Vice President Pence Leads the Second Meeting of the National Space Council
Well, good morning and thank you all for being here for the second meeting of the National Space Council, I want to thank all the members who are here the members of our user advisory, group and all of those have taken time to. Join us in, person and online. We'll. Go ahead and get started today we have two panel discussions, on the challenges, and opportunities, facing our national security and. Commercial. Space activities, that I just, spoke about in my opening remarks, we're. Pleased to be joined by an outstanding lineup. Of expert, witnesses who, will share. Their insights and expertise, with the council, in. The moments ahead but, first off I'd like to ask some of the council members to provide updates on the progress that we've made since. Our first meeting to implement president Trump's vision, for American leadership in space. I'm, going to begin with our National Security Adviser, a general. HR McMaster general. I want to commend you first and foremost and, the National Security Agency. For. Your efforts, in, support. Of the National Space Council, I, specifically. Want to thank a general. Bill Vickrey of the National Security Council for his extraordinary work on the, space strategic, framework could, you please give the council an overview, of that, work. Thank. You mr. vice president and, thanks. For the opportunity to provide an update on the important. Progress we have made in developing, the new strategy for space. And I want to thank first of all fellow council, members here for, their tremendous collaboration. And and. Teamwork as you. Noted mr. vice president at, the last space council, meeting in October, you. Approved the strategic, framework for, the new strategy, and I thought it might be useful, for our audience, to briefly summarize that. Framework and what we've done with that framework, since, then as, a. Reminder the framework contained. Three, key. Elements. First. It defined. Our vital, interests, in space. To. Ensure unfettered. Access to and, freedom. To operate in, the. Space domain, to. Advance the security. Economic. Prosperity, and. Scientific. Knowledge of. The. Nation. Second it set, a desired, end state for the new strategy, to, ensure US, leadership. Preeminence. And freedom. Of action in space. For decades to come and, finally. It outlined four strategic, objectives, in pursuit. Of our vital interests, they. Are first to. Strengthen, the safety stability. And, sustainability of. Space. Activities. Second. To. Deter, and when necessary. Defeat. Adversaries. Space and counter space threats. That. Are hostile, to. The national interests, of the United States and our. Allies, third. To partner, with the. US commercial sector. To, ensure that American, companies remain the. Leading providers, of traditional, and innovative. Space. Technologies. Goods and services, on the, international. Space market, and fourth. To. Maintain, and extend, us. Human. Presence and. Robotic. Explorations. Beyond. Earth to, transform, knowledge, of ourselves, the. Planet, our. Solar system. And the, universe. So. Since October, at your direction mr. vice president we have developed, two lines of effort and. Identified. The specific associated. Tasks, to, meet the strategic objectives. Achieve. Our desired end, state and advance. Our vital interests in space, the. For integrated, interrelated, lines of efforts our, first.
Mission. Assurance. We. Will accelerate the, transformation, of, our space architecture, by. Deliberately, moving, systems, from Science and Technology phase, to. Research and development phase two actual fielding. Of capabilities. As a, result, our space systems will be more resilient more, defendable, more. Easily, reconstituted. And better. Service, to orbit our second. Line of effort on is. On deterrence, and warfighting, due. To competitor, and adversary, actions the space domain is increasingly. Contested. Space is now joined land, sea. And air. As a. War fighting domain, while we prefer the conflict, not extend, to space the. United States will be prepared. If it. Does our. Third line of effort is on organizational. Support we, will pursue improve foundational. Capabilities. Structures. And processes, to. Enable more effective, space operations, and our, fourth and final line of effort focuses. On, conducive. Environments. Both. At home and abroad as you mentioned in your opening remarks, mr.. Vice president we have work to do, domestically. This includes streamlining. The. Regulatory environment. To. Better use and support US industry. Internationally. This, includes, pursuing, bilateral, and multilateral engagements. To, enable human exploration. Promote. Burden-sharing, and foster. Cooperation. Against. Threatening, adversary. Space. Actions, mr.. Vice-president like, our audience today, and and. Like the panels that you'll see here today. These. Efforts cut, across national, security. Commercial. And civil. Space sectors, and, the. Strategy, will not only advance the benefits of space for, ourselves, but, also ensure, that peoples, of all nations can. Benefit, from the tremendous potential that. Space offers, I should. Note that the president's, recent budget submission since Mick Mulvaney is not here it increases, it increases, the, funding for, DoD space programs. By over 1 billion dollars in, fiscal. Year 2019, alone and by, 8 billion over the next five years NASA's. Budget for, 2019, is. Being increased, by 300. Million while. Also being restructured, to. Focus, more, on exploration. With. Your endorsement, mr. vice president and the president's, approval we, are prepared, to begin implementing, this national, strategy for space, and. Periodically, access process. Progress. And. Recommend, adjustments, to you and and to, the council and the president Thank, You mr. vice president great. Thank. You general and thank you for the great. Collaboration, between the National Space, Council, and the National Security Council, it's. Been seamless and we. Appreciate. Your. Update for. This this. Meeting the. Acting Administrator of, NASA Robert, Lightfoot. Has, been, busy, implementing. The space policy, directive, and also. That. That direction from the president guided. The development of the President's budget submission. Perhaps. You could give us a brief. Overview of the. Budget presentation, and the implementation, of the director. Will. Do thank you mr. vice president and, fellow council members especially those of you that worked with us on this development. Of this answer. In action to the space policy directive, one what. We did in developing this this. Initiative. Was we came up with what we called the exploration, campaign. This.
