Technology and society | Wikipedia audio article
Technology. Society, and life or technology. And culture refers, to cyclically. Codependence. Co influence, and co-production. Of Technology, and society, upon the other technology. Upon, culture, and vice-versa. This. Synergistic, relationship. Occured from the dawn of humankind with the invention of simple, tools and continues, into modern technologies. Such as the printing press and computers. The. Academic. Discipline, studying, the impacts, of science, technology and, society and. Vice versa is called Science and Technology, studies. Topic. Pre-historical. The, importance, of stone tools circa, 2.5. Million, years ago is considered. Fundamental in, the human development, in the hunting hypothesis. Primatologist. Richard, Wrangham theorizes. That the control, of fire by early humans and the associated. Development of, cooking, was the spark that radically, changed, human evolution. Texts. Such as Guns Germs and, Steel suggest. That early advances. In plant agriculture, and husbandry, fundamentally. Shifted, the way that collective, groups of individuals. And eventually. Societies. Developed. Topic. Modern. Examples. And effects. Technology. Has become a huge part in society and, day to day life, when. Societies. Know more about the development, in a technology, they become able to take advantage, of it when. An innovation, achieves, a certain point after it has been presented, and promoted, this technology. Becomes, part of the society, the use of technology. In education provides. Students. With technology, literacy. Information, literacy. Capacity. For lifelong learning and, other skills, necessary, for, the 21st. Century workplace. Digital. Technology. Has entered, each process, and activity, made by the social, system in fact. It constructed. Another worldwide, communication. System, in addition to its origin, a 1982. Study, by the New York Times, described. A technology assessment study by the Institute, for the future peering. Into the future, of an electronic. World, the. Study focused on the emerging, videotex, industry, formed, by the marriage of two older, technologies. Communications. And computing. It. Estimated. That 40% of, American, households will, have two-way, video, tech service, by the end of the century, by.
Comparison. It took television. 16, years, to penetrate, 90%, of households, from the time commercial. Service, was begun. Since. The creation of computers, achieved, an entire, better, approach, to transmit, and store data. Digital. Technology. Became, commonly, used for downloading music. And watching, movies at home either by DVDs. Or purchasing, it online. Digital, music records. Are not quite the same as traditional recording. Media obviously. Because. Digital ones, are reproducible. Portable, and free several, states started, to implement education. Technology. In schools universities. And. Colleges. According. To the statistics, in the early beginnings, of 1990s. The use of internet in schools was on average, two to three, percent. Continuously. By the end of 1990s. The evolution, of technology, increases. Rapidly, and reaches, to 60% and, by the year of 2008. Nearly 100% of schools use, internet, on educational. Form. According. To SD researchers. Technological. Improvements. Can lead to numerous achievements in, classrooms. Elearning. System, collaboration. Of students, on project-based. Learning and, technological. Skills for future, results in motivation. Of students. Although. These previous, examples. Only show a few, of the positive, aspects, of technology, in society there, are negative, side effects, as well, within. This virtual, realm social. Media platforms. Such as Instagram. Facebook, and, snapchat have. Altered, the way Generation. Y culture, is understanding. The world and thus how they view themselves in. Recent. Years there has been more, research, on the development, of social media depression. In users of sites like these Facebook. Depression. Is when. Users are so affected, by their friends, posts, and lives that their own jealousy depletes. Their sense of self-worth. They. Compare, themselves to, the posts, made by their peers and feel unworthy, or monotonous. Because they feel like their lives are not nearly as exciting, as the lives of others another, instance, of the negative, effects of technology, in society, is how quickly it is pushing, younger, generations. Into maturity. With. The world at their fingertips. Children, can learn anything, they wish to but. With the uncensored, sources, from the internet, without proper, soup vision children, can be exposed, to explicit. Material, at inappropriate ages. This. Comes in the forms of premature, interests, in experimenting. With makeup or opening, an email account or social, media page, all. Of which can become a window, for predators, and other dangerous, entities, that threaten a child's, innocence. Technology. Has a serious, effect on youths health the. Overuse, of Technology. Is said to be associated. With sleep, deprivation which. Is linked to obesity and poor academic performance, in. The lives of adolescents. Topic. Economics. And technological. Development. In ancient, history. Economics. Began, when spontaneous. Exchange, of goods and services was. Replaced, overtime, by deliberate, trade structures. Makers. Of arrowheads, for example, might have realized they could do better by concentrating. On making arrowheads and barter for other needs. Regardless. Of goods and services bartered. Some amount of technology, was involved, if no. More than in the making of shell and bead jewelry. Even. The shaman's, potions, and sacred, objects, can be said to have involved some technology. So. From the very beginnings, technology. Can be said to have spurred the development of more elaborate, economies, technology. As seen as primary, source in economic, development, technology. Advancement. And