Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records | Wikipedia audio article
Timeline. Of Russian innovation, encompasses, key events in the history of, technology, in Russia starting, from the early East Slavs and up to the Russian Federation, the entries. In this timeline fall into the following categories. Indigenous. Inventions, like airliners, AC transformers. Radio, receivers, television. Artificial, satellites, ICBMs. Products. And objects that are uniquely Russian like st. Basil's Cathedral matreoshka. Dolls Russian, vodka. Products. And objects, with superlative, characteristics. Like the Tsar Bomba the ak-47, and typhoon-class, submarine. Scientific. And medical discoveries. Like the periodic, law vitamins, and stem cells this timeline, examines, scientific. And medical discoveries. Products, and technologies, introduced, by various, peoples, of Russia and its predecessor, States regardless, of ethnicity and also, lists inventions, by naturalized, immigrant, citizens. Certain. Innovations achieved. By a national, operation, may also may be included in this timeline, in cases, where the Russian side played a major role in such projects. Topic. Early, East Slavs. Baked. Milk Ria's Anka baked. Milk is made by simmering milk on low heat for eight hours or longer the. Product, has a light brown color a specific, taste and the ability, to be stored safely at room temperature, for up to 40 hours much longer than most milk based beverages, it. Has been produced since ancient times, typically, using a Russian oven, nowadays. It is produced on an industrial scale, soured. Or fermented baked milk traditionally. Known as Ria's Enka is especially, popular in russia, banya, a, banya. Is a traditional. Russian wet steam bath we're bathing takes place inside special. Rooms or standalone, wooden houses, with steam being produced by splashing water upon a heated furnace. Historically. The banya developed, simultaneously with. Its closest, relative the Finnish sauna, however. Modern, Sun is converted, to dry steam while Banyas continue to use wet steam, Banja. Temperatures, may exceed 110. Degrees Celsius and, people often hit themselves or, others with bunches of dried branches, and leaves from white birch oak or eucalyptus, in order to improve their circulation, it is. Customary, to cool off outdoors, or splash around in cold water or even in a lake or river in the. Winter people may roll in the snow or jump into the water through holes in the ice after. Two or three sessions, of sweating and cooling off the ritual ends with drinking, beverages or, tea playing, games or relaxing, in good company, in an antechamber, off the steam room, blini. Blini. Are thin pancakes, made with yeast Blin. Comes from old Slavic, mlin. That means to, mill, Russian. Blini are made with yeasted batter which has left her eyes it is, then diluted with cold or boiling water or milk blini. May have originated, in the time of the Slavic unity and they had a somewhat, ritual significance for, the early Slavs in pre-christian, times since, they were a symbol of the Sun due to their round form, blini. Were traditionally. Prepared at the end of the winter to honor the rebirth of the new Sun butter week or miss Len itza this. Tradition, was adopted, by the Orthodox, Church and is carried on to the present day many. People, follow a simpler, method of mixing flour milk, sugar, egg oil and vanilla with, no, they, are even folded, or rolled with, a meat mixture or with Jam honey or any sweet, condiment. Gusli. The. Gusli is the oldest type of Slavic and Russian Multi string plucked instrument. Preserved. Instruments, discovered, by archaeologists. Have between five and nine strings, in one case even twelve gusli. May have derived from a Byzantine form of the Greek kite there and have a number of relative, instruments, like the Finnish can tell a the. First mention of gusli dates, back to 591, ad to a treatise by the Greek historian Theophilus. Amico de which describes, the instrument, being used by Slavs from the area of the later Kievan Rus the. Gusli are thought to have been the instrument, used by the legendary, Boyan a bard a singer of tales and other heroes of Russian mythology, in later.
Times Gusli were widely used by wandering musicians. And entertainers scam, rock is. But an is. But as a traditional. Russian countryside dwelling. A type of log house suited, to the colder climate of northeastern Europe and Siberia, traditional. Old style is but construction involved, the use of simple tools such, as ropes axes, knives and spades, nails. Were not generally, used as metal, was relatively, expensive, and neither were saws both. The interior, and exterior were, made of split tree trunks, the gap between was usually, filled with clay from a riverbed from. The 15th, century on, the central element of the interior, of an Islam is the Russian oven outside. Is Bhas were often embellished by various, special, architectural. Features for example rich, wood carving decorations, on windows, such. Decorative, elements, and the use of the Russian oven are still commonly found in many modern Russian, countryside houses. Ku. Silver acha acha silver. Akka is a Russian, skewed collared shirt long-sleeved, and reaching down to mid thigh a traditional, top garment, going back to ancient times the. Name derived from COSO askew, and warrent collar since the collar of this shirt appears skewed when it is left unbuttoned, the. Collar and sleeves of Kesava Rocca were often decorated with a traditional, Slavic, ornamentation. It. Was worn by peasants, and townsman of various social categories. Until the early 20th, century until it was replaced, by less elaborate, clothing the. Garment is also known as a toll Stavka or the Tolstoy shirt because the writer count Leo Tolstoy customarily. Wore one in the later years of his life now. Cassava rokkes appear mostly as souvenirs, and as decorative garments, in Russian folk art ensembles. Lap. Tea the. Lap tea as an East Slavic version, of bass juice a kind. Of basket fit to the shape of a foot lap tea were woven primarily, from bast of the linden tree or, from birch bark they. Were easy to manufacture but, not very durable in Russia, lap tea were worn until the 1920s. Or 1930s as. A cheap replacement, for leather shoes just, like clogs in Western Europe. She-she. Is a Russian soup with cabbage, as the primary ingredient, which makes it possible for the prepared dish to be stored safely for a rather long time without it losing its taste qualities. Generally. It is made with either fresh cabbage or sauerkraut, and other winter vegetables, although meat may be added she. Made with sauerkraut has a sour taste and, is called sour she a summer. Sorrel, soup also popular, in pre-revolutionary, in. Modern russia is known as green she usually. SMED in a cream is added into she before serving. Smetana. Smetana. Is a thick yellowish, white and slightly sour tasting, cream which contains, about 40 percent milk, fat it. Is made by kernel imposter, iced cream in russian, cooking it is used in virtually everything from appetizers, and main courses to desserts it, is, somewhat close to a creme fraiche, 28%. But as much heavier, and thicker with usually, 36%. To 42, percent milk, fat or even higher and is more sour in taste, Smetana. Is ideal to be used in dishes requiring, a long cooking time in the oven since it will not curdle when cooked or added to hot dishes. Topic. Kievan, Rus. You. Topic. 10th, century. Architecture. The. Earliest Kievan churches, were built and decorated with frescoes and, mosaics, by Byzantine, masters, the. Great churches of Kievan Rus built, after the adoption of Christianity in, 988. Were the first examples, of monumental, architecture in, the East Slavic lands, early. Eastern Orthodox, churches were mainly made of wood while major cathedrals, often featured scores of small domes the 10th, century Church, of the tides in Kiev was the first to be made of stone. Kakashi. Nick the. Kakashi Nick is a traditional, Russian headdress, for women it is, patterned, to match the style of the Sarafan and can be pointed around it. Is tied at the back of the head with long thick ribbons in a large bow the. Forehead is sometimes, decorated, with pearls or other jewellery the, word Kakashi, Nick appeared in the 16th century however, the earliest headdress, pieces, of a similar type were found in the 10th to 12th century, burials, in velikiy Novgorod it.
