Weapons technology | Wikipedia audio article
Military. Technology. As the application. Of technology, for use in warfare it, comprises, the kinds, of technology. That are distinctly, military, in nature and not civilian, in application. Usually because, they lack useful, or legal civilian, applications. Or are dangerous, to use without appropriate, military, training. Military. Technology. Is often researched, and developed by scientists, and engineers specifically. For use in battle by the Armed Forces, many. New technologies came. As a result of the military funding, of science. Weapons. Engineering, as the design development, testing. And lifecycle, management, of military, weapons and systems it. Draws on the knowledge of several, traditional, engineering, disciplines, including, mechanical engineering. Electrical, Engineering, mechatronics. Electro-optics. Aerospace, engineering, materials. Engineering, and chemical, engineering. The. Line is porous, military. Inventions, have been brought into civilian, use throughout history with, sometimes, minor modification. If any and civilian, innovations, have similarly, been put to military, use. You. Topic. History. This, section, is divided into the broad cultural, developments. That affected, military, technology. You. Topic. Ancient. Technology. The, first use of stone, tools may have begun during, the Paleolithic, period, the. Earliest, stone tools are from the site of Lamech we Turkana, dating, from 3.3. Million years, ago, stone. Tools diversified. Through the Pleistocene, period which, ended approximately. 12,000. Years ago, the. Earliest evidence of warfare, between two groups as recorded, at the site of nattara kin Turkana Kenya, where human, skeletons, with major traumatic, injuries. To the head neck ribs, knees and hands including, an embedded obsidian, blade laid on a skull are evidence, of intergroup, conflict, between groups, of nomadic hunter-gatherers. 10,000, years ago humans, entered the Bronze Age as they learned to smelt copper into, an alloy with tin to make weapons in Asia.
Where, Copper, tin ores are rare this development, was delayed until trading, in bronze began, in the 3rd millennium BCE. In the. Middle East and southern European, regions, the Bronze Age follows, the Neolithic, period but, in other parts of the world the Copper Age as a transition. From Neolithic to the Bronze Age, although. The Iron Age generally, follows, the Bronze Age in some areas the Iron Age intrudes, directly, on the Neolithic, from outside, the region with the exception, of sub-saharan. Africa, where it was developed independently the. First large-scale use of iron weapons began, in Asia Minor around, the 14th, century, BCE, and in Central Europe around, the 11th century BCE. Followed, by the Middle East about 1,000, BC and India and China the, Assyrians, are credited, with the introduction, of horse cavalry, in warfare, and the extensive, use of iron weapons by 1100. BCE. Assyrians. Were also, the first to use iron tipped arrows. You. Topic. Post-classical. Technology. The, Wu Jing Zhang Yao essentials. Of the military, arts written by Zhang Zhongliang ding. Do and others at the order of Emperor Ren Zhong around 10 43, during the Song Dynasty illustrate. The eras focus, on advancing, intellectual. Issues, and military, technology, due to the significance. Of warfare, between the song and the Liao Jin, and yuan to their North the. Book covers, topics of military, strategy, training, and the production and employment of advanced, weaponry. Advances. In military technology. Aided. The Song Dynasty in. Its defence against, hostile, neighbors to the north the. Flame thrower found its origins, in Byzantine era greece employing. Greek fire a chemically, complex highly flammable, petrol, fluid, in a device with a siphon, hose by the seventh century, the. Earliest reference, to Greek fire in China was made in, 917. Written, by we're engine, in his spring and autumn annals of the ten kingdoms in. 919. The siphon projector, pump was used to spread the fierce fire oil that could not be doused with water as recorded, by Linn you in his woo you a Bey she hence, the first credible, Chinese, reference, to the flamethrower, employing, the chemical, solution of Greek fire see also pen hoooo chi, lin. You mentioned, also that the fierce fire oil derived, ultimately from, one, of China's maritime, contacts. In the southern seas arabia dashi Guo in the. Battle of Liang Shan gyeong in, 919. The naval fleet of the when mu Qing from Wu you a defeated, a wine on army from the Wu State when mu success, was facilitated. By the use of fire oil hue you to burn their fleet signifying. The first Chinese, use of gunpowder in a battle the. Chinese, applied, the use of double piston bellows, to pump petrol, out of a single cylinder, with an up stroke and down stroke lit at the end by a slow burning gunpowder, match to fire a continuous.
