and they had the most knowledge of these and this is that this gets into the third part of what we got at Montpelier as a treasure and most important, is the, local community, and really if it was going to be you, know distilled, into one person it, would be this this wonderful lady right here Rebecca Gilmore Coleman she is the. Great-granddaughter. Of, George. And Polly Gilmore, the former slaves of James. Madison, who built the Gilmore cabin and in. 1999. This, is the same year that the Montpelier, foundation, was established, she. Approached Montpelier, and told, the, the the, land managers, there about what that cabin was that it wasn't just a cabin. Covered in poison ivy that was falling down that, was built by her grandparents. Who were former slaves in Montpelier, and wasn't wouldn't it be amazing to restore that and talk about you know what happened to James Madison slaves, and the, same year that she approached Montpelier, with this this idea is, she, created, an, organization in Orange County called the Orange County African American Historical, Society. And Rebecca. Was one of the first people I met when I moved to Orange and she was very. Under she asked me to be part of the board and since. That time in 2000. What, we've done is we've done we've had you know done collaborative, efforts with the Oh CHS. And pretty, much every opening, we've had, and every project we've had that's involved, sites, on the landscape, and if, you're dealing with sites in the landscape, at a plantation their African American sites that's you know that's there's, a focus, of course that are building the buildings and making the the, this place what it was and, so from the open the Gilmore cabin in 2005, to the opening of the train station, as a space that looks, at segregation, and and the on the. Path. From citizen, from the slavery to citizenship, with the on the civil rights movement. And then finally more, recently with the on, the groundbreaking in the South yard we collaborated, with the Oh CHS, on these events. Now. With. These. Along. With these these. Particular events, what, we, what. We also. Engaged. With the Oh ch s on is a. Reunion. The in 2001. There was the first reunion of, descendants. Of the, Madison plantation, and at. This at this reunion we were at that time we were looking at folks that are directly descended from Montpelier. And of course the Gilmore's were part of that the family that came for that and what, was really special about that meeting that that reunion in 2001, is, the Gilmore family it was the first time in over 70, years the two branches of the family had, gotten together and and. Communed because in 1920, when the Gilmore's crabbin, was sold it was sold because george and polly calm, or died without, a will their, case. Went into dispute were the children it went to court the judge decided, we're going to sell the set of sheriffs auction the DuPont family who later gave the land, to the National Trust which became Montpelier, that, is, who. Bought the land and the family didn't talk since then and in 2001, with this this remembering, of the Montpelier community, they. They. Met for the first time I we, were able to meet and talk and we're, at that time we were starting the the stabilization. Of the building this is inside the Gilmore cabin in 2001, and asked. You know I said we just have, started some archaeology, there we found underneath, the floorboards, the, floor was sealed in 1910, by the second generation by linoleum, floor and beneath, these floorboards, there are thousands, of glass beads items. That, were were, swept between the floorboards by this first generation of Gilmore's so it's this time capsule and I said what would you all think of coming in October and doing a week-long excavation. They said sure let's try it it'd be neat to see what's going on with the family home in which while we're doing and be involved and this. This week was just absolutely. Amazing because you're you the the family, when, they when they arrived there there is no oral history surviving, from this period the, items that they were touching the, last folks that touched those were their grant, grandparents. Or great-grandparents. And so it was you know they were handling. Their family's, heritage, and history and there's all kinds of stories that went with that but what they were able to identify with, is really, get a close connection with this early, phase of the family history of the 1870s.
And 1880s and the, question came up on the. The next year is what time period to restore the cabin to there is a original section from the 1870s, another, one to the 19-teens, it was added that one had fallen apart and, we. Brought the family back along. With african-american, scholars to look at what period to restore and to, a person, what, the family asked. For was, to restore back to this 1880s, period a period that for the media, post emancipation, period there's not hardly any other homes that are being have been restored and interpreted, at that time period and for, them it represented. A bringing, that it was a physical representation, and bringing their family back together so, as part of an outcome of that of that study what, we did is we did archaeology, in the back of the yard found the original family home that was built in the 1860s, right, after the Civil War after emancipation that's, the the. Building, that is in the back here, but, also more importantly we did documentary, research to put the Gilmore family in context, with other african-american, families in Orange County in 1880, and what we found in that research is that, to look at the Gilmore family or any families, at Montpelier, you, had to look at the larger community, and so, what the next reunion we had in 2007. We, expanded, our concept, of community not to just, folks, that could trace, their direct ancestry, to Montpelier, but, to all any families, that came from the orange area or had, any kind of connection DNA. Or. Any, connection whatsoever to to, Montpelier so we, finished, her the restoration, 2007. We had a another. Gathering at Montpelier, by, this time we were starting to restore the main house and in. 2007. When we opened. The the may brought. The the second to center group to see Montpelier, what, we showed was the progress in the Gilmore cabin, we had the the South yard that we had discovered which is the quarters for. House slaves from an insurance map, and when, we took folks out on the deck to see this and we started talking about how you know the. Quarters were there and we what we had, represented, them with was. Beams. And and cut grass to show these buildings were and people, were squinting like y'all were doing is like you know where are our ancestors, homes, like well you know you can see him where the cut grass is and finally, our rose Ford who's a member she's a member, of the anthropology, faculty and descendant, in in. Saint Marie City she, said you know Matt no we're asking, you just spent 30 million dollars in this restoration of the house and you're representing, our ancestors. Homes with dead grass and what appeared to be railroad ties it's like what's up and I said you know mayor Copa and what we started to jumpstart. This because I've got four minutes now is we. We.