Was Worn by girls, and women on special, occasions, until the Russian Revolution and was subsequently, introduced, into Western fashion, by Russian emigre, kvass. Okroshka. Kvass. Or kvass sometimes. Called in english a bread, drink is, a fermented, beverage made, from black rye or rye bread which contributes, to its light or dark color by. The content, of alcohol, resulted, from fermentation. It is classified, as non-alcoholic. Up to 1.2, percent of alcohol which, is so low that it is considered, acceptable for consumption by children while. The early low alcoholic, prototypes, of kvass were known in some ancient civilizations. It's modern almost, non-alcoholic. Form originated, in eastern europe kvass. Was first mentioned in the russian primary, chronicle, which tells how Prince Vladimir the great gave, kvass among other beverages, to the people while celebrating, the Christianization, of Kievan Rus. Kvass. Is also known as a main ingredient in okroshka a Russian, cold soup. Multi. Demented. Amid Church as a typical form of Russian Church architecture which, distinguishes, Russia from other Orthodox nations, and Christian denominations. Indeed. The earliest Russian Church is built just after the Christianization, of, Kievan Rus. Multi domed which led some historians, to speculate, what Russian, pre-christian, pagan temples might have looked like, namely. These early churches, were 13 domed wooden st. Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod, 989. And 25, don't stone decía Taniya Church in Kiev, 989. To 996. The. Number of domes typically, has a symbolical, meaning in Russian architecture, for example 13. Domes symbolize, Christ with 12 apostles, while 25, domes mean the same with additional, 12 prophets, from the Old Testament. Multiple. Domes of Russian churches were often made of wood and were comparatively. Smaller than the Byzantine domes. Kisel. Kisel. Or Kissel as a dessert that consists, of sweetened juice typically, that of berries thickened, with oats cornstarch, or potato starch with, red wine or dried fruits added sometimes, the. Dessert can be served either hot or cold and if made using less thickening starch it can be consumed, as a beverage which is common in Russia, Kissel. Was mentioned, for the first time in the primary chronicle, where it forms part of the story of how a besieged, Russian, city was saved from nomadic Passion eggs. Topic. 11th, century. Birchbark. Document, a, birchbark. Document, as a document, written on pieces of birch bark this.
Form Of writing material. Was developed, independently by, several, ancient cultures, in rust. The usage of the specially, prepared birch bark as a cheap replacement for, Pergamon tore paper became, widespread, soon after the Christianization, of the country, the. Earliest Russian, birch bark documents, likely written in the first quarter, of the 11th century have been found in velikiy Novgorod in total. More than one thousand such documents. Have been discovered, most of them in Novgorod, and the rest in other ancient cities in Russia Ukraine and Belarus, many. Birch bark documents, were written by common people rather than by clergy or nobility, this. Fact led some historians, to suggest, that before the Mongol invasion of rus the level of literacy in the country might have been considerably, higher than in contemporary, Western, Europe, kok, icebreaker, the. Koch was an ancient form of icebreaker, being a special, type of one or two small wooden sailing ships with a mast used for voyages in the icy conditions of the Arctic seas and Siberian, rivers the. Koch was developed, by the Russian poem oars in the 11th century when they started settling on the white sea shores the. Coax hull was protected, by a belt of ice floe resistant, flushed skin planking, made of oak or larch along, the variable' waterline and had a false keel for a nice portage, if. A coke was in danger of being trapped in the ice fields, its rounded, body lines below the surface would allow for the ship to be pushed up out of the water and onto the ice with no damage in the. 19th, century similar. Protective, features were adopted, to modern icebreakers. Boo, dock the. GU dock is an ancient East Slavic string, musical, instrument, played with a bow it. Usually, had three strings two of them tuned in unison, and played as a drone, the third tuned 2/5 higher all. Three, strings were in the same plane at the bridge so that about could make them all sound at the same time. Sometimes. The GU dock also had several sympathetic. Strings up to 8 under the sounding board these. Made the GU dock sound warm and rich it, was also possible to play while standing, or dancing, which made it popular amongst, komarov's. The name Gouda comes from the 17th, century however, the same type of instrument, existed, from 11th, to 16th, century, but was called smick, Mehta, Vika Mehta, Vika is an old Slavic, honey based alcoholic. Beverage very similar, to me but much cheaper and faster to make since.
The Old times the Slavs exported. The fermented, meat as a luxury, product to Europe in huge quantities. Fermentation. Occurs naturally over, 15 to 50 years originally, rendering the product, very expensive, and only accessible to, the nobility. However. In the 11th century East Slavs, found that fermentation occurred. Much faster, when the honey mixture was heated enabling, meta Vica to become a commonly, available drink, in the territory, of rus in the. 14th, century the, invention of distillation, made it possible to create a prototype, of the modern meadow Vika however vodka was invented, at the same time and gradually, surpassed, meadow Vika in popularity. 1048. Russian, fist-fighting. Russian. Fist-fighting, is an ancient Russian combat, sport similar to modern boxing, however. It features, some indigenous techniques, and often thought in collective, events called stinking moss tanku wall, against, wall it. Has existed, since the times of Kievan Rus first, mentioned, in the primary Chronicle in the year 1048. The. Government, and the Russian Orthodox, Church often, tried to prohibit, the fights however fist fighting remained, popular until, the 19th, century while in the 20th, century some, of the old techniques, were adopted, for the modern Russian martial arts. Topic. 12th, century. /, natch the. / natch is a type of flange, mace developed, since the 12th century in the region of kievan rus and later widely, used throughout europe the. Name comes from the Russian word puru puru meaning, feather reflecting. The form of / nach that resembled, an arrow with fletching, the. Most popular, variety, of / nach had six flanges, and was called to stop you're from Russian shisha stand / o that is six feathered /. Nach was the first form of the flange mace to find wide usage it. Was perfectly, suited to defeat plate armor and plate mail in later, times it was often used as a symbol of power by military, leaders in Eastern Europe, shashka. The. Shashka is a special, kind of sabre a very sharp single edged single-handed. And garlis, sword in appearance. The shashka is midway between a full saber and a straight sword it. Has a slightly curved blade and could be effective, for both slashing, and thrusting. Originally. The shashka was developed, in the 12th century by Circassians, in the northern caucasus, these. Lands were integrated, into the Russian Empire in the 18th century, by. That time shashka was adopted, as their main cold weapon by Russian Cossacks. Tresh. Chukka the. Trash taka sometimes, referred in plural as trash at key is a Russian, folk music idiophone. Instrument. Which is used to imitate hand clapping. Basically. It is a set of small boards on a string that get clapped together as a group there. Are no known documents, confirming, the usage of the trash taka in ancient Russia however the remnants of what might have been the earliest 12th century trash taka were recently found in Novgorod. 11:49. Bear spear, the. Bear spear or rogue adeana was a medieval type, of spear used in bear hunting and also to hunt other large animals, likewise in sand war horses the. Sharpened, head of a bear spear, was enlarged, and usually, had the form of a bay leaf right. Under the head there was a short cross piece that helped to fix the spear in the body of an animal often. It was placed against, the ground on its rear point which made it easier to absorb the impact of the attacking beast the. Russian chronicles, first mentioned, rogue Idina as a military, weapon in the year 11:49, and as a hunting weapon in the year while 55. Topic. Thirteenth. Century. Silca. The. Soca is a light wooden plow which could be pulled by one horse its. Origin, was in northern Russia most likely, in the novgorod republic where, it was used as early as in the 13th century a. Characteristic. Feature of soca construction, as the bifurcated, plowing tip rosso ha so that ahsoka has to plowshares later, made of metal which cut the soil the.