Exploration Campaign, is a national, and agency. Effort focused on three core domains low. Earth orbit lunar. Orbit and the surface of the Moon and Mars, and. Other deep space, objectives. With. The goals of this campaign, are to, transition, the US human, spaceflight in low Earth orbit to commercial, operations, which supports NASA and the needs of an emerging, private sector market, extend. Our long-duration, US human spaceflight operations, to the lunar vicinity. Enable. Long-term robotic, exploration of the moon both, scientific, and human as we, move forward in preparation. For further missions taking humans to Mars. The. Objectives, in there first of all we'll start with low-earth orbit again. As I said we want to in direct support to the ISS by 2025, while stimulating commercial. Industry, to develop capabilities. NASA, and the private sector can utilize, and meet, NASA's. Exploration and risk mitigation and, scientific, requirements. Starting. In 2018 will, increase the breadth and depth of the commercial, and. International low, Earth orbit activities, specifically, will offer to expand the International Space Station partnerships. To new nations, based. On inputs. From our current ISS, and commercial stakeholders, will, shape the plan to transition, the International Space Station as we've been asked to go do. And we'll extend the public-private, partnerships, to help develop, and demonstrate the. Technologies, and capabilities that. The new commercial, products. Can be brought to bear in low-earth orbit. At. The moon we have two objectives of course it's the long term presence in the vicinity of the moon and on the moon again. Both scientifically, and from a human perspective in. The lunar orbit we'll conduct the first, uncrewed, mission of the SLS Orion, first. Flight in 2020, to the moon and at the crewed flight in 2023. We. Intend to establish a human tended, lunar lunar orbiting platform for, crews to visit from Earth to transit to and from the lunar surface and to. Depart to of ultimately, return to Mars we'll, develop the lunar orbiting platform gateway, that. At a minimum it. Puts a power propulsion, element out there and begins to put the habitat, that we're going to need to stay, in when we go there at. The surface will. Orchestrate a lunar robotics campaign, with. A focus on the growing growing. A commercial, base of partnerships, and activity, that can, support us science technology, and exploration objectives and. Will include international. Participation, where appropriate will. Support a small commercial lander, initiative, with initial strategic presence, on the moon no later than 2020. Develop. A mid to large scale Lander initiative, working toward human rating a lander in the future this, initiative. Will focus on enabling again commercial, and international partnerships, will, also support an early science and technology, initiative that includes cube SATs lunar, lunar cube SATs a virtual lunar institute and other activities. This. Will further enable and nurture the entrepreneurial, and commercial market forces. That will define the long term human exploration. And advancement, of the, lunar service, for. Mars and other deep deep, space objectives, that we have we. Really want to maintain and grow the US leadership at, Mars we have a Rover going in 2020.
There's, A first step to demonstrate sample return strategy. It, also is going to take an, experiment, that's going to tell us whether we can produce oxygen, from the from the atmosphere, at Mars, very, exciting, mission for us then we'll, use this mission as a building block for subsequent round-trip. Robotic, missions with. Hopefully the first historic, launch off of another planet in a sample return through, the lunar gateway that, we're building, again. Broadening, the exploration, orchid architecture, as we move forward will, prioritize these investments, to guide us and really, align as general. McMaster said really, aligned toward exploration, is a tremendous, focus there for us as we move forward so that's. Kind of the nuance and the response to SPD one and. I think what. You'll find mr. vice president is this NASA team your industry team and our international partners, are ready and ready. To get started so thanks for your support in the 2019, budget we did see the increase and we're ready to go do this thank, you great. Thank. You Robert well done. We, want to thank the National Security, Council and NASA for, doing. Such a great job responding. To the 45-day reporting period, not. A lot happens in the federal government in 45 days. But. You, all did outstanding. Work. Reflecting. The president's, urgency, on this. Effort two, others that have done, excellent. Work, are. The Commerce, and the Transportation, Department we, the. Transportation is represented, by deputy secretary, Rosen and of, course secretary. Wilbur Ross is with us from, the Commerce Department. Jeff. If you want to give us a quick update I know that secretary Chao could not be with us today but could you give us a, quick. Update on, some. Of the recommended changes that, Transportation, has been working through particularly. With regard to commerce with regard to private. Space. Exploration. Yes. Thank You mr. vice president, I'm so, pleased to be here with the Space Council, and all, of us from the Department of Transportation very. Much appreciate. And are grateful for your leadership. Secretary. Chao was unable to make it today but she asked that I make very clear that the Department, of Transportation is, strongly. Committed to regulatory, streamlining. And modernizing. Our commercial, space regulatory. Framework. As. Was mentioned at the previous meeting of the council you asked us along. With OMB and the Department of Commerce to prepare, a new 45-day. Plan to. Overhaul modernize. And streamline our somewhat. Rusty, commercial. Space licensing, framework. So we've worked hard to do that and we've. Come up with some structural, and meaningful changes, to the status quo and, I hope the work we did in combination. With our colleagues on the council and other agencies, will meet your approval there. Are five main elements, that I just want to touch on briefly today. The. First is we, want to implement. Accelerated. Rulemaking, plans, meaning, that we shorten the timelines, that the FAA. And the department are working on to, meet the ambitious. Schedule that, you and the council have set out, second. Is we. Want to provide some, immediate. Interim, relief such. As the expanded, use of waivers, and programmatic approvals. Where they're appropriate so, that we can try to right, away begin. Facilitating. The objectives, of the council a third. Piece of the plan is, to focus, FAA resources. So that we strengthen, the the, portion of the FAA that. Most directly deals. With licensing, and the. Regulatory approvals, so. That we can accomplish. The goals that have been set out a, fourth. Item is. To. Establish a joint task force the.
Purpose Of this is to facilitate better, coordination, within the US government so. That, people. That need regulatory, approvals, don't. Face confusing, situations, as to who's doing what and and. How to get the approvals they need but. Then the fifth piece and the and perhaps the most important, is a new licensing, framework, as, was set out in recommendation. 1 for today's meeting our. Ultimate, aim is a 21st, century. File. And fly kind, of licensing, framework, and the, plan includes, specific, new regulatory deadlines. And approaches. In the aim of getting us to a file. And fly, type regulatory, approach as quickly, as possible so we, look forward to implementing, this change to approach and delivering. On a more responsive. Easy to navigate and, sensible, commercial. Space regulatory. Framework, and very, much work look forward to working with all the folks on on this, council. And others to make that happen thank. You. Thank, You Jeffrey and, with. That let me recognize the Secretary, of Commerce. Wilbur. Ross who I know has been working very closely with secretary Chao to achieve exactly the. Streamlining. The objectives, in the reorganization, that we've discussed mr. secretary thank you thank you mr. vice president. Mr.. Vice president members. Of the National, Space Council. Uses. Advisory. Group and distinguished. Guests. Recently. Here at Cape Canaveral. SpaceX's. Falcon Heavy, rocket, was, launched, to, first-stage, boosters. Disengaged on. Schedule, and in, unison, landed, back here, this. Was their second, use you. Saw one of them as you, came in, it. Will be ready for its third, launch an, amazing. Technological, and. Commercial. Feat. Thanks. To impressive. Events. Such as this, the. United States is the leader in space, once. Again, somewhere. Out there in, space is, a bright, red roaster. Going. Thousands. Of miles per hour the. Fastest, car in history we. Had better keep up with it. Space. Is already a. 330. Billion dollar industry. Supporting. 211. Thousand. American. Jobs but. Our share, of the. 1700. New. Companies, created. Worldwide, last year, was, only 45%. Far. Lower than, our share of launches. Private. Companies, funded, 3.9. Billion. Dollars, of our space, effort, last year, but. They're competing, against, 70. Foreign. Governments.