Stream Of flame, this. Device was featured, in description, and illustration. Of the Wu Jing Zhang Yao military, manuscript. Of 1044. In the. Suppression of the southern Tang state by. 976. Or seong naval, forces confronted. Them on the Yangtze, River in. 975. Southern. Tang forces attempted. To use flamethrowers. Against, the song Navy but were accidentally. Consumed, by their own fire when violent, winds swept in their direction. Although. The destructive, effects, of gunpowder were described, in the earlier Tang Dynasty, by a taoist alchemist, the earliest, developments. Of the gun barrel and the projectile, fire cannon, were found in late song china the. First art depiction, of the chinese fire lands a combination. Of a temporary, fire, flamethrower. And gun was from a buddhist mural, painting, of don juan dated, circa, 950. These. Fire lances, were widespread in, use by the early, 12th century featuring. Hollowed bamboo, poles as tubes to fire sand, particles, to blind and choke lead pellets bits of sharp metal and, pottery shards and finally, large gunpowder, propelled, arrows, and rocket weaponry. Eventually. Perishable. Bamboo was replaced, with hollow tubes, of cast iron and so too did, the terminology. Of this new weapon change, from fire spear, hoooo Chang to fire tube wooowww tong this. Ancestor. To the gun was complemented. By the ancestor. To the cannon what the Chinese referred, to since the 13th, century as, the multiple, bullets magazine, Eruptor, by Zhu Li and Zhu Pao a tube of bronze or cast iron that was filled with about 100. Lead balls the earliest known depiction of. A gun as a sculpture, from a cave in Sichuan, dating, to 11:28. That portrays, a figure, carrying a vase shaped bombard, firing, flames and a cannonball. However. The oldest existent, archaeological. Discovery, of a metal barrel handgun, as from the Chinese Heilongjiang, excavation. Dated to 12 88, the. Chinese, also discovered, the explosive. Potential of packing, hollowed cannonball, shells with gunpowder. Written. Later by Jo in, his hua Longjing mid 14th, century, this manuscript recorded. An earlier song era cast iron cannon known as the Flying Cloud thunderclap, Eruptor, Fei Yan pile epal, the. Manuscript. Stated, that, as noted. Before the, change in terminology for. These new weapons during, the song period, were gradual, the. Early song cannons, were at first termed the same way as the Chinese trebuchet, catapult, a later. Ming Dynasty, scholar known, as Mao yuan yi would explain this use of terminology. And true origins, of the cannon in his text of the wub, EIG. Written, in 1628. The. 14th, century hualong, Jing was also, one of the first Chinese texts.