Silca Is an evolution, of a scratch plow by an addition, of a spade like detail, which turns the cut soil over in regular, ploughs the curved mauled board both cuts and turns the soil, pelmeni. Pelmeni. Is a dish originating, from siberia. Now considered, part of Russian national, cuisine it is, a type of dumpling consisting, of a filling that is wrapped in thin unleavened, dough the. Word pelmeni, comes from the finno-ugric Komi hood Mort and Mansi languages, it, is, unclear, when pelmeni, entered the cuisines of indigenous, Siberian, people, and when it first appeared, in Russian cuisine but most likely it was during the mongol conquests. And mongol tatar invasion, of rus in the 13th century when, mongol tatars took the basic idea, from the Chinese dumplings, and brought it to Siberia, in Eastern Europe. Onion. Dome, the. Onion dome is a dome whose shape resembles, an onion such. Domes are often larger in diameter than the drum upon which they are set and their height usually exceeds, their width the. Whole bulbous, structure, tapers smoothly to a point the, so called onion dome is the dominant, form for church domes in Russia and though the earliest, preserved Russian, domes of the type date from the 16th century illustrations. Of the old chronicles, indicate, that they were used since the late 13th, century. Topic. Grand, Duchy of Moscow. You. Topic. Fourteenth-century. Laptop. Laptop. All. Game played with a bat similar, to modern baseball, the. Game is played outside on a field the size of 20 by 25, SAS ins about 140. By 175. Feet, points. Are earned by hitting the ball served, by a player of the opposite team and sending it as far as possible then, running across the field to the con line and if possible running back to the gorod line the. Running player should try to avoid being hit with the ball which is thrown by opposing team members the. Most ancient balls, in bats for lapto were found in 14th, century layers, during excavations. In novgorod sivan itza, Azov. And Itza is a large rectangular, structure, containing, multiple, arches, or beams that carry bells where bell ringers stand on its basement level and perform the ringing using long ropes like playing on the kind of giant musical, instrument, it. Was an alternative, to bell tower in the medieval architecture of, Russia and some Eastern European, countries, Sivan, Itza appeared in Russia in the 14th, century and, was widely used until the 17th, century. Sometimes. It was mounted right atop the church building resulting, in the special, type of Church called pods of onam under, ringing or is, epod kala kali under. Bells the. Most famous example, of this type of a church is the Church of st. Ivan of the ladder adjacent, to the ivan the great bell tower, in the moscow kremlin an BER script the alphabet, was introduced, by Russian missionary, Stepan, crap also, known as st. Stephen of Perm step. In her absolute Stefan perm sched in 1372. The, name Opera is derived from the names of the first two characters and umber the. Alphabet, derived from Cyrillic, and Greek and Komi tribal, signs the latter being similar in the appearance to runes are sigla spa varus because they were created by incisions, rather than by usual, writing the. Alphabet was, in use until the 17th, century when it was superseded, by the Cyrillic, script, Abra. Was also used as cryptographic, writing, for the Russian language. 1376. Sarafan. The Sarafan is a long shapeless, pinafore, type jumper dress a part of the traditional, Russian folk costume, worn by women and girls, sarah, fans could be of single-piece construction, with thin shoulder, straps over which a corset, is sometimes, worn giving, the shape of the body of a smaller triangle over a larger one it. Comes in different styles. Such as the simpler black flower or czech patterned versions, formerly, used for everyday wear or elaborate, brocade, versions, formerly, reserved, for special occasions. Chronicles. First mentioned, it in the year 1376.
And Since that time it was worn well until the 20th century, it is, now worn as a folk costume, for performing, Russian folk songs and folk dancing, plain. Sara fans are still designed and worn today as a summertime light dress. Topic. Fifteenth-century. Coulomb. India Chur bar. Dich the. Bar dich was a long pole axe that is a type of weapon combining, the features of an axe and a pole arm known primarily in eastern europe where it was used instead of halbert's. Occasionally. Such weapons, were made in antiquity, and early Middle Ages but the regular and widespread usage of bar Decius started in early 15, th century Russia, it. Was probably, developed, from the Scandinavian broad, axe but in Scandinavia, it appeared only in the late 15th, century in, the. 16th, century the bar dich became a weapon associated. With the Streltsy Russian, Guardsmen, armed with firearms who used bar Decius to wrest hand guns upon when firing, bow, yar hat the. Bowyer hat also known as gore Lanaya hat was a fur hat worn, by Russian, nobility between, the 15th, and 17th centuries. Most notably by boyars, for whom it was a sign of their social status the. Higher hat indicated, higher status an average. It was one L in height having the form of a cylinder with more broad upper part velvet, or brocade on top in a main body made of fox Marten, or sable fur today. The hat is sometimes, used in the Russian fashion, glue a gorod. The. Gulia gujrat literally, wandering. Town was. A mobile fortification. Made from large wall sized prefabricated. Shields set on wagons, or sleds a development. Of the wagon fort concept, the. Usage of installable, shields instead of permanently, armored wagons, was cheaper, and allowed more possible, configurations. To be assembled, such. Mobile, structures, were used mostly, in the open steppe where few natural shelters, could be found the. Wide scale usage, of gulia gorod, started, during the Russo Kazan Wars and later it was often used by the Ukrainian, Cossacks Yuka. Yuka as. A Russian soup made with broth and fish like salmon or cod root vegetables, parsley, root leek potato, bay leaf lime, dill green, parsley, and spiced with black pepper cinnamon, and cloves, fish. Like perched inches, sheet fish and bourbon were used to add flavor to the soup, yuca. As a name in the Russian cuisine for fish broth was established, only in the late 17th, to early 18th, centuries. In earlier, times this name was first given to thick meat broths and then later chicken, beginning. From the 15th century fish, was used more and more often to prepare yuca thus creating, a dish that had a distinctive, taste among soups Russian oven the.