So, They need all the support we, can give them. Country's. New to space have, an inherent, advantage in, terms of the regulatory. Environment. Because. They carry no baggage. From, the earlier. Simpler. Days, of space. In contrast. Much. Of our remote, sensing, regulatory. Regime, is, 25. Years, old, space. 25. Years, ago bears. Little, resemblance to, space. Today. Now. The rate of innovation is, extraordinary. So. We need an adaptive. In relatively. Permissive. Regulatory. System. NOAA. FAA. FCC. And other agencies. Each, have a role and they, all have obligations. To. DoD, the, IC, and state. As well, that. Complexity. Inherently. Causes, delay. Since. The council's. First meeting, in lap tober, Commerce's. Review, of the outdated, regulatory. Framework. And, discussions. With an ambitious. But, frustrated. Space industry. Made. It clear, that the rate of regulatory, change. Must. Match the rate, of, technological, change. That. Is. How we will ensure that. Businesses. Choose. The United, States as their, flag of choice for. Space, so. At the department, we're working, to create a new. One-stop-shop. For space. Commerce. Mr.. Vice president, with the council's, direction. I will, move the office, of space commerce, in the, commercial, remote sensing, regulatory. Affairs, office, from. NOAA, to. My direct oversight, in, the office, of the secretary. This. Elevated. An amplified. Office, of space commerce, will, coordinate all. Space. Related. Functions, at the department, remote. Sensing. Spectrum. Policy. Export. Controls. Business. And trade promotion. To, name a few, in, addition. To the proposed relocation of, the office of space commerce we. Will also, soon name a director, of that, office. Also. We. Are providing, to the Bureau of Industry and security in. The, NTIA. Additional. Funding, for, their space, focused. Activities. And, our, foreign, commercial, service teams. Located. In a hundred five cities, around the, world will. Recruit, foreign. Space, businesses. To, our country. Space. Will be featured, during our select, USA, conference. In June which. Last year attracted. 3,000. Foreign. Participants. The. Department, for the proposals. To the Space Council. That, all space, commerce. Responsibilities. Other, than, launch. And reentry, licensing. Be. Consolidated. Into, the Department, of Commerce. We. Further recommend. That the president, direct the office of space commerce, to. Develop, in concert, with the council, and industry. Players. Regulations. And legislation. For. An effective, mission. Authorization. Framework for. All commercial. Activities. In, space. We. Pledge to make those proposals, no, later than July 1. Activities. Such as asteroid. Mining space. Tourism, and space habitation. Are. Quickly, becoming, much, more than science fiction and. We need a future-oriented. Space, commerce, agenda. And a, supportive, regulatory. Regime, with. Input and guidance from, the Space Council. The, Department, of Commerce can, be the one-stop, shop the. Industry, so sorely, needs. In. Addition, the Department, recommends, that. The department's. Of Commerce State. And Defense, continue. Their efforts to. Simplify. Existing. Commercial remote, sensing. Licensing. Regimes, that. Process, must be made more efficient, and predictable. Satellite. Companies, now face. A permitting. Timeline, that, can take five years is, undefined. Indefinite. And provides, no certainty. Or predictability. To. Industry. This. Is unacceptable. And must change. Otherwise. Companies. And customers, will go overseas, there. Are at least two other areas where, commerce, can play an important, role for. American, leadership in space these. Are in spectrum, policy, and export. Licensing. Spectrum. Is a. Scarce. Resource, that. Facilitates. Communications. Control, and, transmission. Of valuable, data back. To earth the. National, Space Council, should recommend that. The Department be directed, to develop and, advocate. For spectrum. Policies. To, support commercial, space, activities. While. Respecting, the needs of DoD. And others, finally. Commerce. Recommends. That the Space Council, and the, executive, secretary.
Review. Export. Licensing. Regulations. Affecting. Commercial. Space activity. Today. A, space. Vehicle that. Returns, to earth in. International. Waters, or, non-us. Territory. Is, treated, as an export. Of sensitive. And dangerous, technology. This. Approach. Is a primary. Complaint, of space. Companies. And. If the president, approves our recommendations. We, will continue, working with our colleagues at, state and DOD to, enable. More commercial. Activity, while, protecting, national security. That. Little red Tesla. In, outer space does. Need, rules of the road but. There shouldn't be too, many one-way. Streets, dead. Ends or u-turns. I promise. You commerce will be a good story. Thank. You. Well. Thank. You / thank you for your great, work and, and. The, department's great work in this area will speak to your recommendations. Momentarily. But I think, everyone. Looking on can. Tell the great collaboration, between the, Department of Commerce. And the Department of Transportation, and. Appreciate, so very much the work done we'll, turn our attention now to, administrator. Rao. Thank. You for being here today, most, people may not be aware of how important, your job is, to. This, industry at at. The Office of Management and Budget, you, lead the Office of Information and regulatory affairs, it's, critical to the work of this council I want to thank director Mulvaney. Who. Has been working tirelessly to move the president's agenda and, streamlining, regulatory. Regimes could you give us a quick. Overview of what you have been what you've been working for working. Toward the office, to support this effort sure, thank. You very much thank, you very much mr. vice president it's, a pleasure to be here with members of the cabinet the Space Council and other distinguished, guests for this very exciting, and ambitious. Event, so. As you mentioned I'm, the administrator, at a wiro which is the office that reviews, all the significant, regulatory, actions, across the government and in, a nutshell what we really do is we try to ensure that regulations, serve the American, people and since. Of the, Iranian administration, we help agencies, meet, presidential priorities, such, as what, we're talking about today the, commitment, to winning the next frontier, of space. So, mr. vice president has you've already said so well there, are tremendous opportunities here, to use space for security, and commercial. Purposes, but. The success, of these ambitious, ventures will depend in part on a regulatory, system, that does not stand, in the way of progress but. Instead enables, innovation provides. Clarity and ensures, safety. These. Goals with respect to space development, are consistent, with president, Trump's overall, direction. To reduce cumulative. Regulatory. Burdens across, the government as an. Administration, we, want to advance a regular. You. Leaves individuals. And businesses, as free, as possible to, innovate and to, create the technology, of the future. These. General principles apply, across the board but really have particular importance. In areas of emerging, technology, such as space exploration. And. Here we start with the basic idea that government, shouldn't be picking winners and losers through, regulation. We. Don't want to regulate in a way that freezes, technological. Development, or stifles, innovation through, government, prescriptions, and as. As secretary, Ross and deputy secretary Rosen, have already mentioned, important. Reform begins first by identifying, some of the problems, with, existing regulatory. Frameworks. We. Need to find those regulations, that are duplicative, outdated. Or just simply ineffective, and then, work hard to eliminate or, streamline, those burdens and, in. Areas where multiple, agencies, impose, overlapping, burdens, such, as in licensing, or paperwork reporting, we, are reconsidering, how, those requirements can, be combined or replaced. In. Part because of our centralized, role at a wire up we can address issues that span multiple agencies. To. Eliminate, and streamline, unnecessary.