To Carefully, describe, to the use of explosive. Landmines, which had been used by the late song Chinese, against, the Mongols in, 1277. And employed, by the Yuan Dynasty afterwards. The. Innovation, of the detonated, landmine, was accredited to one Luo Tian Shia in the campaign, of defense, against, the Mongol invasion by, Kublai, Khan later, Chinese, texts, revealed that the Chinese, landmine, employed, either a ripcord or a motion booby, trap of a pin releasing, falling, weights that rotated, a steel Flint wheel which in turn created, sparks, that ignited, the Train of fuses, for the land mines. Furthermore. The song employed, the earliest, known gunpowder. Propelled, rockets, in warfare, during the late 13th, century its, earliest, form being, the archaic, fire arrow, when. The northern song capital, of Chi Fung fell to the urchins, in 11:26. It was written by Zhao Xiao Zhong that 20,000. Fire arrows, were handed over to the urchins, in their conquest an even. Earlier Chinese, text of the Wu Jing Zhang Yao collection. Of the most important. Military techniques. Written. In 1044. By the song scholars, Zhang Kong Liang and yang YT described. The use of three spring or triple bow RQ ballista, that fired arrow bolts, holding gun powder packets near, the head of the arrow, going. Back yet even farther the weally Xiao Shi 1630. Second, edition. 1664. Of fang yugi stated, that fire arrows, were presented, to Emperor Tai zu of song AR 962. 976. In 960. You. Topic. Modern, technology. Topic. Armies. Rapid. Development, in military, technology had, a dramatic impact on, armies, and navies in the industrialized. World in, 1840. To 1914. For. Land warfare cavalry. Faded, in importance, while infantry, became transformed, by the use of highly accurate more, rapidly, loading, rifles, and the use of smokeless powder. Machine. Guns were developed, in the 1860s. Artillery. Became, more powerful, as new high explosives. Based on nitroglycerin, arrived. After 1860. And the French introduced, much more accurate, rapid-fire, field artillery. Logistics. And communications support. For land warfare dramatically. Improved, with use of Railways and Telegraph's. Industrialization. Provided. A base of factories, that could be converted to produce munitions, as well as uniforms. Tents wagons, and essential, supplies. Medical. Facilities, were enlarged, and reorganized. Based, on improved, hospitals. And the creation, of modern nursing typify. By Florence, Nightingale in Britain during the Crimean War of, 1854. To 56. You. Topic. Navel. Naval. Warfare was, transformed. By many innovations, most, notably, the coal based steam engine, highly, accurate long-range, naval. Guns heavy steel armor for battleships, mines and the introduction, of the torpedo, followed, by the torpedo, boat and the destroyer. Coal. After 1900. Was eventually displaced. By more efficient, oil but meanwhile, navies, with an international scope had to depend on a network of coaling stations, to refuel, the British, Empire provided. Them in abundance, as did the French Empire to a lesser extent, war. Colleges, developed, as military, Theory became a specialty, cadets, and senior commanders, were taught the theories, of jomini Clausewitz, and man and engaged, in tabletop war games around. 1900. Entirely, new innovations. Such as submarines, and airplanes, appeared, and were quickly adapted, to warfare, by 1914. The British, HMS. Dreadnought. 1906, incorporated. So much of the latest technology. In weapons, propulsion. And armor that it at a stroke made all other battleships. Obsolescent. You. Topic. Organization. And finance. New, financial, tools were developed to fund the rapidly increasing, costs, of warfare, such as popular, bonds sales and income taxes, and the funding of permanent, research centers, many. Nineteenth-century. Innovations. Were largely invented, and promoted, by loan individuals. With small teams of assistance, such as David Bushnell, and the submarine John, Erickson and the battleship, Hiram, Maxim and the machine gun Ernest, Swinton and, the tank and Alfred, Nobel and high explosives. By. 1900. The military, began to realize that they needed to rely much more heavily on large-scale research. Centers, which needed government, funding, they. Brought in leaders of organized, innovation. Such as Thomas, Edison in the US and chemist Fritz Haber of the Kaiser Wilhelm, Institute in, Germany. You. Topic. Postmodern. Technology. The, postmodern, stage of military, technology emerged. In the 1940s. And one with recognition, thanks, to the high priority. Given during the war to scientific. And engineering research, and, development, regarding, nuclear weapons, radar, jet engines, proximity, fuses, advanced, submarines, aircraft carriers.