Russian Oven or Russian stove is a unique type of oven furnace, that first appeared in the early 15th, century, the. Russian oven is usually, placed in the center of the yzma a traditional. Russian dwelling, and plays an immense role in the traditional, Russian culture and way of life it is, used both for cooking and domestic, heating and is designed to retain heat for long periods, of time this. Is achieved by channeling, the smoke and hot air produced, by combustion, through a complex, labyrinth of passages, warming, the bricks from which the oven is constructed, in winter. People may sleep on top of the oven to keep warm as well. As warming and cooking the Russian oven can be used for washing a grown-man, can easily fit inside and during the Great Patriotic War, some, people escaped the Nazis by hiding in ovens, porridge. Or pancakes, prepared, in such an oven may different tastes from the same meal prepared on a modern stove arrange the. Process, of cooking in a traditional, Russian oven can be called Langer. Holding. Dishes for a long period, of time at a steady temperature. Foods. That are believed to acquire a distinctive. Character from being prepared, in a Russian oven include baked milk pearl barley mushrooms. Cooked in sour cream or even a simple potato. Rassolnik. Rassolnik. Is a Russian soup made from pickled, cucumbers, pearl barley and pork or beef kidneys, though a vegetarian. Version also exists. The. Dish is known from the 15th century when, it was initially called Kalia, the. Key part of rassolnik, is wrassle a liquid, based on the juice of pickled cucumbers, with some additions famous for its usage in hangover treatment. See. 1430. Russian vodka, Russian. Vodka is perhaps the world's most famous national, brand of vodka that is a distilled, liquor composed, solely of water and ethanol with, possible, traces, of impurities, and flavorings. Vodka. Is one of the world's most popular liquors, it, is made by fermentation. Of rye wheat potatoes. Grapes, or sugar beet molasses. Alcoholic. Content usually, ranges, between 35, and 50 percent by volume the. Standard, Russian vodka is 40%, alcohol by volume 80 proof the. Exact origins, of vodka cannot, be traced definitively, but almost certainly vodka, as a beverage comes from 14th, - 15, th century Eastern, Europe Russia. Is often named the birthplace, of vodka the, distillation, apparatus was, known in Moscow, from the late 14th, century and, was used to produce spirit, the precursor, of vodka, according. To Russian food historian, William PO Clapton the first original, recipe, of Russian vodka was produced around 1430. By a monk called Isadora, from chudov monastery inside. The Moscow Kremlin. Topic. Early, 16th century. Kakashi. Nick architecture. The. Kakashi Nick is a semi-circular, or keel like exterior, decorative, element in the traditional, Russian architecture, a type of Korbel blind arch the. Name was inspired by the traditional, Russian women's headdress. Kakashi, Nix were used in Russian church architecture, in the 16th century while in the 17th, century their, popularity, reached, the highest point, Kakashi. Nix were placed on walls at the basement of tented roofs or Thal abates or over the window frames or in rows above the vaults. 15. Tens tented roof masonry, the tented. Roof masonry, was a technique widely used in the Russian architecture, in the 16th, and 17th centuries. Before. That time tented, roofs conical, or actually, polygyny loops were made of wood and used in the wooden churches these. Hipped roofs are thought to have originated, in the russian north as they prevented snow from piling up on wooden buildings, during long winters, wood. In tents also were used to cover towers, in Kremlin's or even applied in some common buildings like it was in Western Europe but the thin pointed, nearly conical, roofs of the similar shape made of brick or stone became, a unique, form in Russian church architecture, some. Scholars however argue, that hipped roofs have something, in common with European gothic spires and, even tend to call this style Russian, Gothic the. Ascension, Church of coal immense Khoi built in 1532. To, commemorate, the birth of the first russian tsar ivan the fourth is often, considered the first tented, roof Church but recent studies showed that the earliest use of the stone tented roof was in the Trinity Church in Alexandra, built in the 1510, s.
1530. Middle muscovite. Topic. Zarda, move Russia. You. Topic. Late, 16th, century. Russian. Abacus, the Russian, abacus, are shotty literally, counts. Is a, decimal, type of abacus, that has a single slanted, deck in a unique vertical, layout with ten beads on each wire except, one wire which has four beads four quarter ruble fractions, that is usually near the user it was. Developed in Russia from the late 16th, century at the time when abacus, already was falling out of use in the Western Europe however. The, decimal, T of the Russian abacus, explained, by Russian rubles being the world's first decimal currency and its simplicity, compared to the previous European. And Asian versions, led to the wide use of this device in Russia well until the advent of electronic calculators. In the late 20th, century though it remains in quite common use today 0.15. 5-0, Streltsy. First. Known standard, military uniform. Worn by Russian Regular Army elite, armed forces known as Strunk, 0.155. - battery, tower, the. Battery tower is a late type of siege tower carrying, artillery, inside it a development, of the gulia gorod concept, the. First such tower was built by the russian military engineer. Ivan viacom. During the siege of Kazan in 1552. A part of the Russo Kazan wars and could hold ten large caliber, cannons, and 50 lighter cannons, later. Battery, towers, were often used by the Ukrainian, Cossacks. 1561. St. Basil's, Cathedral. St.. Basil's, Cathedral as perhaps the most famous Russian Orthodox Cathedral a symbol, of Moscow, and Russia it. Was designed by PostNet, yakovlev on the order of Ivan the fourth of Russia and built on the Moscow's, Red Square in, 1555. To 1561. To commemorate the capture of kazan and Astrakhan, the. Unique feature of the st. Basil's, Cathedral as the fact that it is a complex, of multiple, temples put together the. Original building. Known as Trinity. Cathedral, contained. Eight side Church is covered with onion, domes and arranged around the ninth central, tented roofed Church of intercession, the 10th church was erected in 1588. Over, the grave a venerated, local fool Vasily, basil in, the, 16th, in the 17th, centuries, the cathedral perceived, as the earthly symbol, of the heavenly City was popularly, known as Jerusalem. And, served. As an allegory, of the Jerusalem Temple in the annual Palm Sunday parade, attended, by the patriarch, of Moscow, and the Tsar it's, striking, design shaped as a flame of a bonfire rising, into the sky has, no analogues elsewhere, in the world and it was seldom reproduced, in Russian architecture, most notably, in the Saint Peter's and Paul Cathedral in Peter Gough and in the Church of the Saviour, on blood in st. Petersburg, point one five six six great a vedas line, the. Great of beta's line or bullsháá, is a signature de in russian was the largest fortification. Line of the Abeyta stipe built by the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and later this ardham of Russia its. Purpose, was to protect Russia from the raids of nomads of the Eastern European steps such as the Crimean Tatars, as. A fortification, construction. Stretching, for hundreds kilometers the, great abate as' line is analogous to the Great Wall of China and, the Roman lines most. Of its length consisted, of a beta s-- which is a barrier built from felled trees arranged, as a barricade, it. Was also fortified, by ditches, and earth mounds Palisades. Watchtowers. And natural, features like lakes and swamps, stone. And wooden kremlings, of the towns were also included, in the great abate as' line as well as the smaller forts called ostrog x' the.