Requirements. And that. Simply, will allow more resources, to be devoted to research and, production, rather, than regulatory. Red, tape and. We're. Confident that we can do this for space development, because we have done this in other regulatory, areas, the. President, has has. Has. Demonstrated tremendous, leadership, in this area and directed. Significant, meaningful regulatory, reform, since the outset of the administration. His. Early executive, order called for eliminating two regulations, for each new one and. As of the last fiscal year we were actually at 22. D regulatory, actions, for each new one and in, this coming year agencies, have proposed even more d regulatory, actions, and projecting, a regulatory cost savings, of over 10 billion dollars. So. In the past regulatory, burdens, have steadily increased over, time but. This administration has. Really turned the tide with, its regulatory, reform, an issue. And so. In eight areas of burgeoning technology, such. As space, development. This means individuals, and companies can proceed, with confidence, that we're not going to spring new, regulatory requirements. On them that will stifle growth we. Want to contribute to a regulatory environment that, can enhance development, of space and with. The right frameworks, we're, confident, that private companies can unleash creativity, and. Ingenuity and, we. Can enhance American. Global leadership by attracting investments. In research and development for, space. Of. Course with further advances, into space we face important, questions, about security, safety. Sovereignty. But. With the work of the Space Council, a wider ring remains committed to working across, the government to design regulations. That, meet these needs while, furthering, our journey to, the next frontiers of space Thank. You mr. vice president thank. You, know me. Well. Done. Okaythis, we're, approaching, the end of the first half of our presentation. Before we move to panels I would recommend, members, in your packets, today. You. Have several recommendations. To. The president, for, approval. Recommendation. One directs the Department of Transportation. To. Direct to, replace. Prescriptive. Launch and re-entry licensing. Regimes with a streamlined, system by March 1. 2019. To be completed, at that point honor before. Recommendation. 2 directs, the Department of Commerce to consolidate, all space commerce. Responsibilities. In. The office of the secretary, as. As. Wilbur, described, and. Also developed a system that facilitates Mission North authorization. For commercial space, activities. There are other other. Recommendations. Related, to that that the secretary, enumerated. Quite well recommendation. 3, directs. The national telecommunication. Information administration and. Commerce. To work with the FCC, to develop. Protections. For the radio frequency. Spectrum. Facilitating. Commercial space activities. And, recommendation. For directs, the executive secretary of the council in coordination, with all the members of the council to. Develop recommendations to, streamline, export control, regulatory. Requirements. By, 1st. Of January, 2019. Also, as the secretary. Described. If there are no, objections. Or. Questions. Seeing, none I would, as chairman, direct the executive, secretary to include these recommendations in a decision, memorandum, for, the President of the United States. Secretary. Ross and deputy, secretary Rosen. At, our, meeting later this year I'd also like you to support a report, to the council the details the progress, that we are making. Against. The. President's. Decision and completion, of the decision, memorandum. Would, you join me in thanking all of these terrific, leaders, for the job that they're doing. Well. Before we call our panel up we're going to move to our first panel.
Entitled. Securing, the next frontier. With a focus on on, national. Security. And. I'm. Particularly. Pleased to have a number of distinguished, Americans, who, will be presenting and, I'll, introduce them momentarily, but they're invited to take their. Seats before we hear from our panelists. I'd. Like to ask, Susan. Gordon. Who. I have and, the president, have come to know and greatly, respect, she, is the principal deputy director. For, national intelligence. For the United States and Susan maybe you could give, us a, brief. Overview of the security challenges, that the, United States faces in in, the space environment today. Well. Thank you mr. vice president I'm. Delighted to be here today representing, the women and men of the intelligence, community you. Know we are. Drivers. And practitioners. And users, of US, space, in. Fact our history, in space history are inextricably. Bound. And we, see the same excitement that you articulated, in your remarks about this. Moment and, their resplendent, with opportunity, even. As. President, as your, resident, intelligence, officer I often. Bring, the sobering information to. Any meeting and so today what I thought I'd do is to spend a few minutes and just describe, the plans and actions of foreign adversaries and, competitors, who. Would seek to impede, our, operations. Or challenge, our advantage. Russia. And China are each developed being counterspace, capabilities. To use during a potential, future conflict, with the United States to. Reduce US, and Allied advantage, and effectiveness. Eroding, our information, advantage. Both. Countries have, robust, jamming, and cyberattack, capabilities. Today and can, threaten our satellite, ground infrastructure. Russian. And China destructive, anti-satellite, weapons, including. Missiles, lasers. And, orbital. Weapons will, probably, reach an initial. Operation, capability in, the next few years. Russian. Lawmakers, have promoted military. Pursuit of anti-satellite. Missiles to. Strike low-earth, orbiting, satellites. And Russia. Is testing, such a weapon. Both. Russia and China are developing, ladieswear anti-satellite, weapons, to dazzle, or damage sensitive space-based. Optical, sensors, and Russia. And China continues, to conduct sophisticated, on-orbit. Activities, such. As rendezvous, and proximity operation, operations. That, are intended, to advance counter, space capabilities. Military. Reforms, in China and Russia over the past few years.