Applied For an neh grant we received it were able to do is really establish. Where these homes were the physical, evidence was there to, actually reconstruct we. Didn't have the, money, to reconstruct. But rather than wait for that money to arrive we did timber-frame, goes to these buildings so these buildings, would be in the landscape, we found the quarters for field slaves, represented. Those on the landscape, and by 2014. Had, really been able to represent what. How the enslaved, community were structured, on this plantation landscape. And represented. The different groups at Montpelier, so we had the. Enslaved community back at Montpelier but, what we didn't, weren't able to do is really, get, the descendent community, involved, in this research and this is where we began. To really, start to self-reflect we had started, these programs which are these programs where we. Have these one-week programs where people come out for the week and do archaeology and, they involve everything from survey, with metal detectorists to, do an excavations. Do an analysis and, then reconstruction. Where we have actually trained people to build a log cabin to, represent these buildings on the landscape, this, forms this learn logo, the N is for network and this is where we, really begin, to realize where we were falling down the job we we, had. One descendant, that came had maybe five or six that came over this four-year period one, lady sherry Williams from Chicago, and she came she was like Matt you, sent us all a letter saying come, get Montpelier, you can dig for free and just you, know help, us figure out where these slave quarters are she said Matt you know this is after she'd been there for a month we had a lot of conversation, a lot of drinks, she said Matt you know our people, we. Tried digging for free at these plantations 200 years ago it didn't work out that well for us you got to find a different way to get people here she said I'll bring my family here you, figure out how to had. A word this so you can say, what you're trying to do and so the next year what what. Sherry did is she brought 25, members her her family who were descended, from the area we spent a week excavating. In the slave quarters and what we prompted, people with is you know the objects, you're touching, during this weeks along recalling, excavations, the last people to touch those objects, were, your ancestors, who were enslaved here the ground is curated, these for 200 years to, be passed along to you and what, what came from that was just an amazing week, of discoveries, for us and everybody else and it was you know what, was key to this was treating, the participants, like family, and having. A back and forth conversation and, one of these conversations. Was you know how, many minutes do I have okay. I'm good one, minute all right well there are many conversations, that came from this what. We held at the end of the week was, really a it is a roundtable discussion to, see what the next steps were and what what, we came. Away. With was, really. Using. Revising. Language for the expedition's which we did. Having. People. Of color be part of the staff and this is where we started an internship program where. African-american. Students would be able to get scholarships to the field school become, interns and then be hired as staff and we found we've finally gone through this cycle and completed, this and, not. Completed, gone, through the first phase to begin it and then what we what was also apparent. Was the way we're we were asking. And inviting. The community comment, to come out was backwards, instead of setting a schedule is go, to the local community, go to this sentence and say when, he can, you come out for these digs and for how many days and what, people said to a tee is a week is too much we get your letter about coming out for a week nobody can do that we. Could come out for two days Thursday. Or a Friday before. Weaken that would be great and since that time for, we've, had over 75 members of the local in the descendant community come in these programs, the, other thing that the that was really, pushed in this program was, the half of the stories that we're learning from the archeology, be put into the stories we're telling about Montpelier, and from, that came, an exhibit, that is called the mirror distinction, of color that looks at the intersection, between slavery, the, Constitution.
And Where how. The descendant community is it tells this story so, we've actually you, know in this exhibit we talk about how the Constitution, was used as to. To, protect and institutionalize. And. Slavery. And that. We what we're been using is the context. We've made with the community to tell that story so we have individuals, descendants. Whose voices are used to say to. Talk, about you, know what this. Relationships. Means to them and what the legacies of slavery slavery, are and one, of the things that we've learned from this. Work is a couple of things is one having dialogue and listening, and not talking is listening, and I'm doing too much talking right now and over time and then the second is really. Finding a way to, to. Get, the this. Anti, racism. Content. Baked, into the character, of the kind of the of the community, just like the Constitution, has this racist, heritage baked into that document well, once it's in that document, it's hard to pull out that's all we have these legacies, and the racial race problems we have today what. Montpelier what we're trying to do is this, exhibit that it's cost you know a couple million dollars to produce is one, that for in, many, ways a zero sum budget institution, with no endowment, will never be able to remove and so it's right now this these messages, are starting to be baked into the institution. And then, also is trying, to find ways so that we have a an, institution. Where, the cake is what, holds the message the icing, is just what's, on top of the cake and usually, what happens with these projects, in many cases, is what's the icing, is where the anti-racism is put in and then, the cake still has this racist, message. Baked into it and still you've got a cake and I've gone too far this analogy, but but. Anyways. I'm really. Thank you for listening today. Would welcome, you all to come and visit at at, Montpelier, so thank you. Thank. You Matt the. Next paper, by Joseph, Jones of the College of William and Mary is entitled, making. Black lives matter, lessons. From the New York African, burial ground. All, right so. Some, shifting, gears here a little bit but there's a dr.. Rees mentioned a time capsule so there's a connection to what we're gonna talk, about I promise. The, African burial ground project, conducted, during, the 1990s, and early 2000s. Helped to shift the landscape, of by, archaeological practice, the, project pioneered an integrative, approach that, linked diaspora theory and interdisciplinary. Methods to a new ethics of public engagement and accountability, this. Paper we highlight some key projects, that result directly from the project's novel diaspora, framework, we, also provide an example of a project inspired, by and building upon the, African burial ground ethical clientís model we, frame our discussion around, two major lessons, from the African Bureau ground project, which, we address intervals, and themes of ancestry, and agency, these, themes are central to various social bar archaeology's, of identity, and inequality. That have emerged over. The past decade, the. Years, leading up to and especially those following, publication. Of the African Bureau ground projects. Final reports have seen the rise of various bio archaeology's. A quick, Google or Amazon search, will reveal by archaeology's, of violence sex. Gender. Childhood. Community poorest, boredom agency and, even prenatal agency, okay I'm kidding about the last one let's take that one off. But. Some of you were jotting so wasn't, too far off base. The. Shared focus and growing trend is a concern with power and inequality.