Great Of betas line was built south of moscow between the Bryant's woods and measure of swamps starting from the 12th century and, was officially completed, in 1566. Exceeding. 1,000, kilometers, in length. 1586. Tsar cannon, the. Tsar cannon as, an enormous cannon commissioned, in 1586. By russian, tsar feodor and cast by andrei Choka it is. The largest bombard, by caliber the, cannon weighs thirty nine point three one two metric, tons and has a length of five point three four meters, 17.5. Feet it's. Bronze cast barrel, has a caliber, of 890. Millimetres, 35, point o in and an external diameter, of 1200. Millimetres. 47.2. In along. With a new carriage the two-ton cannonballs surrounding, the cannon were added in 1835. And are larger than the diameter of its barrel in fact it was originally, designed to fire 800, kilograms, stone grapeshot, the. Cannon is decorated, with reliefs, including, one depicting, tsar feodor on a horse hence the name of the cannon though now the words are is associated. More with the supreme size of the weapon, several. Copies of the cannon were made in the 21st, century and, installed in Donetsk, and several Russian cities, while the original tsar, cannon is, in the Moscow Kremlin. Topic. 17th. Century. Boch, Caruth, the. Buckaroo for simply ba chica russian voca barrel is the type of roof in the traditional, Russian architecture, that has a form of half cylinder with an elevated, and sharpened, upper part resembling, the sharpened, Kakashi neck, typically. Made of wood the Boche Caruth, was extensively, used both in the church in civilian architecture. In the 17th, and 18th centuries. Later. It was sometimes, used in Russian Revival, style buildings. Gorod. Ki gorod. Gr tablets, as an old Russian, folk sport whose popularity, has spread also to Scandinavia. In the Baltic States, similar. To bowling the aim of the game is to knock out groups of Skittles arranged in some pattern by throwing a bat at them the. Skittles or pins are called garage key literally, little cities or town lights and the square zone in which they are arranged, as called the gorod city the. Game is mentioned, in the old Russian chronicles. And was known in the form close to the modern one at least from the 17th, century since, one of the famous players in garage key was the young Peter the first of Russia roller-coaster. Russian. Mountains were winter sled rides held on specially, constructed hills, of ice sometimes. Up to 200, feet tall being the first type of roller coaster, known. From the 17th, century the slides were built to a height of between 70, and 80 feet consisted. Of a 50 degree drop and were reinforced, by wooden, supports, in the. 18th century they were especially popular, in st. Petersburg, and surrounding, areas from where by the late 18th century their, usage and popularity, spread to Europe, sometimes. Wheeled carts, were used instead of tracks like in the cattle nya Gorka built in catherine ii residence in hora nian bound the. First such wheeled ride was brought to paris in 1804. Under the name lessman, taneous Russ's french for russian, mountains, and the, term russian mountains continues, to be a synonym for rollercoaster, in many countries today, bird. Of happiness. The. Bird of happiness as, the traditional, North Russian wooden toy carved, in the shape of a bird it was, invented by Po Morse the inhabitants, of the white and Barents Sea coastline, the. Bird of happiness is, made without glue or other fasteners, by elaborate, carving of thin petals for the birds wings and tail and then using a special, method of spreading and curving them similar. Methods are also used, in other products, of the North Russian handicraft, the. Amulet, is usually, made of pine fir, spruce, or Siberian. Cedar it, is, suspended, inside a house, guarding the family hearth and well-being dim kavod toy, dimke. Vogt toys also, known as the Bianca toys or cure of toys are molded painted clay figures of people and animals sometimes, in the form of a pennywhistle, it is. An old Russian, folk handicraft, which still exists, in a village of dim kaavo near Kirov, former vodka. Traditionally. The dimke boat toys are made by women up, until the 20th century, this toy production had, been timed to the spring fair called Swiss tuna Swit anya or whistler the. First recorded, mention of this event took place in 1811 however, it is believed to have existed for some 400 years thus dating the history of dimke boat toy at least from the 17th century. Troika. The, troika. Drove a triplet, or trio. Is a, traditional. Russian harness, driving combination, using three horses abreast, usually, pulling a sleigh it. Differs, from most other three horse combinations. In that the horses are harnessed abreast in addition. To that the troika is the world's only multiple, harness with different horse gates the middle horse trucks and the side horses, canter at. Full speed a troika, could reach 45, to 50 km/h, 28. To 31 miles per hour which was a very high speed on land for vehicles, in the 17th, 19th centuries, making the troika closely, associated, with the fast ride the.
Troika, Was developed, from the late 17th, century first, being used for speedy delivering, of mail and having become common by the late 18th, century it. Was often used for traveling in stages, where teams of tired horses could be exchanged, for fresh animals, to transport, loads and people over long distances. 0.163. 0 late muscovite, Russian architecture, characterized. By many large, Cathedral type churches, with 5 onion-like cublas, surrounding, them with tents of bell towers and aisles. 16:59. Coke lemon, coke. Loma is the name of a Russian Wood painting, handicraft, known for its vivid flower patterns, red in Gold colors over the black background and the distinctive, effect on the cheap and light wooden tableware or furniture making, it look heavier metal, like in glamorous, it. First appeared in the second half of the 17th century at least from 1659. In today's Nizhny Novgorod Oblast and, was named after the large trade settlement, coke Loma the handicraft. Owes its origin to the old believers who fleeing from persecutions. Of officials, took refuge in local woods and taught some of the icon painting techniques to the local craftsmen, such as the usage of a goldish color without, applying real gold, nowadays. Coke Loma is one of the symbols of Russia and apart from its usage in making tableware furniture. And souvenirs, it can be found in the wider context. For example in paintings on Russian airliners. 1679. Circle, of fifths in the. Late sixteenth 70s, a treatise called gramatica was written by the composer and theorist, nikolai de let's key de. Let's keys gramática is a treatise, on composition the first of its kind which targeted, western-style, polyphonic. Compositions, it. Taught how to write concerti, polyphonic. Acapella, which were normally based on liturgical texts. And were created by putting together musical. Sections, that have contrasting rhythm, meters melodic, material and, vocal groupings, delet, ski intended, his treatise to be a guide to composition, but pertaining, to the rules of music theory, within. The gramatica treatise as where the first circle, of fifths appeared, and was used for students as a composers, tool. 1685. Tulip reenact, the. Tulip rynek is a type of printed, gingerbread, from the city of Tula the most known kind of Russian gingerbreads. Usually. The tulip rynek looks like a rectangular, tile or a flat figure, modern. Tulip reenact usually, contained, jam or condensed, milk while in the old times they were made with honey the. First mention of the tulip trionic, is in Tula census, book of. 1680. Five point one six eight eight balalaika. The. Balalaika is a stringed, instrument, with a characteristic, triangular. Body and three strings or sometimes, six in three courses perhaps the best-known national, Russian musical, instrument, the. Balalaika family. Of instruments includes, from the highest pitch to the lowest the prima balalaika, Secunda, balalaika, Alto balalaika, baseball, Alika in contrabass, balalaika, the. Earliest, mention of balalaika, is found in a 1688. Document. And initially, it was an instrument of skom rocks sort of Russian freelance, musical, jesters, in the. 1880s. The modern standard, balalaika, was developed, by Vasily and Reeve who also started a tradition of balalaika, orchestras, which finally led to the popularity, of the instrument, in many countries outside Russia. Glass. Holder, the. Putz Titanic, Russian, putz Titanic, literally, thing, under the glass or. Tea glass holder, is a holder, with a handle, most commonly, made of metal that holds a drinking glass the. Primary, purpose of pots Titanic, a place is to, hold a very hot glass of tea which is usually, consumed, right after it is brewed it is. A traditional, way of serving and drinking tea in Russia Ukraine Belarus, and other post-soviet, states 0.169. Three. Moorish. Ghen baroque also. Called Moscow, Baroque or muscovite, baroque is the name given to a particular style of Baroque architecture and, decoration which, was fashionable, in Moscow from the turn of the 17th into, the early 18th centuries. Topic. Early, 18th century. Table. Glass, the. Table glass her granny on you stackin, literally, faceted, glass is a type of drink we're made from especially hard and thick glass having, a faceted form granny. Youngji stackin has certain advantages over, the other drink, ware since due to its form and hardness it is more difficult to break it. Is arguably, handier, in usage on moving trains or rolling ships where it is less prone to tip and fall or slip from hands and less likely to break upon hitting the floor a legend. Says that the first known Russian faceted, glass was given as a present to Tsar Peter the Great from a glass maker called Yefim Smolin living in Vladimir, Oblast, he.