economic growth, are related, to each other, the level of technology is, important, to determine the economic growth it is the technological. Process, which keeps the economy moving in. The. Modern world superior. Technologies. Resources. Geography. And history give. Rise to robust. Economies. And in a well-functioning. Robust, economy, economic excess. Naturally. Flows into greater use of technology. Moreover. Because technology. Is such an inseparable, part of human, society, especially in its economic aspects. Funding, sources for new technological, endeavors. Are virtually, unlimited. However. While, in the beginning, technological. Investment, involved little, more than the time efforts, and skills of one or a few men today, such, investment. May involve the collective, labor and skills of many millions. Topic. Funding. Consequently. The sources, of funding, for large technological, efforts, have dramatically, narrowed, since few have ready access to the collective, labor of the whole society, or even, a large part, it is.
Conventional, To divide up funding, sources into, governmental. Involving, whole or nearly, whole social, enterprises. And private involving. More limited, but generally, more sharply, focused, business, or individual, enterprises. Topic. Government. Funding, for new technology. The, government, as a major contributor. To the development of new technology. In many ways in. The United. States alone many, government, agencies, specifically. Invest, billions of dollars, in new technology. In. 1980. The UK government, invested, just over six million pounds in a four year program later, extended to six years called the micro, electronics. Education. Program, MEP which was intended to give every school in Britain at least one computer, software. Training, materials. An extensive. Teacher training. Similar. Programs, have been instituted, by governments, around the world. Technology. Has frequently, been driven, by the military. With many modern applications. Developed, for the military before they were adapted. For civilian, use, however. This, has always been a two-way, flow with. Industry, often developing, and adopting a technology. Only later adopted. By the military. Entire. Government, agencies, are specifically. Dedicated to research, such, as America's. National, Science Foundation. The United, Kingdom's, Scientific. Research Institute's. America's. Small business, innovative, research effort. Many. Other government, agencies, dedicate. A major portion, of their budget, to research, and development. Topic. Private. Funding. Research. And development, as one of the smallest areas, of investments. Made by corporations, toward. New and innovative technology. Many. Foundations, and, other nonprofit. Organizations, contribute. To the development of technology, in. The OECD, about. Two-thirds of research, and development in scientific. And technical fields is, carried, out by industry, and 98%. And 10%, respectively, by, universities. And government, but. In poorer countries, such as Portugal, and, Mexico, the industry. Contribution. Has significantly. Less, the. US government, spends more than other countries on military, research, and development, although the proportion, has fallen from about 30 percent in the 1980s. To less than 10% the, 2009. Founding, of Kickstarter, allows individuals. To receive funding, via crowdsourcing. For many technology. Related products, including, both new physical, creations, as well as documentaries. Films, and web series that focus, on technology, management. This. Circumvents. The corporate, or government oversight. Most inventors, and artists, struggle against. But leaves the accountability, of the project, completely, with the individual. Receiving, the funds. Topic. Other economic. Considerations. Appropriate. Technology, sometimes. Called, intermediate. Technology. More. Of an economics, concern, refers, to compromises. Between central, and expensive, technologies. Of developed, nations and, those that developing, nations, find most effective, to deploy given, an excess of labor and scarcity, of cash. Persuasion. Technology. In economics. Definitions. Or assumptions, of progress, or growth are often related to one or more assumptions. About technology's. Economic. Influence. Challenging. Prevailing, assumptions, about technology. And its usefulness, has led to alternative, ideas, like an economic, growth or measuring, well-being, these. And economics. Itself, can often be described, as technologies. Specifically. As persuasion. Technology. Techno. Capitalism. Technological. Diffusion. Technology. Acceptance, model. Technology. Lifecycle. Technology. Transfer. Topic. Sociological. Factors and, effects. You. You. Topic. Values. The, implementation of technology, influences, the values, of a society by, changing expectations and, realities. The. Implementation. Of technology. Is also influenced. By values. There. Are at least three. Major, interrelated. Values, that inform and, are informed by technological. Innovations. Mechanistic. World view viewing. The universe, as a collection, of parts like a machine, that can be individually. Analyzed, and understood. This. Is a form, of reductionism. That, is rare nowadays. However. The, Neo, mechanistic. World view. Holds. That nothing, in the universe cannot. Be understood, by the human, intellect. Also. While all things are greater than the sum of their parts, eg, even, if we consider nothing more than the information involved. In their combination. In principle. Even this, excess, must eventually be understood. By human, intelligence. That. Is no divine, or vital principle. Or essence as involved. Efficiency. Of value, originally. Applied only to machines, but now applied, to all aspects, of society so that each element is expected, to attain a higher, and higher percentage, of its maximal, possible performance, output.