What, Did however. And largely still does distinguish, the African burial ground project, from much bio archaeology as, the ethical approach to public engagement, developed under the leadership of scientific, director, dr., Michael Blakey of, course engagement, and activism can take many forms and ethics are always situational. One. Of the unique but potentially, widely adopted innovations. Of the ABG project, however was. That it emphasized, ultimate, accountability to, a descendent community primarily. Its members were African American New Yorkers that is those deem most vulnerable to the uses or, abuses, of scholarly findings, the, goal here was rigorous science and support of organized, political, activity, for, the purpose of social change knowledge. Production and knowledge as intellectual. And local, power, Palicki, alliances tradition with the blazing, critique of biological, race but, traces it more precisely. Through. Works by African Diaspora scholars such as William Montagu call, WB. Dubois engineer. Fair, mean and ultimately to Frederick Douglass's foundational, critique of scientific, cranial metric racism, and bio, determinism. In. Keeping with the theme of this session we will take a brief departure from the burial ground to describe abrupt a project, inspired by its public engagement, model that is currently underway in Richmond, Virginia. The. East Marshall story will project, and, somehow this seems out of. Order. There. Holy, Jesus is there we go. These. Marshall Street well project, is an effort to properly reenter memorialize. It perhaps to. Study human skeletal, remains unearthed, as a result of construction, activity, undertaken. By the Medical College of Virginia, now, the Virginia, Commonwealth University Medical, Center in 1994. Preparation, of building construction for, the Hermes a cantos, Medical Sciences Building located, in downtown Richmond, led. To the uncovering of the will and the discovery of physical remains of over 50 individuals.
Initial. Skeletal analysis, suggests that these were people mainly of African descent who have been discarded into the will following, the use of cadavers, for medical training into, section and amputation. Archaeologists. Date use of the will to the pre Civil War period thus. At least some of the ancestral remains are likely to be those of enslaved, children women, and men and. Circumstances. Similar to those of the New York African burial ground construction, of the cantos building, a building. Okay. And seen here, completed, oh it. Was not was, not adequately, halted, for, systematic, archaeological, investigation. For, the sake of economic expediency. The will was covered hastily without being fully excavated is. Likely that additional remains still rest at the site similar. To the New York situation. As well this was new history I'll, be at a history of what Herod Harriet, Washington calls Medical apartheid, new. History for most Richmonders, the. East Marshall Street world project, is a university's acknowledgment, of these dehumanizing, practices surrounding. The will during, the 19th century as well as the 1990s. Importantly. The project further acknowledges. That efforts to redress these practices, can only be successful with, input and guidance from those members of the community most vulnerable to, institutional, power, is. Within this context, at an East Marshall Street will family, representative, council was established during, explicitly. On the African burial ground model the family, representative. Council our FRC, functions. As a descendant, steering community committee. For the East Marshall Street whale project, however. As its name applies implies. This group is conceptualized. As surrogate, family our. Surrogate, are, symbolic, descendants, selected. Through a series of consultations. To represent, the ancestors, discarded, in the will this. Project has taken on new meaning and relevance in the context of the current debate over white supremacist, Confederate, monuments, one. Of us are the co-authors. Here myself, serves, as a member of the FRC, this. Capacity, I do not conduct research on the site or the ancestral remains but my involvement has afforded opportunities to educate and to learn, beyond, the traditional classroom and in, turn to share those experiences with, students again, anthropology, for local knowledge and power. It's. The FRC, there. Returning, to the burial ground. One. Criticism level against the project is that dialectical, engagement, with a descendent community compromises, scholarly objectivity, and with, it the scientific, value of resulting, works in. Our experience, the opposite is true the. Paradigm, for cooperation, developed, by Blakey and colleagues has led to new methods critically. Informed questions about agency ancestry, and identity, and a higher standard of interpretive, rigor consider. For example burial, 101, in the question of origins which, has evolved for us into an investigation, of various, forms of ancestry, for example genetic Geographic, and social ancestor ease burial. 101 is an adult male with local Manhattan strontium, 8687.
Isotope, Values and. Relatively high enamel, layer concentrations. These. Data suggests birth in the Americas, however, burial. 101 case, is complicated, as he also has culturally modified teeth, a morphological. Tree, assistant. Lee associated, with African Geographic, origins so. What's going on here with. Burial 101 in natal Africa nor was he born in the Americas, as the chemistry seems to suggest. Typically. Chemistry, Trump's culture from an interpretive, standpoint. It. Is qualit it is quantitative and therefore more real but. Can we conceive of a set of circumstances, under which morphological. Data such as the presence of culturally, modified teeth, by, Trump chemical evidence of natality or. These really mixed signals pitting chemistry versus culture or my something more complicated be going on what. Happens when different chemical lines of evidence conflict, as is the case for a few other individuals. These. Questions, in their investigation, help us to fulfill the holistic promise, of our discipline, in. This case this is the bio archaeological. First that has raised numerous questions and forces to rethink the complexity, of skeletal, data moreover. Part. Of the BA cultural, complexity, at play concerns, the facts that stories archived in human bones and teeth and not only complex, there multiple like. Other skeletal biologists, concerned with matters of health, inequality. Seem, to do here. We find useful the conceptual, approach to the embodiment, developed, by social epidemiologist. Nancy Krieger, specifically. Krieger reminds us that embodiment, happens through various systems and at multiple levels so, it is possible to reconstruct ancestry. And health embodiment, profiles differently, using different biological criteria. Such, as morphology. Developmental. And cultural modified bodies. As, well as genetics, and biogeochemistry. What. The diaspora approach has enabled us to do in turn is to consider more fully what is being embodied in human. Remains from early America we should expect to see evidence of bio cultural tensions and trade offs for. Example we should expect to find evidence of social race formation, alongside, that of biological, consequences, of racism as well as indicators, of more emic processes, of ethnogenesis, these. Are skeletal memories that might influence signatures, of origin of migration, like. Historical, memories these signatures, may be partial, within. The body they may overlap compete, and perhaps even override, one another masking. Each other with time this. May confound analytical, delineation, and force new interpretations. Indeed. We're currently preparing revised natal estimations, that may take that, take these into account, such. As pay take, other factors into account such as paleo pathology, we, plan to present these and. Other data at the American Association of physical anthropology, meetings in the spring. The. Title of this talk making. Black lives matters, of course draws its inspiration from, a social movement that coalesced in the wake of the murder of Trayvon Martin by, George Zimmerman in.
