US National Academy of Sciences' Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy | Wikipedia a ...
The. United, States National, Academy of Sciences. Board on science, technology. And economic. Policy, step, is a board, of the United, States National. Academy of Sciences. The. Mandate, of the board is to integrate, understanding. Of scientific. Technological, and. Economic elements. In the formulation. Of national, policies, affecting. The economic, well-being of, the United, States, the. Program's, focus is, on the dynamics, of the macroeconomic. And microeconomic. Variables. Their relationship. To the industrial, structure, of the economy effect, on high technology, manufacturing and. Service, sectors and, influence, on us scientific. And technological, advancement. Through examination. Of trade Human, Resources, fiscal. Research, and development, intellectual. Property, and other policies. Policymakers. Responsible. For these areas, in the executive, branch and Congress of. The audience, for the step boards work in the form of consensus. Reports, conferences. And workshops. The. Current executive, director. Is Stephen a Merrill PhD. And the Board Chair is Paul Josh Cao president. Of the sloan foundation. Topic. History. And evolution. You. Topic. Establishment. The. Academies began, to address issues of us competitiveness. And innovation in, the late 1970's. And early 1980s, through. A series, of industry. Studies, by the neh and broad policy, studies, by the Committee, on science, engineering. And public, policy, cos, e pu p a. Leading. Nas economist. Daily organ, s'en and neh industrialists. Ralph landau and george hat so police were concerned, that this work and national, innovation, policy, more broadly did, not sufficiently reflect. The contributions. Economics. Could make to understanding. Of trends, and policy, prescriptions. To improve outcomes. They. Proposed, to the National Research Council, NRC. Governing, board of directors. Of the nars to create a new standing, committee as a forum, for dialogue among, economists. Technologists. And industrial. Managers, to those ends, the. Board on science, technology, and, economic. Policy, step, was established. In 1991. Originally. As an independent board, with funding, from the NRC. And the Alfred, P sloan Foundation. Subsequently. It was combined, with CE OS e pu P and government, university. Industry, research, roundtable. GUI, RR, in the policy, division at which time the academy, and Institute, presidents, were made ex officio, members, to make the three units, more similar, in structure. Topic. Composition. In. Composing, the first slate of members, the Academy's, added, a fourth category of expertise. And experience, finance. And investment, and took care to ensure that among the members were people, with high-level public, policy, experience. Over. The past 16. Years the, membership, has included, leading, industrialists.
Rube Metella, Don Peterson Bill, Spencer. Three Nobel laureates, Mike Spence, Joe Stiglitz. And Jim, Heckman among, many leading micro, economists, prominent. Venture, capitalists. Burton, McMurtry, Kathy Behrens and David, Morgan taller scientists. And engineers from. The academies, George, Whitesides, and, Vince F former. Policy makers James, Lynn Mary, good and Alan, wolf and people, whose careers have, bridged the corporate, and nonprofit sectors. Edward, Penn Hoyt or industry. And elective, politics. Mo Horton, jr. in. Steps, first decade, the majority of industrialists. Represented. Heavy, manufacturing. And information, technology. In. Recent years, there has been an effort to recruit more senior, managers, from life science, based industries. And services. Topic. Policy, environment. And focus not coincidentally. Concern, about Japanese. Competition and, fear of a progressive decline in, the US manufacturing. Base was peaking, at the time step, was created. Indeed. The perception, that Japan, enjoyed, a broad, and enduring, competitive. Advantage. From a substantially. Lower cost of capital was. A motivating. Factor in establishing, the board and became the subject of, its first conference, and report in. The, late 1990s. Of course, pessimism. Gave, way to extreme, confidence. In the economy lasting. Until the dot-com, collapse. The. Contemporary, policy, environment. Is again one of concern, if not alarm about US economic performance, although this abyss different, sources of competition. In. This fluctuating. Environment. Steps, focus, has not shifted away from the US position, in the global economy. Investing. For productivity. And prosperity was. Followed, by a series, of projects. Examining, development. Of international, technical standards. And testing, certification. Technology. Policy, as a source of trade friction, among the industrialized.
Countries Tax. Policy, affecting, the location, of foreign, direct investment. And R&D performance. Evaluation. Of u.s. and foreign government. Interventions. In support, of commercial, technology. Development, and the effects, of foreign government, conditions, on aerospace, sales and investment, a major. Focus, since the late 1990s, has. Been on the reasons, for the improved competitiveness. Of many US industries. And the resurgence, in productivity, growth the extent, to which these are accurately, measured, and reflected, in the national, economic accounts. And how they can be sustained. Nevertheless. The. Step portfolio. Has become, more diversified. With projects. On the economics, of k-12 education. Reform, impact, of technology on jobs, and wages supply. Of IT workers, quality. Of innovation, related, statistics, functioning. Of the patent, system impact. Of intellectual. Property on research, shifts. In the federal research portfolio. By field financing. Of entrepreneurship. Prizes. As a tool of innovation. Policy, and Aeronautics, R&D. At NASA, this. Diversification. Has. Been a key to step success, and endurance, but the board is mindful, that global, competition. And its effects, on Americans, employment. And welfare remain, the principle driver of its agenda, when. As now, public, and political concern. Is ascendant, other institutions. And others in the Academy, are quickly drawn into this policy arena to compete for many of the same sources, of financial, support. Within. The past three or four years alone nominally, similar, programs, have been launched, at the cow Salon Foreign, Relations Brookings. Institution. Center, for Strategic and, International Studies. American. Association for. The Advancement of. Science and, Woodrow, Wilson, international center, for, scholars and spun, off from the progressive Policy, Institute. Since. Nearly all of steps work is micro, economic, other ways, to pass steps, portfolio. Are by industrial. Sector, and by micro, economic, policy, on the. First dimension, step, has focused, intensively. On semiconductors. Software. Computing. And its component, technologies. And biotechnology. And, given considerable, attention, also to aviation. Chemicals. Pharmaceuticals. Medical. Devices. Telecommunications. Metal, fabrication, and finance. At. The same time step, has done significant. Although by, no means, exhaustive work.