Indicate, An increased, focus on establishing. Operational. Aerospace, forces and integrating, attacks against. Space systems, and services with military, operations, in other domains. China's. People abberation Army has formed counterspace, military. Units and begun. Operational. Training, with counter space systems, including. The ground launched anti-satellite, missiles that, was initially tested in 2007. Now. The. Idea of space threats also includes the use of space to enable or empower military. Operations, on. The. Earth's surface. Foreign, countries, will continue to improve their military, and dual use reconnaissance. Communications. And navigation, systems, in terms, of the numbers of satellites, the breadth of their capability, and the application, for use, another. Nation, state and non-state actors. Will gain access to advanced, space, enabled. Technology, in the coming years as the global space industry. Expands. They. Will increasingly have access, to, weather. Communications. Navigation and timing data for intelligence, and military purposes. The. Panel will do a great, job of making my next point but I'll briefly state. That. I'd like to call the attention to China's, impressive, rise it is impressive as a space Power they've. Increased the number of their active satellites by, more than an order of magnitude since, 2000. And a, result of Beijing's, strong, investment. In its satellite, and rocket manufacturing, capability. China's. Satellite. Technology, has become increasingly, sophisticated and. A case in point is the success, that China has had it achieved, in world-leading ground. To space quantum, communications. Experiments, I think. In some, China. Has the best politically. Supported, and best. Resource, for in space program, that. We have seen in many years and it's, years of intense activity are, beginning, to bear fruit I think. The panel is perfectly. Placed to. Help. Us put all this in contact Thank You mr. vice president great. Thank. You Susan. Very. This. Is a great American and thank, you thank you for that candid and bracing. Overview. With, that we'll turn to our panelists. Let, me introduce, all of them and then invite you to welcome. Them mr., Dean Chang is with the Heritage Foundation mr.. Jeffrey Mann burr is the president, CEO of NanoRacks. Corporation, our, third panelist, is dr.. Above. Yao law, of the Institute of Defense analysis. Science and Technology, Policy Institute. Join, me in welcoming all of our panelists, would you please thank, you. Like. To invite starting. With Dean. Chang I'd like to invite you to bring a few, brief remarks but of course all. Of your prepared remarks will be submitted for the public record and and then, we'll look forward to, briefly. Giving. Our. Council, members an opportunity to ask questions but thank you all for being here. Good. Morning mr. vice president members, of the space Council a national space Council my name is Dean Chang the views I expressed in this testimony, are my own and, should not be construed as reflecting, the official position of the Heritage Foundation during. The Cold War there were only two major space powers the United States and the Soviet Union and they had roughly symmetric, interests, and approaches, to space like. So much of international, security the post-cold, war world is much more complex, there, are more space players today including. A growing, set of non-state, and commercial, actors, at.
The Same time the American dependence. On space is broadened, the US military, depends. Upon space-based, systems for, the American Way of war financial. Institutions, farmers, and Amazon, all increasingly, depend on space systems, for, their day-to-day operations. Given. This dependence, revisionist. Powers and, security, competitors, are likely. To target American space, systems as an, essential, means of countering American, economic, and military, capability. This. Evolving, set of circumstances. For both space and American, security is reflected, in the growing challenge, posed by other space powers and especially, the People's Republic of China the. PRC has pursued a set of space policies, that dude, not, parallel. American. Or Soviet ones and it is now exploiting, not only new technologies. To, expand, its space capabilities but. Also undertaking. New organizational. Approaches, and innovations, some. Of the key characteristics, of the Chinese space challenge, include first and foremost the China is fundamentally. A major, space, power China. Possesses, all of the key elements required, for supporting, a major space presence, above. All it has the political will to support and sustain national. Commitments, to, space, China, has also committed the industrial, financial. And human capital to translate, those desires, into, today's array of satellites, boosters. And launch sites, and. It is important, to note that those, systems are largely indigenously. Designed, and constructed. China. May engage in all sorts of industrial, espionage, but, much of its space program is, indigenous, and homegrown. China's. Space program has a very heavy military component. The, basic, reality is that when we interact with China's space program we, are essentially, interacting. With China's military, China's. Space facilities. Personnel, and programs are largely drawn, from that military, its, facilities. Are PLA, bases, their, staffs, are pla personnel, and the heads of key programs, such as the Chinaman, space, engineering. Office are drawn, from the military. China's. Space program however, also reflects, its approach to dual use as civil, military integration, China's. Space industrial, complex, is not so much a revolving, door as a broad atrium, for Chinese aerospace, engineers, and managers, amidst. All of these state-owned, enterprises, and the result is far closer to a single, integrated, space enterprise, with relatively, few demarcations. Between, the military and civilian, this. Reality, will likely apply, to Chinese, emerging, set of commercial, space, entities, as well China. Is actively, promoting, the development of new commercial, space companies that. Range from those supported, by state-owned enterprises to, more independent, private firms but. Given the interest in melding, civilian, and military capacity. As well, as past evidence behavior. In the tell sector, it is vital, to recognize, that these private firms will, at the end of the day respond, with alacrity to, central government, directives, the, Chinese model will not be Tesla's, in space but, Huawei. In space, in. Conclusion, as the United States advances. Space as a priority domain. It, needs to recognize that other states will not only set seek to, do the same for themselves but, some are also very, likely to strive to. Deny space to the United States in time of crisis, and certainly. In time of war these, efforts will likely encompass, not only direct military action, but, efforts at establishing, a highly. Competitive space, industrial. Base supporting. Space oriented, technologies, production. And organizational. Innovation and, undertaking. An array of efforts to access, American, technologies, while denying the United States the same thank, you very much for the opportunity to testify before you this morning, Thank. You mr. Chiang. Geoffery. Man burr with. NanoRacks, corporation, thank you for being here Thank. You mr. vice president for. 30 years a good morning everyone for, 30 years I've, worked to make space just another place to do business my. Inspiration. And large part derives. From having, worked on Geron old Reagan's Commerce, Secretary Malcolm. Baldrige in the original, office of space commerce so it's good to be here this morning I started. My company NanoRacks. Eight years ago we. Were the first company to own and market our own research, services, onboard the space station we.
Were The first company to commercially. Deploy small, strim the space station, as of. Today we have launched over 600. Payloads, from, customers, in over 30 countries, our. Commercial, customers range, from the US government, to high, schools the. US government, is a commercial, customer so. To the high schools some of whom do bake sales to support the payloads that go to station and I'm, proud to say mr., vice president that we've launched for high school experiments. From Crown Point and Highland, Indiana. So. Please allow me several observations, this morning, first, kudos, to the administration. And the council for, beginning the debate today on the transition, from. The I of the ISS, from a government-owned facility, to, the era of private, space stations. The. Debate may have been skewed, a bit in the headlines. But. I believe, you are raising the correct questions. How. Can NASA most, effectively. How. Can NASA most effectively, leverage the taxpayer, investment in, ISS. Can. Commercial, industry. Safely. And cost-effectively, operate. The ISS, and other commercial, platforms. And we. Understand, it's not black and white but it, is an end to, accepting, that the government, support of ISS, is the only pathway and, how, will the government in the future behave, more and more as a tenant, just, the way it is in every other marketplace. So we're very excited by, this, finally. As I look overseas. It's my, opinion as a businessman. As a space, businessman, that, the United States cannot, simply, ignore China's. Commercial, space ambitions. Commercial. Space, ambitions, China. Is quietly, developing. A robust, commercial. Space industry I say. Quietly, because. Americans, are barred by our own regulations. And our own mindset, from. Participation. In this marketplace, as we. Just heard large, Chinese, companies, are creating, commercial, launch efforts, while. Young Chinese, entrepreneurs. Are raising funds from Silicon, Valley on commercial. Space projects. On, a governmental. Level our allies, have noticed, the, european space. Agency, has astronauts. Training, to visit the planned Chinese space station, but, the US has barred, itself, from, participation.