Or Ability. Social. Progress, the belief that there is such a thing as social progress, and that in the main it is beneficent. Before. The Industrial, Revolution and, the subsequent, explosion. Of technology, almost, all societies believed. In a cyclically, are--of, social, movement, and indeed, of all history, and the universe, this. Was obviously, based, on the cyclicity, of the seasons, and in agricultural. Economies. And societies strong. Ties to that cyclicity. Since. Much of the world is closer to their agricultural. Roots they are still much more amenable to cyclicity, than, progress, in history, this. May be seen for example in Prabhat rangin circars modern, social, cycles, theory, for. A more westernized, version. Social, cyclicity see, generations. The history, of America's, future. 1584. To 20 69, paperback. By Neal Hal and William Strauss. Harper Perennial reprint. Edition September. 30th. 1992. Is, B and O six, eight eight one one nine, one two. Three, and subsequent. Books by these authors. Topic. Institutions. And groups. Technology. Often enables. Organizational. And bureaucratic. Group structures, that otherwise, and heretofore were, simply, not possible. Examples. Of this might include the. Rise. Of very large organizations. Eg. Governments. The military, Health and Social Welfare institutions. Supranational. Corporations. The. Commercialization. Of leisure sports, events, products, etc McGinn. The. Almost instantaneous. Dispersal. Of information. Especially news. And entertainment around. The world. Topic. International. Technology. Enables, greater knowledge of international. Issues values. And cultures. Due. Mostly to mass, transportation. And mass media the, world seems to be a much smaller place due to the following. Globalization. Of ideas. Embeddedness, of values. Population. Growth and control. Topic. Environment. Technology. Provides an understanding. And an appreciation, for the world around us. Most. Modern, technological. Processes, produce, unwanted, byproducts. In addition, to the desired, products, which is known as industrial, waste and pollution. While. Most material. Waste is reused, in the industrial. Process, many forms, are released into the environment with. Negative, environmental. Side effects, such as pollution, and lack of sustainability. Different. Social and political systems. Establish. Different balances. Between the value, they place on additional, goods versus, the dist. Products. And pollution. Some. Technologies. Are designed, specifically. With the environment, in mind but most are designed first for economic, or organ amah kafei's. Historically. The value, of a clean environment and, more efficient, productive, processes, has been the result of an increase in the wealth of society because. Once people are able to provide, for their basic needs, they are able to focus on less tangible, goods such as clean, air and water the. Effects. Of Technology on the environment. Are both obvious, and subtle, the. More obvious effects. Include, the depletion of non-renewable, natural, resources. Such as petroleum coal, ores and the added pollution, of air water, and land. The. More subtle effects, include debates over long-term effects. Eg, global, warming, deforestation. Natural. Habitat, destruction coastal. Wetland, loss. Each. Wave of technology, creates, a set of wastes previously. Unknown, by humans. Toxic, waste radioactive. Waste electronic. Waste. One. Of the main problems, as the lack of an effective way to remove, these pollutants on a large scale expediently. In, nature. Organisms. Recycle. The. Wastes, of other organisms, for, example plants, produce oxygen as, a by-product, of photosynthesis. Oxygen, breathing organisms. Use oxygen to, metabolize food, producing. Carbon, oxide as a by-product, which plan to use in a process, to make sugar with, oxygen, as a waste in, the first place, no. Such mechanism, exists. For the removal of technological. Wastes. Topic. Construction. And shaping. You. You. Topic. Choice. Society. Also controls. Technology. Through the choices it makes these. Choices not, only include, consumer, demands, they also include. The. Channels, of distribution how do products. Go from raw materials. To consumption. To disposal. The cultural, beliefs regarding, style freedom, of choice consumerism.