2013. A. Self-defined. At its organizational. Website, the black lives matter global network as a chapter base member, layered organization, whose mission is to build local power and to, intervene in violence, inflicted on black communities, by the state and vigilantes, a thorough. Review of the black lives matters website reveals, key aspects, of the movement that was shared by the African burial ground project scholar. Activism, one, of the co-founders, was a Fulbright Scholar and the, influence, of intersectional, Theory is obvious and stated throughout the website inclusivity. With, respect to black lives matters, this is especially with respect to gender, and sexuality, and restorative. Social justice particularly particularly. Around, issues of police violence, does. This sound familiar. So. We consider how our work, intersects, with contemporary social movements, we're reminded, as to what is black or African, or diaspora about. The individuals, rediscovered, at the African burial ground or the Medical College of Virginia. Or Trayvon Martin or or. Any of these other sites for that matter black. People became. And become such through the embodiment, of their black lives. Finally. The African burial ground project, was, an important intervention, in an ongoing debate over the nature study and representation, of historical, biology, the, project, moved us beyond an ethical paralysis, of analysis. In which the. Way to comply, with a tenant to do no harm could. Be construed, as simply doing nothing, this. Path of least resistance often, leaves intact the status quo that may be untenable at best for, those who care most as, would have been the case of New York City, and enrichment the, project also addressed a troubling tendency, to problematize or disrupt community, identity formations. Quote, unquote for the good of science, the. Project helped move us beyond an academic, and rarely useful discussion, of black bodies toward, a more sophisticated understanding of, black lives and, understanding, that ultimately, implicates. Whiteness, and white supremacy, as well these. We think are valuable lessons, thank you. The. Next paper, by. Jihad, Mohammed of the African, Scientific, Research Institute. In Chicago and his co-author Patricia, white, entitled. African-american. Progeny, quest for. A new paradigm, to archaeological. And anthropological. Study. Beyond, african-american. Progenitors, burial, grounds in an, economic, stability and sustainable. Growth for. Rural. Diaspora. Thank. You Michael, good. Afternoon everyone. Beyond. The African, burial ground. And. That's pelagic, 'el and transdisciplinary. In, event room and the. Theory and method and technological. Has called for, a quest. For a new paradigm. This. Is an honor. To. Stand before you this evening and, to, be part of this collaborative. Mission. Of the. Unparalleled. Ethically. Integrated. Research team. Painstaking. Paints. Taken. Interdisciplinary. Research, led by African, Americans, we. Are advocates, for. Ancestors. Reclamation. Andry, burials, and the. Erection. Of a, regional, and national. Monument. Encompassing. That, I asked for research, stations, under the umbrella, of the Jean Baptiste Point, DuSable, Enterprise. This. Will have visiting centers to, tell the story of local, and regional. Relationship. Between, the. Enslaved, African, Creole speaking people, in the, Delta, Basin or rural. Historic. Places along. The Mississippi, River. Good. Afternoon I am professor jihad, Muhammad, today. I'm to, share with you my, work for, the past 25, years on. Our, ancestors, Pro, gentle, sacred. Burial, grounds. Work. Began Don the, work. Began nearly 30 years ago I, was. At the University, of Illinois at. Chicago Medical. School, the. Skills I developed in, my work there I have continued, to use in, my, work in identifying. African. Se. Burial. Grounds, and my, work with. Their descendants, communities. After. I retired, I continued, to develop and build, upon those findings.
Employed. By the University, of Illinois for. Two five years my. Hope for this, presentation, is that it tells the story. That. Answers, the, challenge, given, by, Michael. Blakeley. His. Work have rate has, raised awareness, for. Those of us who have worked for. The past three decades, on. Our pro gina's sacred, grounds, once. Found, these. Sacred burial, grounds, become American, unsung, treasures. How. Do we as scientists. Advance this. Important, work so that, it is beneficial to humanity, and. Build. And, revitalize. Our rural, communities. Into. Places, of prosperity. I. Believe. The. Component, we. Are sharing with you today in. This presentation offer. One. Answer. To that question. The. Father and presentation. Is linked, to the. Documentary, this, is my story, one. That have never been told. You. Push this. The. Town in the community, for which I am working in, Louisiana. Is called Promised, Land, it is a creole, Haitian. Community. Our. Progenitors. Progenitors. And. That. Lived here in promised land in they begin the, community, in, 1765. On. Their arrival with. The. Acadian. Group, out of Nova. Scotia that went into Haiti, and stayed. There for ten years the name the Broussard, group and, when, they came back into. Left. Haiti. That, came into southern. Louisiana, and started. The community. After. The. End. Of slavery and built. This community called, Promised Land. Knowing. About my work with the African slave burial, ground some of the some, of the plantation. Slave descendants. In the st., martinville Louisiana. Area. Contacted. Me they, asked me to come and see, whether the. Area and, that. They had long, suspected, were. Indeed, the burial. Ground of their. Ancestors. Same, one Ville. Louisiana. Is, a small, town east of Lafayette, Louisiana. Soft. Of i-10, on. The, Bayou Teche. The. African-american. Community, outside of st. Martinville is. Unincorporated. Park, part, of parks Louisiana, which. The. African-american. Community, called promise, led in honor of their, ancestors. Promised. Lands were sold by African. Creole haitian community in. 1765. Today. The singers represent, various, professional. Walks of life from. Non to school teachers the principal, to, legislative. Members. Slot. For what, I'm Sean is a example.