Boasted To Tsar that his glass couldn't be broken, Tsar, Peter liked the present however after, drinking some alcoholic, beverage from it he threw the glass on the ground and, managed to break it still. Peter didn't punish the glass maker and the production of such glasses, continued, while the Russian tradition of breaking drink, ware on certain occasions originated, from that episode. 17:04. Decimal, currency. The. Decimal, currency is a type of currency that is based on one basic, unit and a subunit which is a power of 10 typically, 100, most. Modern currencies, adhere to this pattern Russia, was the first country to introduce such, a currency, after decimalisation. Of its financial, system in 1704. During the reign of Peter the Great when Russian ruble was made equal to 100, Kopacz point one seven one seven metal, lathe compound, slide, by. Andre Norton a, compound. Slide on a metal lathe adds the ability to turn tapers, more easily and may be used to turn more precise diameters, they. Are a standard feature of modern manually, operated, lathes point 171, date yacht club, the. Yacht Club is a sports, club specifically. Related, to sailing, and yachting the. Oldest Yacht Club in the world by date of establishment is, the neva Yacht Club founded, by the Russian, Tsar Peter the Great in 1718. In st. Petersburg, likely, the idea had been devised, as early as 1716. When the first neva shipyard, started building civilian, vessels, though. Since it was not a purely, voluntary, Association. Of members but an organization founded. By czars decree, the neva Yacht Club's being the world, oldest is challenged, by the royal court yacht club in ireland founded in 1720. Clubs. Have gone through periods of dormancy and, undergone, various, name changes. Topic. Russian, empire. You. Topic. 1720s. 17:25. Rebar. Rebar. A reinforcing. Bar as a common, metal bar typically, made of steel used in reinforced, concrete and reinforced, masonry structures. Rebar. Was known in construction. Well before the era of the modern reinforced, concrete, since some 150. Years before it's invention rebar. Were used in the leaning tower of nevian skin Russia which was built on the orders of the industrialist, a can feed em a table between, 1725. To 1732. The. Purpose, of such construction, is one of the many mysteries of the tower the. Cast iron used was a very high quality and, there is no corrosion on them up to this day. Topic. 1730's. 17:32. Cast-iron. Cupola, lightning-rod, the. Cast-iron cupola, was a type of cupola, made of cast iron rather than made from stone or brick as it was in ancient or medieval domes the first, application. Of this technology is found in the mysterious leaning, tower of Naviance, completed, in 1732. The. Towers tended roof had a cast-iron carcass, and outer shell the second. Time this technique, was applied only some 100, years later during, the reconstruction. Of the meit's cathedral in germany in 1826. While the third time it was used in the dome of st. Isaac's, Cathedral in st. Petersburg, built in the 1840s. The. Very top of the tower was crowned with a gilded metallic, sphere with spikes, since. It was grounded, through the rebar of the tower carcass, it acted like a lightning rod thus. The Russian builders de facto created, the first lightning, rod in the Western world some, 25, years before Benjamin, Franklin, however it is not known whether that was intentional, 0.173. 3, peter & paul cathedral. The. Peter & paul cathedral, as a russian orthodox, cathedral located. In Saint Petersburg Russia it. Is the first and oldest landmark, in st. Petersburg, built between 1712. And 1733. Inside the Peter and Paul Fortress both. The cathedral, and the fortress were originally, built under Peter the Great and designed by Domenico, tresine II the. Cathedral, is the burial, place of all Russian Emperor's from Peter the first to Nicholas the second with the exception, of Peter the second, the. Cathedrals, bell tower as the world's tallest Orthodox, bell tower since. The belfry, is not standalone but an integral part of the main building the cathedral is sometimes, considered the highest Orthodox, Church in the world. 1735. Tsar bell, the. Tsar bell also, known as the czarsky, caller call a Royal Bell is a huge Bell on display on the grounds of the Moscow Kremlin the Bell, was commissioned, by empress anna niece of peter the great, currently. It is the largest and heaviest bell, in the world weighing, 216.
Tons With a height of six point one four meters 20.1. Feet and diameter, of six point six meters, 21.6. Feet it. Was founded from bronze, by masters, Ivan Motorin, and his son Mikael in 1733. To 1735. The. Bell however, was never rung because of a fire in 1737. When a huge slab, 11.5. Tons cracked, off while it was still in the casting pit in. 1836. The bell was placed on a stone pedestal next, to the ivan the great bell tower, for. A time the bell served as a chapel, with the broken area forming the door, according. To the legend on judgement day the tsar bell will be miraculously. Repaired and, lifted up to heaven where it will ring the blag of assault, a prayer. 17:39. Ice palace. Topic. 1740s. 17:41. Quick-firing. Gun, by. Andre Marta. Topic. 1750s. 1754. Coaxial. Rotor model helicopter. By. Mikhail Lomonosov. 1756. Law of mass conservation. By. Mikhail Lomonosov. 1757. Lakorn, Russian field gun, by. M W Donal of NSA, Martin. All. Topic. 1760s. 1761. Atmosphere. Of Venus, Mikhail. Lomonosov was, the first person, to hypothesize, the existence. Of an atmosphere, on Venus based, on his observation. Of the transit of, Venus of 1761. In a small Observatory near his house in Petersburg. 1762. Off-axis, reflecting. Telescope, by. Mikhail lomonosov. Topic. 1770s. 1770. Amber room the. Amber Room in the Catherine, Palace of Czar Sukhoi see lo near st. Petersburg, as a complete, chamber, decoration, of amber panels backed with gold leaf and mirrors it. Was dubbed the eighth wonder of the world due, to its singular, beauty and the large quantity, of a rare material, amber is rather hard to carve due. To its unique history it was also called the world's greatest lost treasure. Several. Generations, of German and Russian craftsmen. Worked on this masterpiece, prompted, by several generations, of monarchs. Construction. Began in 1701. To 1709. In Prussia in. 1716. The amber cabinet, was given by Prussian, King Friedrich, Wilhelm the first to his then Ally Tsar Peter the first of Russia then. It was expanded, by Russian craftsmen, and by 1770. When the work was finished the room covered more than 55, square meters and contained, over six tons of amber it. Was looted during World War two by Nazi Germany brought, to konigsberg and lost in the chaos at the end of the war in. 1979. To 2003, Russian, craftsmen, again reconstructed. The Amber Room in the Catherine, Palace while, the location, of the original one is still a mystery, 0.177. 0 Thunderstone. The. Largest stone ever moved by man used a base for a statue. 0.177. 6 Orenburg Hall.
1778. Russian, samovar in. 1778. The listen. Brothers introduced, their first Sam of our design and the same year they registered, the first Sam of our making factory in Russia. Topic. 1780s. 1784. Orlov Trotter, by. Alexei grigoryevich, Orlan. Topic. 1790s. Russian. Guitar, by. Andrey cytravel, Enki. 1793. Screwdrive. Elevator. The. Screwdrive, elevator, as an elevator that uses a screw drive system, instead of a hoist like it was in the earlier elevators, the. Invention, of the screw drive was the most important, step in elevator, technology. Since ancient times, which finally led to the creation of modern passenger, elevators, the. First such elevator, was invented, by Ivan Kulemin, and installed, in the Winter Palace in, 1793. While several years later another, of Cubans elevators, was installed, in Arkhangelsk way near Moscow, in. 1823. And ascending. Room made. Its debut in London 0.179. V fed ascii no miniature, russian lacquer art. 1796. Peaked cap, the. Peaked cap has been worn by Russian army officers, as a type of forage, cap since 1796. By some regiments and from 1811 by the most of the army. Topic. Nineteenth-century. Cargo. Pulled toys. Filimonova. Toys. Gorodetsky. Rush. Nick is a ritual cloth embroidered with symbols, and cryptograms, of the ancient world point one eight zero two modern. Powdered, milk. 1802. Continuous. Electric, arc by. Vasily Petrov, 1805. Droshky any of various two or four-wheeled, horse-drawn. Public, carriages, early taxicabs. Topic. Eighteen, tens. 18:11. Sailor. Cap. 1812. Electric, telegraph, by. Pavel Schilling 1812. Naval, mine, by. Pavel Schilling 1814. Beehive, frame, by. Petro Perkovic. Topic. 1820s. 1820. Antarctica, by Fabien Gottlieb, von Bellingshausen and, Mikhail Lazarev 1820s. Russian Revival architecture as, the generic term for a number of different movements within Russian, architecture, that arose in second, quarter of the nineteenth century and was an eclectic melding, of pre petering, Russian architecture, and elements of Byzantine, architecture. 1820. Monorail the so called road on pillars near Moscow, with horse-drawn, carriages, built by Ivan L Manav 0.18. 2 5 Zastava, painting, 1828. Electromagnetic. Telegraph by pavel Schilling 1829. Industrial. Production, process, of sunflower, oil, 1829. 3 bolt diving, equipment by ek. Gazon. Topic. 1830s. 18:32. Data, recording, equipment. Semen. Korsakov was reputedly, the first to use the punched cards in informatics, for information, storage and search.