On The following micro, economic, policies, tax, trade, standards. K12. And graduate, education, workforce. Training, intellectual. Property, economic. Statistics. And of course, direct. And indirect, research, and development, support. Areas. That have received little attention to, data agriculture. Energy, and power and environmental. Regulation. Although. These are the domains of other standing. NRC, units, that of course does not preclude step, from undertaking, projects, in those areas, tailored, to its strengths, or does it preclude, collaborations. Discussions. Have in fact occurred, with each of those units ba n R B's and best, and led to formal, collaborative. Proposals. But unfortunately. Those proposals. Have not attracted, sponsors. Topic. Accomplishments. You. Topic. Dialog. Encouraging. Cross-disciplinary. Cross-sector. Dialogue, on issues, of competitiveness. And innovation was. A major theme of the NRC, discussions. Leading to the creation of step the. Board itself, has sustained, this dialogue, across many changes, in membership notably. Including, the departure. Recently, of the last original, member daily or Genson. Meetings. Are well attended, and members frequently remark, on the high caliber of discussion. And learning across disciplines. And sectors. Step. Has extended, this form of dialogue to, the many ad-hoc committees, under its oversight. Normally. Step, study committees, include, - all three-step, members, a testament. To the fact that many perhaps, most projects. Are conceived, in board discussions. And members become, committed to helping, carry them through to fruition, in. Addition, an effort, is made to ensure that study, committee rosters, recommended. To the division, chair and the president include. A mix of expertise. And experience similar. To that on the board itself, Industrial. Technologists. Economists. Financial. Executives. Academic. Scientists. And former, policy makers. Stepp. Has also contributed, to dialogue, within the NRC. Staff. Are frequently, asked, to suggest, committee, members, and other resources. For studies, in other units. Formal. Collaborations. Have involved, the science, technology. And law committee Committee, on national statistics. Computer, science, and telecommunications. Board board, on higher education, and the workforce board, on testing, and assessment, national, cancer policy, board and board on health care services.
Of The National, Academies. Topic. Contributions. To research step, has benefited. From and exploited, the micro economic, field of technology. And productivity, analysis, that, is the fairly recent legacy. Of guerrilla Jers Jorgenson, solo, Mansfield. And others, as well as the work of international. Trade economists. But. The fact is that in many of the specific, policy, areas, of step work intellectual. Property, standards. Program. Evaluation. Etc, there is a serious, deficit, of empirical, research. Rather. Than rely on anecdote. And judgment. The board has when possible taken. The step unusual. For the academy of supporting. Small-scale. Original, research projects. Often surveys. This. Was done in studies, of the patent system Small. Business, Innovation research. SBIR. Program. Advanced, technology, program, ATP. And biomedical. Researchers. Experience. With intellectual. Property in. All of these cases the, research, results, strongly, influenced, study committee's, findings and, recommendations. That. In turn has encouraged, more research, in, the case of the patent study the board in, 2002. Issued, an RFP received. Eighty odd proposals. And selected. Nine projects, for full or Co funding, this. Undoubtedly. Contributed. To the subsequent, flowering. Of empirical, research on, intellectual, property, systems. And policies. More. Typical, of the Academy, step, work has helped shape the agendas, of investigators. And research sponsors. A prime. Example is. The 2001. Workshop. Using, human resource data to, track innovation. Whose premise, was that studying. The qualifications. Career, paths and activities. Of industrial, scientists. Engineers and. Other professionals. Could reveal a great deal about innovation. Processes, especially. Those beyond, the R&D, stage, the. Workshop, has shaped the subsequent, work of Paulus Stefan who was commissioned, to write the principal paper for the meeting, and led directly to, a series, of NSF, workshops. Other research, initiatives. And efforts to improve the utility. Of data from, the NSF, surveys, of PhD. Holders, a. Community. Of investigators. Is exploring, ways to match publication. And patent, data with NSF, human, resource data. Stephon. Attributes, all of this activity, directly. To the seminal, step workshop. Topic.