Of The. People who live in st. Bournville from Cowboys to. Farmers. To land owners, the. Cowboys, the main. Originated. With, them coming in to, southern, Louisiana with the Broussard, family, who were Solomon, and horsemen, in Haiti, and when, they came into southern, Louisiana, they bought with them 100, enslaved. Africans. And they. Became the. Industry. For. The, Cowboys, in the cow industry. In the United, States. With. Many. African. American, also, have, preached Creole in American. Indian. Ancestors. These. Are the people that I'm working with in southern, Louisiana descendents. Are both the, indigenous. African. People and the. Haitian, Creole. One. Of the major contribution. Of the African, creole haitian. Salad sellers. Slaves. Were. Clearing. The land the swampland, wetland. For. Use in farming, and sugarcane, plantation. Today, there. Are sugar plantations. For miles the. Results, of that work. Is. On, the Bayou, Teche. And of. Course you can see in that illustration, an old, drawing of the, workers on the plantation. Using. Text. From certain. Paragraphs I want, to talk to you more about. The. The. The. Building, of. Oh. When. They bought the slaves in in, 1765. One of the first thing they did was built a church, and, that church is called the. St.. Martin the. Tour. Litter. Catholic, church, and that. Church was built by the hands, of those enslaved, persons, at that time. One. Of the families that we followed, there is. Julia. Savoy. Cedric. She. Is one, of the first. Inhabitants. Her. Family, in st.. Martin parish and, that's. A photograph of her and she married into a. There. Was a mixed marriage and, her. Husband, fought in the Confederate, Army, and how. We found. Her. Was, through his military records. She. Was Creole. Other. Contribution. Of those Barratt independence. Lay burial ground established. To call or rantin in Louisiana, in the 18th, century, these. Are the people who you see, shown. There who, are descendants, of those first many. Cowboys and descendants, of Julia, Savoy. Frederick. Between. 1719. And, 1743. Nearly, six thousand, enslaved Africans. Came directly from. Haiti. And Africa, into. Louisiana many. Were enslaved. And. They came by way of the French Acadians. And and. Plantation. Owners. Here. We found in the burial ground of the ancestors, of those that we. Introduced, you to eight, graves. Were. Found and, documented. In portion. Our survey, and, recorded. By myself. And state. Of Louisiana, archaeological. David Palmer, and also. Professor, ray. Brosser, from. Louisiana. State University. The. Burial, ground is registered. With. The state of Louisiana. The largest state archaeological, David. Palmer, and is, now, protected. Land. However. Access, to, the land by descendants, remain a problem. After. Certified, in registering, the burial, ground we. Worked with the descendants, on negotiation. With. The present, land owners, to allow descendants, access, to. Their ancestor. Burial. Ground. After. Gaining access, to the burial, ground. After. Gaining access to the burial ground we. Helped public, installation. Of the site that. The promised land, African. Diaspora. Heritage, trails. The. Site, commemorate. Was. Planned, and. Conjunct. Conjunction. With the International. African Diaspora. Conference, in Louisiana, in 2013. What. Were our next, step we, were finding. That. African, enslaved, sites, in African, American, descendant, community, along the law, Mississippi. River from. The Gulf of Mexico. From. Louisiana, to Illinois. We. Link those. African-american. Rural communities. Along the trade, and. Exploration. Routes. Taken, by the French Canadian. The. African, Haitians for traders, Jean. Baptiste point, to Sabo and he. Was the first free black who. Is celebrated. As the founding. Father of the city of Chicago and, he. Was a french-canadian.