Korsakov. Announced, his new method and machines in September 1832. And rather than seeking patents, offered the machines for public use. 1833. Lenses law by. Heinrich, Lenz 1835. Centrifugal, fan, by. Alexander, Saab Luka 1838. Electro typing, by. Boris Jacobi, 1839. Electric, boat by. Boris Jacobi, 1839. Galvin no plastic, sculpture, by. Boris Jacobi, and Heinrich Lenz. Topic. 1840s. 1847. Field anesthesia. By. Nikolai, Pirogov, 1848. Modern, Oilwell. By. Vasily semi ona. Topic. 1850s. 1850s. Neo-byzantine. Architecture. In the Russian Empire emerged, in the 1850s. And became an officially, endorsed, preferred architectural. Style for church construction, during the reign of alexander. Ii, of russia, 1855. To 1881, replacing. The Rousseau Byzantine, style of Constantine, thon. 1851. Struve geodetic, arc, by. Friedrich, georg wilhelm von, Struve. 1851. Russian, railway troops. 1854. Modern, field surgery, by. Nikolai Pirogov. 1854. Stereo, camera. 1857. To 1861. Theory, of chemical structure. By. Alexander, Butler ah've one of the principal creators, of the theory of chemical structure, the first to incorporate double, bonds into structural, formulas, the discoverer, of hexamine, and the discoverer of the foremost reaction, point 1 8 5 7 radiator, a, radiator. Is a heat exchanger used, to transfer, thermal energy from one medium to another for the purpose of cooling or heating the. First historical, application. Of radiator, was in central heating systems, the, heating radiator, was invented, by franz san Gally a Polish born Russian businessman, living in st. Petersburg, between 1855. -. 1857. Point, 1 8 5 8 st., Isaac's, Cathedral. St.. Isaac's Cathedral as the largest Russian Orthodox, Cathedral in st. Petersburg, it was. The tallest Eastern, Orthodox, Church upon its completion subsequently. Surpassed, only by the Cathedral, of Christ the Saviour, it is. Dedicated to, Saint Isaac of Dalmatia a patron, saint of Peter the Great who had been born on the feast day of that Saint designed. By Auguste de Montferrand, the cathedral, is a masterpiece, of the late classicism, built between 1818. To 1858. Multiple. Innovations, were used during construction, such, as the giant cast-iron, dome special, frameworks, to erect columns and the first usage, of galvano plastic, sculpture, and architecture. 1859. Aluminothermic. By nikolai beckett ah. Topic. 1860's. 1860's. Russian salad, by. Lucien olivier, 1861. Beef stroganoff. 1864. Modern icebreaker, an. Icebreaker, as a special-purpose, ship or boat designed, to move and navigate through ice-covered, waters, the. First steam powered metal hauled icebreaker, of the modern type was the Russian pilot built in 1864. On orders of the merchant and ship builder Mikhail Britnie it. Had the bow altered to achieve a nice clearing capability. 20 degrees raised from keel line this. Allowed the pilot to push itself on the top of the ice and consequently. Break it Britain. Have fashioned, the bow of his ship after the shape of the old wooden poem or Cooke's which had been navigating, icy waters, of the white sea and barren sea for centuries, 0.186. Eight grow light, Andrei. Famine s'en was the first to use artificial, light for plant growing in research. 1869. Hecta, Graf. 1869. Periodic. Table of the elements, by. Dmitri, Mendeleev. Topic. 1870s. Gymnastic. Ax the. Gymnastic, ax was originally, introduced, into the Tsarist army about 1874. Whereby regiments, stationed in Turkestan during the hot summers, it. Took the form of a loose-fitting, white linen shirt tunic. And included. The colored shoulder, boards of the green tunic worn during the remainder of the year the. Gymnastic, ax was taken into use by all branches of the Imperial, Army at the time of the russo-turkish. War of, 1877. 278, originally. Intended, for working, dress during peacetime and, patterned on the traditional, Russian peasant, smock the gymnastic, ax was subsequently, adopted for ordinary duties and active service where it. Was worn as such by noncommissioned, ranks, in summer during the 1890s and, early 1900s. The. Offices, equivalent, was a white double-breasted, tunic, or Kittel during, the russo-japanese war. Of 1904. The. White gymnastic, ax with its red or blue shoulder boards proved too conspicuous against. Modern weaponry and the garments were often dyed various, shades of khaki the smartness. And comfort of the white gymnastic. Ax enabled it to survive for a few more years of peacetime wear until a light khaki version, was adopted, in 1907. 209, and worn during World War 1 point 1 87 - electric, lamp, by. Alexander. Lee diggin in. 1872. He, applied for a Russian patent, for his filament, lamp he. Also patented this invention in Austria, Britain France, and Belgium for. A filament litigant, used a very thin carbon rod placed under a bell glass point one eight seven to aldol, reaction. By. Alexander, Barden independently.