And Other weapons, the. High priority. Continues, into the 21st, century it. Involves, the military, application. Of advanced, scientific research. Regarding, nuclear weapons. Jet engines, ballistic. And guided missiles, radar, biological. Warfare and the use of electronics. Computers. And software. You. Topic. Space. During. The Cold War the world's, two great superpowers, the. Soviet, Union and the United States of America, spent. Large proportions. Of their GDP on, developing, military technologies. The. Drive to place objects, in orbit stimulated. Space research and started the space race in. 1957. The USSR launched. The first artificial, satellite Sputnik. 1, by. The end of the 1960s. Both countries regularly. Deployed satellites. Spy. Satellites, were used by militaries. To take accurate pictures, of their rivals military, installations. As time. Passed the resolution, and accuracy, of orbital, reconnaissance. Alarmed, both sides of the Iron Curtain, both. The United States and the Soviet Union began. To develop anti-satellite. Weapons. To blind or destroy, each other's satellites. Laser. Weapons, kamikaze. Style satellites, as well as orbital nuclear, explosion. Were researched, with varying, levels of success spy. Satellites, were and continued, to be used to monitor the dismantling, of military, assets, in accordance, with arms, control treaties. Signed between the two superpowers. To. Use spy satellites, in such a manner as often referred, to in treaties as national. Technical means of verification. The, superpowers, developed, ballistic, missiles to enable them to use nuclear, weaponry, across, great distances as. Rocket. Science, developed, the range of missiles increased. And intercontinental, ballistic, missiles. ICBM. Were created, which could strike virtually, any target, on earth in a timeframe measured. In minutes rather than hours or, days in. Order to cover large distances, ballistic, missiles are usually, launched into suborbital, spaceflight as. Soon. As intercontinental. Missiles were developed, military, planners began, programs, and strategies, to counter their effectiveness. You. Topic. Mobilization. A significant. Portion of military, technology is, about transportation, allowing. Troops and weaponry to be moved from their origins, to the front Land. Transport has, historically, been mainly, by foot land vehicles, have usually been used as well from chariots, to tanks. When. Conducting a battle over a body of water ships are used, there. Are historically, two main categories of ships those for transporting, troops and those for attacking other ships. Soon. After the invention of aeroplanes, military. Aviation. Became a significant. Component of warfare, though usually as a supplementary. Role the. Two main types of military, aircraft are bombers which attack land or sea based targets, and fighters, which attack other aircraft. Military. Vehicles. Are land combat or transportation. Vehicles, excluding. Rail-based which, are designed for or insignificant, use. By military, forces. List. Of military, vehicles. List. Of armored fighting, vehicles. List. Of tanks military, aircraft, includes, any use of aircraft by, a country's, military including. Such areas, as transport, training, disaster. Relief Border, Patrol, search-and-rescue. Surveillance. Surveying. Peacekeeping. And very, rarely aerial, warfare. List. Of aircraft, list. Of aircraft weapons, warships. Are watercraft, for combat, and transportation. In and on seas and oceans.
Submarines. Complex. Masts ting and sails systems, found on warships, during the Age of sail. List. Of historical, ship and boat types. List. Of aircraft carriers. List. Of submarine classes. Topic. Defense. Fortifications. Are military, constructions. And buildings designed, for defense in warfare, they, range in size and, age from the Great Wall of China to, a sangar. List, of fortifications. List. Of forts. Topic. Sensors. And communication. Sensors. And communication. Systems are used to detect enemy's coordinate. Movements, of Armed Forces and, guide weaponry. Early. Systems included, flag signaling, Telegraph. And heliographs. Radar. Laser. Guidance. Missile. Guidance. Satellite. Guidance, in guidance weapons. Norden. Bombsight. Proximity. Fuze. Topic. Future. Technology. The, Defense Advanced, Research Projects. Agency as, an agency, of the United States Department, of Defense responsible. For the development of new technologies. For use by the military, DARPA. Leads the development of military technology, in, the United States and today has dozens, of ongoing, projects, everything, from humanoid, robots, to bullets that are able to change paths before, reaching their target, China. Has a similar, agency. You. Topic. Emerging. Territory. You. Topic. Cyberspace. In 2011. The US Defense, Department declared. Cyberspace. A new, domain of warfare since, then DARPA, has begun a research, project known, as Project. X with. The goal of creating new, technologies. That will enable the, government to better understand. And map the cyber territory. Ultimately. Giving, the Department, of Defense the ability, to plan and manage large-scale. Cyber missions, across dynamic. Network environments. You. Topic. C also. List, of emerging, military, technologies. Bella. Fortis, late medieval, treatise, on military, technology. Material. List. Of military inventions.