As. A fur. Trading. Poles, one. Of the earliest research project, was, the search for mr. DuSable. Burial. Site. We. Were able to make facial. Reconstruction. Of dis. Arbol using, drawings of at, that time and. Of. Course the story of the, search for mr. du sarbat is described, in the, award-winning, Doctor. We. Provided, this, is my story in the story that have never been told, among. The others burial. Sites were, those in, Missouri. A town. Of hate time Missouri that. Was named after many. Haitians. Was bought in from, Haiti, during. The 1700s. We. Include. Those. Along, the, DuSable, trail these. Sites will be now. Destinations. For. Tourism. Development. These. Are the sites in the Mississippi, Delta project. That. Map showing the, region, of the Delta region and Louisiana. And Missouri. For, which we have now established. Destination. For tourism. The. Next step. After. The burial ground was sought and to. Improve the economic development, through, small business, development, and. The, reconstruction. Of those that we found in those tombs we. Are now able to establish, these, sites, for. Tourism development. We. Sought to provide, training, for those. Young, people in the community. To. Be trained as entrepreneurs, to, the next generation, of Africans, Americans, in the. Very. Poor. Communities. Those. Communities. Chose two. Major fields. One. Hospitality. And two. Business. Entrepreneurship. Both. Were provided, at the, local historic, black colleges, that, we seek, out Lincoln, University being, one they. Have a have. Opened a branch office in Sikeston, Missouri which. Is in proximity to, take, time Missouri. We. Develop business, plan, for. Culturally, eco-tourism, jobs, around the, local african-american, history, and culture in, the area. Around. The. Burial, sites, this. Led to community. Members developing. A business, plan. With. The assistant of the Federal Small Business, Administration. In Illinois and Missouri we. Work with local entrepreneurs, to. Build their own small businesses. These. Are photographs. Of some of the products, that the community, now are producing. And we, are now distributing. Through. Our website, and also through. Other, means, or local, businesses. The. Promised. Land burial-ground. Descendants. Bought their products. To Chicago, to. Reduce Abba museum. On. Our first trade summit to find the market, for, their products, and to share, their work our. Work continued, today among, the many rural African, American communities, in the Mississippi, River Delta region. I wanted, to thank you all for. Listening that's. My report thank you Michael. Thank. You jihad our, next. Speaker. Hottest, Schroeder of the University of Copenhagen, will. Speak on roots revisited, recent, advances. In paleo. Genomics, and the, search for origins, and ancestral, ties in the context, of African, Diaspora. Archaeology. Thank. You very much dr. Blakey and good. Afternoon everybody actually cut down my title because it was a little long it didn't fit on the screen but. Thank you and thank you for organizing putting, together this session that's a great honor to be here and so. Aaron. Earlier talked about phenotype, I'm gonna talk about genotype. Or I want, to give, you a little illustration of. What. Can be done with. With, DNA. To. In, order to to understand, or better understand. The. Ancestral origins and, demographic, histories of African descent, in populations, in the Americas, and. And. All. The work that I'm going to talk about was. Conducted as part of this. Project here it was called, your test it, was a PhD. Training network that ran from 2011, to about 2015. And it. Funded 13. PhD projects, across. Various different disciplines, history, anthropology archeology.
And. Also, human. Population. Genetics and that's the part I'm gonna mainly focus on, today. This. Work was very much inspired of, course by. The. New York African Vela ground project which was. Underway when I was still, an undergrad, and. As. Dr.. Blakey outlined, earlier. It. Was not only seminal, in terms of. Community. Engagement and and, setting standards in that regard but also in terms of phrasing, research. Questions that good, and should be asked. And so. Dr.. Blakey outlined those earlier in here I just have them again so those. Themes that that were. Picked out were origins. And ancestral ties and the physical quality of life of of enslaved people's in that part of the United, State at that point, bio. Cultural transformations, that these individuals, and populations underwent. After. Their arrival in in. The Americas and and lastly modes of resistance. With. Work with genetics, the the theme that were mainly focusing, on of course is his, origins, and ancestral ties although when. We're talking about. Pathogen. DNA and and work that is ongoing there of course there there, are, things. Also to comment on here in terms of physical quality of life and so on but, what I'm gonna mainly focus on is this this theme of origins and ancestral ties so. The. Newark African Brown project. Pioneered. Also, different. Methods new methods and so. We've. Heard about dental anthropology. Dr.. Jones talked about. Isotope. Analysis. And. Ancient. DNA analysis, was also part of the of the. Mix but. In in. In, many, ways the the new, African burrow core project, was was ahead of ahead, of its time because. A. Couple. Years after, the, project was was, wrapped up, the. Field of genetics and genomics. And. Particularly, also the field of ancient DNA underwent, a, complete. Shake. Up revolution. And. The. Game changer was simply a new form of DNA sequencing, that you've probably all heard of by, now but people. Talk about next-generation, sequencing. Or second, generation sequencing. Or simply, high-throughput sequencing and, the. Difference is is simply one of scale. So whereas. In in past years we would spend you. Know weeks, and weeks in the lab trying, to, PCR. Amplify and, clone short, bits of DNA now. We could literally. You. Know sequence millions of nucleotides. Per second, so. Producing. Roughly a human genome in, an hour so. That's three billion base pairs so the the, amount, of data that can be produced, is just, has. Just changed. Changed dramatically. What, went. Well. This had this had a massive, impact on, all, kinds of fields. Dealing, with those four letters dealing with DNA. You, know forensic genetics and medical genetics and biology, and what-have-you but also particularly. On on ancient DNA so here you have a graph. That simply shows the. Number of genomes that have been human, ancient human genomes that have been produced, since. You know that technology came on the market and and you can see that it took it, took a while but then starting, in about 2013. Or so, you. Know literally hundreds of ancient genomes have been have been sequenced, from. Around the globe and the. Other aspect. That's important, here to consider, is that a. Lot, of effort. Has been spent simply, not. Working, on ancient genomes but on modern. Populations. To, try and better understand, human genetic variation across. The globe and, here you have a you, know by, now a pretty famous map. Genetic. Map of Europe. This. Was published by John of Umbra and and colleagues, already. A few years ago now, but. What. I want you to take away from this is simply that when, you look at this. Principal. Component plot, here of about. A thousand individuals from Europe, what. What. Stands out is that the genetic variation first, of all that their structure there and that this structure mirrors, geography, so. There. Is as, he put it a close correspondence, between genetic, and geographic, distances. And. Now. When. It comes to. The. Context of the African. Diaspora and, African. Populations, in in Africa and Africans and populations, in the Americas. We're. Running into a little bit of a problem because, in, the. For. The longest time. Studies. Of genome, wide variation.