From Charles Adolphe warts 1873. Odd nur arithmometer. By. Will go to theophil odd nur 1873. Armored. Cruiser. General. Admiral, by Andrey, Aleksandrovich, Popov. 1874. Head lamp by. Pavel ya blowj qov 1875. Railway, electrification system. By. Fyodor / Otsuki, 1876. AC transformer. By. Pavel yah blow chav 1876. Ya blowj cough candle. Invented. In 1876. By, pavel ya blow CH cough the yeah Bloch cough candle, was the first commercially, viable electric. Carbon arc lamp and was used for the world's first electric, street Lightning at the Exposition, Universelle, 1878. In Paris. 1877. Torpedo, boat tender, by. Stepan Makarov. 1877. Tracked wagon, by. Fyodor Blin of 1878. Cylindrical. Oil tank, by. Vladimir, zukov, 1879. Modern. Oil tanker, by. Ludwig nobel. Topic. 1880s. 1880s. Winogradsky, column. The. Winogradsky, column as, a simple, device for culturing a large diversity, of microorganisms. Invented. In the 1880s, by Sergey winogradsky, the device as a column, of pond mud and water mixed, with a carbon, source such as newspaper, containing, cellulose, blackened, marshmallows, or eggshells, containing. Calcium carbonate. And a sulfur source such as gypsum, calcium sulfate. Or egg yolk. Incubating. The column and sunlight for months results, in an aerobic anaerobic, gradient. As well as a sulfide, gradient, these. Two gradients promote, the growth of different, microorganisms. Such as Clostridium. Diesel, 5i Brio chloro, beum chromium, Radha microbial, and veggie at OA as well as many other species of bacteria cyanobacteria. And. Algae, 1888. Three-phase. Electric, power, the. Three-phase, system, was developed independently from. Others by Mikhail dellavedova. Volsky, 0.188. Zero vitamins, by. Nikolai Ivanovich loon, and Russian Wikipedia article. 1880. Electric, tram, by. Fyodor / Otsuki 1881. Carbon. Dark welding, the. First arc welding method was introduced, by Nikolai benardos, and later patented, in. 1887. Point, one eight eight three Cathedral. Of Christ the Saviour the. Cathedral. Of Christ the Savior as the main and largest Cathedral, of the Russian Orthodox Church located, in Moscow, on the bank of the Moskva, River it. Is the tallest Eastern, Orthodox, Church in the world designed. By Constantin, thon it is an outstanding example of the Byzantine, Revival, architecture, the. Domes of the Cathedral, for the first time in history were gilded using, the technique of gold electroplating. The. Original, building was demolished during the Soviet era but was rebuilt in 1995. To 2000, having become a symbol, of Russia's religious, Renaissance. 1884. Electric, submarine. By. Steph enjoyed skiing 88. Caterpillar, farm tractor, the. First steam-powered, tractor, on continuous, tracks was completed, by Fyodor Blin of 1888, shielded. Metal arc welding, by. Nicolas la Vienna 1888. Solar cell based on the outer photoelectric. Effect, by. Aleksandr, stola Tov 1889. Three-phase, induction motor. By. Mikhail delito dobrovolsky. 1889. Three-phase. Transformer. By. Mikael believe Oh dobrovolsky. 1889. Mosin Nagant rifle, by. Sergei ivanovich Mosin, the most produced rifle, of the era. Topic. 1890s. 1890. Matryoshka doll. By. Sergey mallet and and Vasilis of Yas da cheek in 1890. Powered exoskeleton. 1890. Chemosynthesis. By. Sergey winogradsky, 1891. Thermal, chemical cracking. Zhukov. Cracking, processed by Vladimir, zukov and Sergey gavrilov, cracking. Method 1891. Long distance transmission of, three-phase, electric, power, by. Mikhail dellavedova. Volsky at the International, Electrotechnical exhibition. In, Frankfurt, AM main this. Demonstration. Initiated. The today's power grids 0.189. 1 three-phase. Hydroelectric. Power plant, by. Mikhail dellavedova. Volsky 1892. Viruses. By. Dmitry, ivanov ski 1894. Neff scope, by. Mikhail Paul mort's of 1895. Lightning, detector radio, receiver. By. Alexander. Stepanovich Popov, 1896. Thin shell structure, by. Vladimir, zukov. 1896. Tensile, structure. By. Vladimir, zukov, 1896. Hyperboloid. Structure, by. Vladimir, zukov see, also shook of tower 1897. Grid, shell by. Vladimir, zukov, 1898. Puller icebreaker, a polar. Ice breaker as an ice breaker capable. Of operating in, the polar waters, with their vast and thick multi-year. Sea ice the. Russian icebreaker your Mac named after your Mac the Conqueror of Siberia, was the first icebreaker able to ride over and crush pack ice it was. Built in England between, 1897. To 1898, after admiral, stepan Makarovs, design, and under his supervision. Between. 1899. To 1900, max, sailed in heavy ice conditions, for more than 1,000, days, starting. From this vessel Russia created, the largest fleet of ocean-going icebreakers. In the 20th, and 21st centuries. 1899. Radiation. Pressure, by. Puter Lebedev. Topic.
Twentieth-century. Em store, a miniature. 1901. Classical. Conditioning, by. Ivan Pavlov. Pavlov. Was awarded, the Nobel Prize for his work in 1904. Also. Referred to as Pavlov's. Dog. 1901, chromatography. By. Mikhail svet 1902. Firefighting. Foam. Firefighting. Foam is foam used for fire suppression, its. Role is to cool the fire and to coat the fuel preventing, its contact, with oxygen resulting, in suppression of combustion. Firefighting. Foam was invented, by the Russian engineer and chemist Alexander, Loren in 1902, he was, a teacher in a school in Baku, which was the main center of the Russian oil industry, at that time impressed. By the terrible, and hardly extinguisher, Belisle fires that he had seen there Lauren tried to find such a liquid, substance, that could deal effectively with, the problem, and so he invented his firefighting, foam 0.1, 9:03. Theoretical. Foundations, of space flight, by. Constantin seal Kowski, 1903. Cytoskeleton. 1903. Motor ship, the. Russian tanker vandal was the world's first diesel-powered, ship, point one nine zero for, radio, jamming. 1904. Foam extinguisher. The. First such extinguisher. Was produced in 1904. By Alexander. Loren who invented firefighting, foam two years before 0.1, 9:05. Auscultate. Ori blood pressure measurement. By. Nikolai korotkov, 1905. Kirat cough sounds. 1905. In submersible, 'ti by. Alexey, Krylov and, Stepan Makarov, 1906. Electric seismometer. By. Boris borisovitch. Galantine 1907. Era sonic snowmobile. 1907. Pulse-jet. 1907. By in. 1907. Church of the saviour on blood the. Church contains, over. 7500. Square meters, of mosaics, according. To its restorers, more than any other Church in the world. Topic. 1910s. 19:10. Polybutadiene. The. First commercially, viable synthetic. Rubber by Sergei Lebedev, 0.19. 1:0, montage, filmmaking, or Kuleshov, effect by, lev kuleshov. 1910. Non Aristotelian. Logic, by. Nikolai Vasilyev. 1911. Knapsack, parachute. By. Gleb kotelnyk ah've 1911. Television. By. Boris rosing, and Vladimir, Zworykin, 1911. Stanislavski's. System a, progression. Of techniques, used to train actors to draw believable, emotions, to their performances, the. Method that was originally, created and, used by Constantin. Stanislavski from. 1911, to, 1916. Was based on the concept of emotional memory for which an actor focuses, internally, to portray a character's, emotions, on stage point one nine one three zam, zam. Russian, za acute, um is a word used to describe the, linguistic, experiments, in sound symbolism, and language creation, of Russian futurist, poets such as vellum ear kleben akov and alexei crutch Indyk point one nine one, three airliner.
Russki, Videos by Igor Sikorsky 1913. Half-track. Also. Known as keg rest track invented, by adolphe keg, rest point one nine one four, aerobatic. By. Pyotr Nesterov, independently. From a Dolf peg out 1914. Gyro car, by. Pyotr Shilov ski 1914. Two chunka, by. Nestor makhno according, to some sources, 1914. Strategic. Bomber. Sikorsky. Ilya Muromets by. Igor Sikorsky, 1914. Aerial, ramming, by. Pyotr Nestor of 1915. Activated. Charcoal, gas masks, by. Nikolai szalinski independently. From James Burt garner 1915. Vesna Code Bezdek. Ode was the first prototype, caterpillar, tank or tankette, and the first continuous, track amphibious, ATV, it was. Invented by Aleksandr, poor Akasha cough in 1915. The, word Vesna code means he, who goes anywhere, or. All-terrain. Vehicle. Point. One nine one five Tsar tank, this. Eccentric, design differed from modern, tanks in that it did not use caterpillar, tracks rather it used a wheeled tricycle, design the. Two front spoked wheels were nearly nine meters 27, feet in diameter the back wheel was smaller only, 1.5, meters, five feet high point one nine one six, trans-siberian. Railway. The. Longest railway in the world. 1916. Ophtho phonic piano. Topic. Soviet, Union. You. Top