Domestic. Policy, impact. Step. Reports, have had a demonstrable. Impact on, public policy, discussions and, outcomes. Examples. Include, a. Patent. System, for the 21st, century. 2004. In. April. 2004. A step, committee chaired, by Yale, president, Richard Levin and former, Xerox, CEO, Mark Meyers issued, a final report of a broad study of how well the US patent, system, is fulfilling, its purpose of, encouraging, research, innovation. And the dissemination of, knowledge and, how it is adapting, to rapid technological and. Economic changes. It. Found, that while the system, has shown admirable, flexibility. In accommodating, new technologies. There is reason, to be concerned about the quality of issued patents, the resources, available to the US Patent, and Trademark Office to keep up with the pace of technological change. And volume, of applications, features. Of US law that inhibit. The dissemination of, information, contained, in patents. And that raise the cost and uncertainty of, litigation. Over patent, validity and, infringement access. To patented, research technologies. For, basic, non-commercial. Research, and redundancies. And inconsistencies. Among, national, patent, systems, that raise the cost of global, intellectual. Property, protection. With. Dedicated, dissemination. Funds provided, by the NRC, a private, foundation and, several, companies, and law firms a, very extensive, outreach, effort, involving. Public meetings, across the country, was undertaken. The. Committee co-chairs. Were leadoff witnesses. In Senate, and House patent, reform hearings, in the spring of 2005. And again in 2007. Five. Of the reports, seven recommendations. Are core provisions, of legislation. Introduced, by the committee, chairs, in the 109. 'the Congress, and expected, to be reintroduced in, the 110. Trends. In federal, support, of research and, graduate education. 2001. Using. Data collected by NSF, annually. From federal, agencies but. Rarely analyzed, this, report, documented, in detail significant. Shifts, in the allocation, of public research spending, and graduate, student, support in, the 1990s. And related, these two state foundation. And industry. Funding, patterns, it. Found a substantial real. Decline in federal, investment. In most of the physical, sciences and engineering fields. And corresponding. Declines, in the number of federally, supported graduate. Students, in those fields. The. Report, was cited, by the Senate, Appropriations Committee. OSTP. Director, Jack Marburger, then NSF, director Rita, Colwell and the semiconductor, industry. Association. It. Contributed. To the recommendations. Of the President's, Committee of Advisors. On science and. Technology, PCAs T Council, on competitiveness and. CE OS e pu P Augustine, panel the president's. 2007. Budget, and bipartisan. Congressional, majorities. For significant. Increases, in the federal funding, of physical, science, and engineering, research. The. Advanced, technology, program, assessing, outcomes. 2001. This. Report, represented. A comprehensive. Review of the operations. Of the advanced, technology, program, ATP. Administered. By the Commerce, Department's. National, Institute. Of Standards and, Technology, NIST to, accelerate, development of, high-risk technologies. With promising, economic, benefits, through cost-shared funding, the. Study committee concluded, that, the program, has shown considerable. Success, attributable. In part to appropriate, selection, criteria. Rigorous, peer review, of technical, feasibility and. Commercial, potential, and careful, evaluation of, outcomes. The. Report, was the subject of the hearing, before the House Science Committee, and was cited by the Senate, Appropriations. Committee, in justifying, an increase, in ATP's, funding. Steps. Evaluation. Is undoubtedly, a factor, in ATP's, survival. Despite, repeated, administration. Proposals.
And House of Representative. Votes to terminate, the program. NIST. Recently. Issued a solicitation for. New ATP, proposals. Topic. International. Reputation. In part through the board's outreach, efforts, and in part because of interest, abroad in the contributions. Of federal, and state government, policy, to u.s. economic, performance there. Is a growing international audience. For steps work evidenced, by the high volume of visits, to the website and invitations. For presentations. To international. Organizations, eg. Various, committees, of the OECD. Parts, of the European Commission, World, Intellectual, Property. Organization. And European. Patent, Office and national. Government, officials, and international. Academic gatherings. Too numerous to list. Originally. Confined, to the industrial, countries, this interest, has extended. To the governments, of and academics. In the emerging, economies China. India. Brazil, Vietnam. And the former, Soviet republics. Stepp. Has received, project, support, from the OECD, European. Commission, industry, Canada, and Embassy, of the United Kingdom. A formal. Collaboration with. Two of the German, economic research. Institutes. Yielded, two reports, and in, 1995. Step, was asked, to host an international conference, on technology and, jobs preparatory. To the g7. Summit meeting. Congress. Is a principal, consumer, of step work and the board has conducted, or is conducting. Three congressionally. Mandated projects. A fourth. Mandate, the ongoing, evaluation. Of five agencies, SBIR. Programs, followed, step work on SBIR. But has been carried out under separate, oversight. Discussion. Is underway, with members, of Congress of a major study, of the role of intangible. Assets R&D. Intellectual. Property, soft. Worker training, and organizational. Competence. In economic. Growth, nevertheless. What, will appear, in final, legislation, or bill report, language is always highly, uncertain an agency. Compliance, with congressional, study mandates, is not assured, step. Has twice negotiated. Language, with congressional, sponsors, for, studies that were eventually included. In enacted, legislation and. Developed, proposals. To the executive. Agencies, directed. To contract, with the academies, but the mandates, were not executed.