Have Been largely focusing, on people. Of European descent and their, various reasons, for that. That. I don't have to time to go into. But. Just. Suffice to say that out of all. Studies that have been conducted on, human populations only about 2% have, been done. On on populations, of African. Descent. This. Is also mirrored in the, world of ancient DNA so here you have a map of that. Shows. The, ancient, genomes that have been sequenced and, you can see a little bit of a bias. There and this has partly to do with preservation. But. Partly also you, know with, access to funding and access to to, to labs and and so on and so forth so the vast majority of ancient. Genomes have been produced for Europe and. Eurasia and, only a there, are only 11 data points for the entire continent. Of Africa, um, having. Said that though it's. Not all doom. And gloom and there, are several projects, underway currently. Led. By different consortium, that. Aim, at better, understanding. Human genetic variation in, in sub-saharan, Africa so there's one just around the corner from here the h3africa. Project. Led by, at, the. NIH. There's. Another one called the African genome variation. Project, which is led by the. Sanger Institute in. Cambridge. In the UK and, their smaller consortium, I one, that we put together specifically. Trying. To look. At. Populations. In sub-saharan, West, and West Central Africa that were targeting, the slave trade now. What I want to do in the in the remaining. Few. Minutes I want to give you two examples of. Kind. Of work we've. Done in, that, project. And. The first one is one. Using ancient DNA and it's simply, the. Point here is that it's. Supposed to show that you can obtain. This. Type of information from a store samples, and try, to address, questions you, know regarding, ancestral, origins and and and so on. This. Was this, already. Both. Studies are already, published this, is already a couple years old but, what, we did was we looked at three, burials from the. South Lake area in Phillipsburg. In San Martin and hence this. That. Called the South stick three San, Martin of course an island in there and the necessary until ease and, there. Were two males, and one female in there aged between 25, and and, and 40 years, the. Burials a date, to the later. 17th. Century, more. Precisely 1660. To 1688, and. All. Three of them had, modified. Culturally, modified culturally. Modified teeth that you heard earlier right by dr. Jones already and we took that um as, a you. Know as a sign that they were probably, born in Africa although as. Dr. Jones pointed out earlier the story might not be quite as you, know might be a little bit more complicated than that. We. Also had. Conducted. Isotope, analysis as part of an earlier study on. Those three individuals and. That. Again. Pointed, to Africa as the. Birthplace but what, we couldn't say. Based on the isotope values, in. This case strontium isotope values was, where. In Africa these individuals came from so, then we proceeded, to to, generate genome-wide. Data from these three. Individuals and. Because. Of preservation we weren't able to obtain full genomes but only, partial genomes. So. The genome coverage was from from 0.1, X 2 to the 1/2 X so, that's roughly, 10 to 50 percent of the of the genome and it was enough in order to to. Try and. Look. At the genetic.
Affinities, Of these three individuals and so what, we what we found here was for at least for these three individuals was, different. Genetic affinities, so. The first, individual, showed. Closer affinities, to. To, populations. Here, in in India in the Cameroon area particularly the BER moon in this data set where's the other two you. Know showed greater affinities, with with. Populations, from Ghana. And and present-day, Nigeria. Now. The. One thing that you have to there. Are several, caveats with with with with this but obviously, one thing you'll notice straightaway is that we have here 11 reference. Populations, and this was what was available at the time but. This is out of what, over, 2000 ethno-linguistic groups, in sub-saharan, Africa so it clearly does not represent the entire human. Genetic diversity, in in in sub-saharan, Africa but that's what was available at the time. And. I do think that the vote the the the results are are. Solid in the sense that they were also backed up by another piece of evidence that we got in this case y-chromosome, evidence for one of the individuals one of the male's we. Had a particular, haplogroup, y-chromosome. Haplogroup which, shows a very restricted, distribution, in, in. Sub-saharan. Africa and it occurs at about. 98%, frequency. In this part of northern Cameroon, so again pointing to northern Cameroon as a potential, place. Of origin for that particular, individual. Now. The. Second case study I want to talk about just to present you in the next four minutes or so is not based on ancient DNA but on modern DNA and. It's, one that we just published, last month, that, was led by, Cesare. Fortis Lima who was a PhD student on, on the euro test project and what. We did here thank, you. What we did here was to look. At, the. Genome-wide. Ancestry, and demographic, history of for African descent communities, in French Guiana and and and Suriname, and they called the the, normal home. They're. Interesting. Because they're descendants, of maroon. Communities, that were established, there in the. 1700s. And. They. Have a very high percentage of African ancestry probably, among the highest in, in. In, among all African, descent populations, in the Americas. And. So. What we did at first was. To look at. Their, ancestry, and here the first thing you'll notice that our reference, panel has increased, a little bit as as. Improved, a little bit so now we, have a, reference data set of about over 3,000, individuals, that we compile from all kinds of different studies, from. About 43, different populations, and the. Only. You can see them they're plotted. In in with. The black circles and. We had two other, populations. That were also included, and generated data for which were, population. From. African. Descendants. From Colombia and African, descendants from Brazil, from Rio de Janeiro and what's. Interesting here, is that the. The. Norma home as well, as the African.