NanoRacks. And other companies, are prohibited. To sell into this marketplace. Avoiding. This emerging, market place albeit. Due to justified, concerns, over, technology transfer. And other, legitimate, issues, is not the American, global leadership that we all strive to achieve, now. While my time today is brief I urge. Us to negotiate a, stern, but fair agreement, with. China and allow US, businesses, to do what we do best and that is to innovate and compete better than anyone else mr.. Vice president, and members, of the council I am, thrilled that the administration. Is focusing, on commercial, space, as part of America's. Leadership in space, exploration, through. The Americans, style. Commercial. Pathway, I am certain, we will continue, to inspire the next generation of. Explorers so. That one day those students, from, Crown Point Indiana will. Be standing, in front of a future, space counselling, council. Discussing, how the United, States commercial lunar, base is just, another place to do business so thank you. Thank. You Jeffrey well said and, bavi, Allah it's, recognized and then we'll move on to questions after your presentation. Good. Morning mr. vice president and, members of the National Space Council, a discussion. On the threats to US competitiveness. And space needs to start with, the acknowledgement that. We are the preeminent space power in the world today the. US government's build still spends, more on space and the rest of the governments in the world combined, the, United States has more satellite and other assets in orbit than any other country, in the world the. World's currently more most powerful, rocket launches, two weeks ago is a product, of American. Industry, a recent. Study on global trends and small satellites, by my organization, the IDA Science and Technology, Policy Institute, found. That about two-thirds, of the hundred organizations during, the most innovative R&D, in the small sat sector are, us-based. These. Advantages, cannot, however be taken for granted and our, leadership in space is, increasingly. Being challenged. Global. Investments, in space have steadily grown over the past two decades a decade. Ago for instance fewer, than 50, countries were, investing, about 40 billion dollars in space by. 2026. 30, more countries, are expected to join the space club and global. Expenditures, are expected, to double those, of ten years ago. Growing. International. Expenditure, is only one development, in the space sector, partially. As a result of investments, from the US, government, they have been dramatic, improvements, in the technology used in the space sector in some. Areas costs, have fallen orders, of magnitude, using. A combination of alternative, architectures, such as swarms of hundreds of satellites and business. Process innovation, relatively. Inexpensive. Breadbox, sized satellites. Are able to nearly, match. Services. That were previously feasible. Only, with bus side satellites, that cost hundreds, of millions if not billions of dollars, buoyed. By the perception. Of profitability, space. Has become an attractive target, for private investment, almost. 17, billion dollars since two thousand and four. Billion in 2017. Alone as a. Result some sectors of space are transitioning.
From A top-down government, led operation, to, a globalized, industry, with worldwide, supply chains and customers. Using. Both domestic. Investment. And products, and services from, this rapidly, growing private, sector the, rest of the world is leapfrogging, decade's. Worth of technological, development, aiming. To build systems that can compete with the United States in many areas including Launch robotic. Space operations and even human exploration, my. Central, point is that threats to US leadership in space have arisen, primarily. From these structural, changes that. Are enabling, many more countries to target, and achieve success in space and there, is no turning back the clock in, this, environment maintaining. US leadership means that the United States more than ever needs. To leverage its score competitive, advantage, an innovation. Ecosystem that, rewards creativity, entrepreneurship. And risk-taking. Going. Beyond the fundamentals there are some space sector specific, actions, that would be relevant as well I propose. We begin with three ensure. That our regulations empowered, the US private sector to continue, to out-innovate, the rest of the world ensure. Government, spending is more efficient, and invest. In capabilities, where, we absolutely, must, have overwhelming. Advantage over, other countries I look, forward to contributing to this discussion. Well. I want, to thank all the panelists, I'm going to going. To go to several, of our security. Members. Of the council who are with us today. But. Let. Me maybe. Direct, my first question to dr. Lau your you. Have spoken, about. The. Challenges, that that, we face, you, refer to structural, challenges, there's, no going back, the, United States has to continue to lean in to remain, free. In to your use your words a preeminent, leader in space. You. Have written and spoken about space. Traffic. Management. Is there a policy, decision. You. Would have this council consider. Related. To that and. Could, you, expand. On that briefly. Sure, so, space, traffic management is a very critical component, of our private sector leadership, and space primarily. Because it gives us the. Clarity. It gives the companies the clarity the need to, do, unfettered, work in space it allows us to work collaboratively, with other countries. Especially. If, we have a fabric, of the management system that is that is that that. Joins. With each other and and there is, agreement. Across the world as to how we want to go forward, to. Make sure that space is safe. And sustainable, to, operate, in it. I've. Got. People who know a lot more about this than me at this table but it. Sounds, to me like you're.