Materialism. Etc. The economic, values, we place on the environment individual. Wealth government, control, capitalism. Etc. According, to Williams, and edge the construction. And shaping of technology, includes, the concept of choice and not necessarily, conscious. Choice, choice. Has inherent, in both the design of individual. Artifacts, and systems, and in the making, of those artifacts. And systems. The. Idea, here, is that a single technology. May not emerge, from the unfolding. Of a predetermined, logic, or a single determinant, technology. Could be a Garden, of forking paths. With different, paths potentially. Leading to different, technological outcomes. This. Is a position, that has been developed, in detail, by Judy, wadjuk Minh there. For choices. Could have differing, implications. For society and, for particular, social, groups. Topic. Autonomous. Technology. In one, line of thought technology. Develops, autonomously. In other words technology. Seems to feed on itself, moving, forward, with a force irresistible. By humans. To. These individuals. Technology. --is inherently. Dynamic. And self augmenting. Jacques. Le o laz one proponent, of the irresistible nosov. Technology. To humans, he. Espouses, the idea, that humanity. Cannot resist, the temptation, of expanding, our knowledge and, our technological. Abilities. However. He, does not believe, that this, seeming, autonomy, of technology. As inherent, but. The perceived autonomy. As because, humans, do not adequately, consider, the responsibility. That is inherent, in technological. Processes. Langdon. Winner critiques, the idea, that technological, evolution as, essentially. Beyond the control of individuals. Or society, in his book autonomous. Technology. He. Argues, instead, that the apparent autonomy. Of technology. As a result, of technological. Somnambulism. The. Tendency, of people to, incredibly. In unreflective, ly embrace, and utilize, new technologies. Without regard, for their broader social, and political effects. In 1980. Mike Cooley published, a critique of the automation, and computerization, of, engineering, work under, the title, architect. Or be the, human, technology. Relationship. The. Title, alludes to a comparison. Made by Karl Marx on the issue of the creative, achievements. Of human imaginative. Power. According. To Cooley quote. Quote. Scientific. And technological, developments. Have invariably. Proved, to be double-edged. They. Produced, the beauty of Venice, and the hideousness of Chernobyl, the carrying therapies, of roentgens, x-rays, and the destruction, of Hiroshima. Topic. Government. Individuals. Rely, on governmental. Assistance to, control the side-effects. And negative, consequences of, technology. Supposed. Independence. Of government, an assumption. Commonly. Made about the government, as that their governance, role as neutral, or independent. However. Some. Argue that governing, as a political. Process so government, will be influenced. By political winds of influence, in, addition. Because, government, provides, much of the funding for technological. Research and development, it has a vested interest in, certain outcomes.
Other. Point, out that the world's biggest ecological. Disasters, such, as the ROC, Chernobyl. And Lake Karachay, have been caused by government, projects, which are not accountable, to consumers. Liability. One, means for controlling, technology. As to place responsibility, for. The harm with the agent, causing the harm. Government. Can allow more or less legal liability. To fall to the organization's. Or individuals. Responsible. For damages. Legislation. A source, of controversy as, the role of industry. Versus, that of government, in maintaining, a clean environment. While. It is generally, agreed that, industry, needs to be held responsible when. Pollution, harms other people, there is disagreement over, whether this should be prevented by legislation. Or civil courts and whether ecological. Systems, as such should be protected, from harm by governments, recently, the social, shaping of Technology has had new influence, in the fields, of East Science, and East social science, in the United Kingdom which, has made centres focusing. On the social shaping of Science and Technology, a central, part of their funding, programs. Topic. Negative. Criticism. Governments. Have been criticized, for collaborating. With Google, Earth to spy on us, Google's. Earth how the tech, giant, is helping, the state spy, on us is. The. Title of a de Guardian, article by, Yasha Levin, who goes on to state we knew that being connected had a price our data. But. We didn't care then, it turned out that Google's, main clients, included, the military, and intelligence agencies, back, quote. Equals, equals, see also.