Descendants, From Colombia show, greater affinities, with populations. That are here, from that part of so. The white opinion and and and was, the gold what was referred to as the gold coast. Whereas. The. African. Descendants, from Brazil or from, Rio de Janeiro specifically. Showed. Greater affinities, with populations, from from Angola and and. You. Know this. Reflects. Patterns. In the transatlantic slave trade that we that we know about what. We also then try to do and, this. Is where you, know it gets more interesting I guess in terms of you. Know what you can actually do with with, with with genome-wide data we. Try to establish, admixture. Timing, so the, normal home have small bits of DNA, that is, not African that it tends to be European or Native American and by. Looking at the lengths of these, ancestry, tracks you can actually try to estimate when, this, type of admixture entered entered, their genomes. The. Longer, the. Tracts. The more reason that is the shorter the. The longer back in time simply due to a recombination, and. So what we found was a. First, pulse of Native American ancestry that entered the normal home population around 1750. And. The second pulse involving, Europeans, around 1775. And this is interesting, because it, is pretty close to the formation of the of these first maroon communities. Lastly. We. Looked at something that is that is generally well known. But we also looked at basically. Sex biased admixture patterns, in in all these, these, populations, that we looked at and what, we found which. Has been shown before was that there was a female dominated, African. Gene flow and a male dominated, European. Gene flow that you can see in, in blue, and. Those you, know reflect. Social. Dynamics, and and mating, pattern doing doing patterns during the colonial period. So. Just. To sum up I just. Like to, you. Know make the point that you know we can use genetic data, to. Provide, new insights. Into ancestral, origins and demographic, histories of, African, descent in populations, in this case ancient. DNA provides. A. Means, to directly test hypotheses, relating to specific, archaeological. Assemblages, or contexts. And I. Think, that. You. Know precision, will improve as as our understanding of, genetic. Variation in sub-saharan, Africa is is is better understood. So. With that I just like to acknowledge, the funders. Dr.. Blakey for putting this, symposium. Together and all, the students and pis and the your test Network and you for listening thank you very much. Thank. You. Our. Last paper, for, the our. First session of the afternoon is, by. Rachel Watkins, of American University. Who. Speak. About whose, paper isn't called. Beyond the African burial ground envisioning. A black feminist bio. Anthropology. Good. Afternoon Mike Ariane, I'm short too so I will lower the mic so. What. I'm talking about is. How. I've, drawn, upon the ethical. Epistemology. And the principle, of democratizing. Knowledge. And democratizing. Science. As. Well as the.
Interdisciplinarity. That is a part, of African. American scholar activist, traditions, as an. Inroad to subject. Our discipline, and its practices, to. Black, feminist, analyses, and black. Feminist. Critiques, of science in particular, the, reason why I think this is important, is because I've. Always, identified, as. Black and feminist. At least since, high school and, even. In the most progressive spaces. Within. Our, subfield, there's a little to no space for, black. Feminist, perspectives. And, this is the case in bio anthropology. More, broadly there's been a black feminist turn in. Archaeology. There. Is a feminist. Bio. Archaeology. But, in terms of bio anthropology. In general. That. Is not the case and we. Know also from the New York African, burial ground that the small number. Of black. Women in the field is no excuse, for there not to be space for that, the, New York African, burial ground, is an. Example, of what, it means to bring one's whole self to, scientific, practice, and that being rigorous and so that's. Where, I'm working from today so, starting, with the statement, of the problem the. Problem that kind of led me to, this exploration, is this the. Ah. Yes. Okay. So the, research, produced and many of my colleagues, have already talked about the. Innovations. Methodologically, and, otherwise and the important information, that comes out of the New York African, burial ground and that's what's represented in, this, slide, and. Also. We, have addressed the fact that this was an African, American led. Multiracial. Interdisciplinary. Team of researchers, that carried this work out. We. Also know that what. Michael. Blakey termed as the descendent community, played, a very important, role in the, development of, the, rigour of the project, in the form of assisting. With developing, the research questions, as. Well as the terminology. And. Making. Us accountable and holding us accountable in, our research practices. Right, however. The. Methodological, and, thiourea theoretical. Innovations, of the burial ground project, and, what they modelled are rarely. If at all rate. In. The. Literature cited in the literature and. This is literature that's talking about methodological and, theoretical, innovations. In our field and so we know, this to be not only a problem in bio anthropology. But it's a problem, writ. Large in the Academy, and, so. In thinking. About how, to bring these parts of my selves, together, in, the process of continuing, my work as a. Bio culturalist. I decided. To take a leap and, bring. Together the literature's, that make up Who I am as an intellectual, and to, look at black, feminist, theory and critiques, of science, to disrupt, this.
Pattern, Right, this pattern, of. There. Not being space for. Bio, anthropologists. Of color to bring their whole selves into the discipline, and. I also want. Argue that black, feminist, theory, and critiques of science are or, can be used as an important lens for understanding. The contributions, of the New York African burial ground project, and how, those. Contributions, have, been obscured. Right and as well, as the way forward past, that and. So. The. Main thing that I argue, in a number of forthcoming. Publications. Is that. Black feminist, scholarship, and these critiques of science in particular are really useful, in exposing, the epistemological, underpinnings. Of our field that reproduce. These normative. Scientific. Terrains. And I. Call, that and I kind of draw on other scholars. And term that ethnographic. Visibility, so there's an ethnographic visibility. That, can be brought to the table within bio anthropology. Through, drawing upon this, theory, and. That involves, situating. Scientists. As social, actors rather than these objective, practitioners. It, also involves, identifying and. Naming and, destabilizing. These, epistemological. Underpinnings. That produce. And reproduce these, normative intellectual. Terrains and. Also. And more importantly, disrupting. The production, and reproduction of people of color as research. Subjects, in epistemological. Processes. Right, and I bring. That up and want to emphasize, that because one of the things that I argue is the reason why the. Contributions. Of the New York African, burial ground are so obscured, is because there is a history, and there, continues to be a kind of ideological this. Ideological primacy. Of situating, people, of color as research, subjects, within our subfield, versus, being, knowledge, producers, and. So. In terms of bringing one's whole self to. Bio. Anthropology. By, way of right. Bringing my black feminist, self into. The into, the picture I draw a plum black feminist, scholars such as Patricia, Hill Collins who. As recently, as a couple of years ago called. For the need for scientific. Insiders. To engage, in a critique of science so in other words kind, of in keeping with this, interdisciplinary. Activist. Scholar, tradition. Within. The African Diaspora, to kind of draw upon right, to u