Calling On the United States to play a wider. Role, in. Ensuring, that we have the same kind of deconfliction. Agreements. That we have in Barrie's. Of conflict, that. We have in terms of issues of navigation. On. The seven seas and that, we that your suggestion in the United States leaned. Into that effort and provide that guidance. And those who drive those agreements I absolutely. Think the United States needs to take a leadership position here. A, very, very, insightful appreciate, that very much the, Deputy Secretary of Defense is with us today. Pat. Shanahan, mr. secretary. Would you like to it, was a quick, question. There for Dean. Thank. You for your remarks this morning, Mike. My, question, is around the, civil, military partnerships. That you've observed in, China. And maybe it's not just civil. Military. But, industrial. Military, have. You seen a different. Dynamic, in, the. Partnerships, that. We, should observe or, take notice of. The. Chinese. Have. Published, extensively on the issues, of things like mobilization. Where. They include, things like Science and Technology mobilization. So there is an explicit. Organizational. Structure, regulatory. Structure, etc for, the incorporation, of people. Equipment. As well as facilities, so, when we think about China's space program we. Should be thinking of it not simply in, terms, of, the elements that are currently in the military but, the reach-back that the Chinese have explicitly. Talked about in terms of bringing in everything from universities. To, corporate. Assets, to, industrial. Personnel. And equipment great. Thank you. We're. Fortunate, to have with us today I know he was formally introduced but the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General, Joseph. Dunford you, could welcome him one more time if he'd like he is. We. Have a question for mr. man burry you you, talked about not, allowing, concerns. Over technology, transfer, to inhibit, or progress, but you know it struck me as I was as I was listening to the, recap. Of the strategy, from general, McMaster that, we are going to have concerns. Over protecting. Our intellectual property and, our classified, information and, I wonder from an industry perspective with, now three, decades of experience you, can maybe, talk a little bit about how do we get that balance right because again as we implement the strategy, we ought to think about that upfront and and. Make sure that we do that and I and, I'm particularly, struck by it because of the debrief, on China and and. Although you say that most of their capabilities. Are indigenous and homegrown that. Would actually be unique in Chinese, experience that most of their current modern capabilities are, indigenous and homegrown because I think we know that we've had an, intellectual property, challenge, in a classified information challenge, with China so maybe mr., memory you're probably the best one to to. Address that and again it's about getting the balance right it's. It's a fascinating question and, thank you for it it's it's very difficult in our industry, to. Strike, the right balance between. Competitiveness. And assuring, that you, know America safeguards. Its technology. But. I suppose. That that, we. Have already, worked, with NASA very carefully, and others to, ensure that there's no technology transfer. We. Work very closely, to assure, that they. Learned the Chinese and other of. The nations we work with I said we work with some 30 nations they've, included Vietnam, Peru and others that, there is no technology transfer. That. The guidelines, and practices of, the international, space station remain. Confidential. At. The same time we see that just. A few weeks ago there's Canadian, satellites, launching. With the Chinese there's, Danish. Companies, that are developing satellites. That are flying. With the Chinese. My. Point is that if we go in with American, leadership and we, go in and we, can, say to the Chinese here is the issues, that we regard as important an IP copyright. Protection, technology, transfer, there. Is when we have the greatest strength starting, new starting. With a new marketplace, to, ensure that we get what we need and as, the president, has said we want to you know revamp, and we consider our relations, with China and so, I can see no better opportunity than to do it here, where where we're not involved today but we're clearly, leaders of the free world. Thank, You. Secretary. Of Homeland Security Kirsten. Nielsen is recognized, Thank You Kirsten Thank, You mr. vice president good, morning and thank you to the panelists, my. Question is just for all of you as, the Secretary, of the Department of Homeland Security we care deeply about. Space-based. Services, everything. From the, weather and the satellites, that we get from NOAA and the Commerce Department, through. To our ability to warn our citizens, through. To cyber security and then very specific, space-based, services, such as GPS, enabled position, navigation, and timing so.
Of Concern to me is making sure that as we work with the private sector and, as the US government moves, forward, that we continue, to build in, security. And resilience, into all of our tools what. More can the US government do, from your perspective, to incentivize, as, we go forward that security. And resilience, in all of our space based services, upon which we're so heavily reliant. So. I would say would it would be helpful for the government to work more, with the private sector especially the, part of the private sector that typically, hasn't been in the government fold and one. Way to do that would be to to. Make sure that the government uses more commercial. Approaches, you know things that you know not, necessarily cost-plus, type. Contracts. But ones. That are more, solutions. Are outcome, driven where. There's milestones, and and payments, based on milestones, another. Alternative. Would be or another, activity. To add would be to. Be able to accept 80%, solutions. Because. That would just really. Improve the aperture. With. The kind of companies you can work with we don't always need to have a Ferrari we can sometimes use a Ford Focus. I'll. Just quickly, add that from our experience at, NanoRacks, we have a very robust. Relationship with, NASA on all levels and and. And having this sort of partnership, is critical, we. Always, are. In lockstep with NASA on what we're doing especially, as we go overseas, and, you have to you know there's emerging, throughout the US government, great folks, in who. Care. More. Than just getting up and doing their job and this is a DoD, this is at NASA and they, really work with us to make sure that, we, don't overstep, what might be proper, we're always itching to do more of course it's the commercial sector but. You have to have the relationships, with the government, officials and the government folks and so, we really appreciate our relationship with, NASA and so passing, this along I would, say it's not something maybe you can codify you. Just have to have an organic relationship to, be smarter, to be to be alert and don't, consider the government always as the enemy. But work with them on these sort of critical, issues. Ma'am. I would say that one, of the things to keep in mind is that, space. Is part of a larger information, ecosystem, the. Chinese, view space, very holistically, when they talk about space and space dominance, they are talking not only about satellites, but, ground stations, and the data links that tie them all together as well as the information passes, over it when, we think about resilience then we need to be thinking beyond, just space we. Need to be thinking about redundancies. Whether it's things like eel or Ram or, other alternatives. That may not be orbital. And when we think about protecting, our space capabilities it. Means again thinking, holistically, because, it's really about the information, that passes, over and, through those space systems. Join. Me in thanking these outstanding. Panelists. For their insights, and participation. Thank you great, job. Great. Job. Our. Next panel is entitled, entrepreneurship. On the next frontier, I'll invite our, panelists, to go ahead and make your way, to. The stage and, before. We get started let me just. Say. To, all the members of the, the national. Space Council I think we've heard some very insightful, recommendations. And particularly, would. Request general McMaster. That. If. You could develop, a plan that identifies. Additional. Steps derived. From the discussion, today. That ought to be added to our space strategy, we'll we'll look forward to your. Presentation on. That at. The. Next national space council meeting. They've. Written me some very thoughtful opening, remarks about entrepreneurship. And the next frontier. But. In the interest of time. Let. Me be brief and say president, Trump is for it. All. Right I was on the phone with the president, yesterday and, this businessman, turned president, of the United States has great pride great enthusiasm. In. Not, only the partnership. The historic, partnership between.
Private, Sector. Organizations. And NASA but, also great, pride in the. Development, of new platforms, and innovation, that. We saw just, two weeks ago here with the Falcon Heavy and that we see in. All the names of all the different rockets. That we talked about in my presentation, today I was, at the Mojave Desert. And. Visited. The. Another. American, spaceport. And, can't. Help but think a hundred years from now, that. It. Will it will be our private sector pioneers. That. Helped lift. America. Into this new era of space. Exploration, just. As American. Pioneers have been in the past so that, said I just want to express a great enthusiasm President, Trump the great gratitude to this distinguished, panel. And, let me introduce them all and then invite you to give them a welcome in. The interest of time I'll ask the panelists, to summarize, your. Remarks, we'll have a time for a few questions before, we're spirited, off to. A tour and I have to wing my way with. Many of these cabinet, officials back to, Washington, DC. Our. First panelist, is mr., Eric stommer president, of commercial spaceflight Federation. One. Of our hosts here today. For. Events last evening, secondly. Is Kevin O'Connell president, of innovative, analytics, training then. There's Tom Stroup president, of satellite industry association. And our fourth panelist, is dr. Mary Lynn Detmer. President. And CEO of the Coalition, for deep space exploration. These. Are four great. Champions. Of American, entrepreneurship, in space and we're honored to have you all here thank you so very much. Mr.. Stommer if you could get it started and briefly, summarize, your remarks we'll move through the panel quickly thank you, Thank. You mr., vice president cabinet. Secretaries, and members of the National Space Council, thank you so much for giving me the opportunity to be here today. America's. Commercial space sector is growing in a pace and breadth creating. Thousands, of high-tech jobs driven, by billions, of dollars of private sector investment, last. Year we met witnessed, many breakthrough, capabilities, by u.s. commercial space companies and just, recently as we discussed today just, last week or few weeks ago SpaceX, launched. Its Falcon Heavy the first heavy lift rocket developed. And launched. With fully private, funding Blue. Origin flew, its new Shepard to space under the new, rld license, the first such revenue flight they're also developing their own heavy lift vehicle with. Private sector funding with private funding, but. Two significant, challenges, threatens, America's, goals and expanding, our economic, sphere and DB, economic, severe Deeping into space, commercial. Space transportation and, remote, sensing are growing at unprecedented rates, while. New space applications. Like space manufacturing. Resource. Prospecting. And human, habitation, are being introduced, as discussed. Earlier our legal. And regulatory and, organizational. Frameworks, have not caught up and, are putting on the brakes on our current progress as well as our future possibilities. We. Need to strive for what economists call, permissionless. Innovation in, spaceflight, so.
Long As Public Safety international. Obligations, national, security are not compromised, the. Presumption should be that a commercial, space project, can proceed the. Regulation, of space launch and re-entry to protect the public, definitely, warrant a license regime, however. The current regulations. Written decades ago based, on 1980s. Technologies, and operations, those. Rockets were expendable, very expensive, and infrequently. Launched, and carried only one payloads. Space. Ports also, faced. Inconsistent. Interpretation. Of regulations, and requirements the. Same rules that are required to be implement the same rules are required to be implemented, differently at different launch, sites and. Even modest. Improvements. Spaceports, infrastructure. Can require new rounds, of environmental, review because of modified salon launch site operators, license, our. Members of CSF, are eager to work with the administration to, modernize, and streamline various. Licensing, rules into one performance-based. Rule that preserves public safety without. Restricting, industry, speed and flexibility, to invent a future where, launchers are more frequent, more, affordable, and certainly more reliable, in many. Cases, rules can be made clearer and more concise with. Explanatory. Details, left to guidance. Remote. Sensing in particular, has been constrained, by outdated, regulations that. Often aren't faithfully, implemented, and. Finally it's time for the federal government to create a minimalistic, process. For proving in new commercial, space activities, by, US companies. HR. 2809, provides, narrowly, tailored, approach to government oversight of those activities which. Wise CSF, has endorsed this passage. With. Commercial space industry on with, a commercial, space industry unleashed, to advance quickly, as possible, the, US government needs to adapt to, gain the maximum public, benefit commercial. Companies can deliver results faster, and cheaper for, taxpayers, but only a federal agencies, use commercial, friendly procurement, methods that pay for results not for it just effort for. Example NASA should be encouraged to use competitively, awarded cost.
Shared Funded. Space Act agreements, to develop new space exploration. Capabilities, so, that the United States can affordably, accelerate, a return to the moon and voyage, is beyond all. Space related agencies should, ask the question can. We partner, before, taking the traditional cost plus contracting, path, in. Conclusion. America's. Indestructible. Paradigm for space has fundamentally changed. Developing. To a point where the US government regulations. And contracting, practices are now our largest impediments. Now. More than ever we need the national space Council and we need you to take action and work with industry thank, you so much for your time. Thank, you very much mr. Omer mr. O'Connell's you're recognized, mr. vice president distinguished. Cabinet members invited guests. Good. Morning my name is Kevin O'Connell I'm the, founder and CEO of innovative, analytics, and training a small private consulting, firm in Washington DC. Today. I'm going to bring forward to you my 25, years of writing, and analyzing, about commercial, remote sensing, for both government and commercial clients, I'd. Like to talk to you this morning about entrepreneurship. On the next frontier, but if you'll allow me I'd like to spend a couple of minutes showcasing. The commercial, remote sensing example, first, from a perspective of its promise but, secondly, from the continuing, challenges, that we have and some of them have been mentioned already and I'll go quickly over those. If. You could imagine a, traditional, intelligence, analyst, or a scientist. Poring over a small number of satellite. Images you, have a somewhat outdated view of the world, American. Firms are at the cutting edge of the global, commercial remote, sensing, market, they. Collect images with high resolution with. Increasing, frequency and, create. Unprecedented. Volumes. Of information other. Innovators, are harnessing, machine learning, and other advanced, analytic techniques, to. Gain insights into that industry industry imagery. And yet, other potential. Entrants to the market, want, to collect even more exquisite, satellite, data with. Other capabilities like, radio frequency, data and social media these, American firms have access to world-class satellite. Technology, and they're leveraging breakthroughs. And cloud computing communications. Artificial. Intelligence, and visualization. Some. Analysts, believe that remote sensing, based insights, will become as important, to commercial, decision, making as, accounting, and mobile computing is today in. Other words we cannot talk about space without. Talking, about the effects. They're already having, on the ground today other. Capabilities. Like 3d, image processing, and all, reality. Create breathtaking. Visualizations, based, on real-time, data, that, create new levels of interaction and exploration. As we, move deeper into the insights economy, commercial. Remote sensing will play an extraordinary, role in providing detailed, information. About a wide range of topics on the ground, we. All know the old phrase a picture is worth a thousand, words consider. Then what a million, pictures, richly. Detailed, efficiently. Organized, time. Sequence, and thoroughly, analyzed, might, mean for what, we understand, about today, and even, tomorrow, for. The US commercial remote sensing industry, that's, just one big step on the way to the next frontier. Next. Year marks as has been said the 25th, anniversary