Syrian Women's Successful Reforestation Program | Unique Scientific Establishment & More
At. The beginning of time science. Lay dormant but, to the Gianna's wing humankind. Have made the use of the reserves at our disposal. Much, has been lost due to inanity, and greed but, the games are colossal, due to our vision and insight. In. This edition of science insight we feature the International, Space Station a unique, scientific, research establishment. And an important, symbol of international. Cooperation. We. See how Syrian, women are the power behind that nation's reforestation, program. We. Look at a conference designed, to help achieve a new inclusive democratic, knowledge-based. Economy, a. British. Technology. Company, is trialing, new antibodies, derived, from sheep in the fight against colon cancer. And. In. Space we share NASA's quest for knowledge beyond, Earth's orbit into. The tantalizing mysteries. Of the universe. More. Than 30 years ago we watched in awe as the first humans, orbited, the earth in the. 1970. We looked up again to see humans, actually, living and working, in orbit, and in difficult times witness, comforting, cooperation. In space. By. The 1980s. The space shuttle was launched into orbit in the name of technology. And discovery. But. The 90s, will be remembered, as the beginning of a new era in space exploration the. Development, of the International Space Station the, world's largest laboratory. In space will support scientific, and technical, research, performed, on Earth by, taking advantage of the unique environment, of space this. Orbiting, complex will, remain a loft for up to 15, years allowing, scientists, to accelerate. The rate of discovery and invention in, the fields of health medicine. Materials. And technology. Scientists. Will conduct experiments. In five areas research. In biotechnology. Will enhance our ability to accurately characterize. Human proteins, enzymes and. Viruses, at the molecular level by, studying, protein, crystals, grown, in microgravity. They. May then develop, better medicines, to fight against AIDS cancer, diabetes, and, many other diseases the. Space station, also opens a new window on the human bodies adaption, to a gravity-free. Environment. Exposure. To microgravity can. Cause an otherwise healthy astronaut. To experience, rapid loss of bone marrow comparable. To osteoporosis, but. At a much faster rate. Until. Now, on orbit. Research by investigators, in this field was limited, to short duration. Flights on the shuttle now, extended. Investigations. On the station offer new, insights, into the aging process. Fluid. Physics research will use microgravity. To study the behavior of liquids gases and, mixtures. Private. Industry will use the results of these studies to, design more efficient, production processes. Agriculture. Will also benefit, from space station research, biologists. Have long studied gravity's, influence, on living organisms on the, shuttle scientists. Have studied that sometimes, adverse, effects, of weightlessness on, both plants, and animals but, on the station, this work will expand, that knowledge to improve reproductive. Life cycles. This. Level of space based research could lead to heightened, produce, harvest by, allowing farmers, to reduce growing, cycles, and increase, crop yields. Experiments. And other fields of study will seek advances, that could improve technology. In communications. Computers, consumer. Electronics, energy. Efficiency, glass, and ceramics, and metals, manufacturing. Here on earth. Experiments. Will be performed, by a multinational, crew, of astronauts, cosmonauts, and, researchers. They, will live and work on the space station for up to six months at a time the. Atmosphere, inside the station, is pressurized. To a sea-level, pressure of, fourteen, point seven pounds, per square inch, providing. A comfortable living environment for, crew members and an, optimum, operating, environment, for scientific, research. For. The first time ever long-duration. Spaceflight. Is available, to an unprecedented, number of scientists, and engineers looking. For answers to age-old questions. An orbiting. Laboratory virtually. Free of gravity will, result in new insights, and knowledge in scientific. And technical fields, in ways that cannot be achieved on, earth research. On the International, Space Station could, touch the lives of almost everyone, who is invested, in this technology, marvel for. The price of one night of the movies each year the space station, will become a symbol of the investment of the future a, visible. Light in the sky for our children to look up at and dream, about the wonder of space travel. Almost. Four decades after, humans caught their first glimpse of Earth and the heavens from orbit the, International, Space Station will become a permanent home in space. Sabbagh. Turkey a libra ham 46, years old is a widow with six children, landless. For years she had no regular source of income but her luck changed, when she found work with a Syrian reforestation, program.
With. The rapid encroachment, of the deserts threatening, precious arable, land Syria, has embarked on an ambitious tree planting, program known. As the Greenbelt zone it extends, for more than a thousand, kilometres south, to north of the country. The. Project, employs more than 20,000. Temporary workers, more than 75%. Are poor landless, women most, work in the nurseries, and receive, a salary, of some fifty thousand, dollars a month. With. Support, from the UN World Food Program, the, project, aims to improve rural women's, income generation, capacity in addition. Women, workers receive food assistance from the World Food Program. Serious. Efforts, at reform and. Fruit tree planting, are making headway in turning back the desert and improving, the quality of life for the rural population. It's, a success, story in which Syrian, women with international. Help have played a central role. Since. The first atomic, explosion. Over 50 years ago hundreds. Of tests, have shrouded, the earth in radioactive. Clouds harmful. To all life on the planet. Today. The world's arsenal consisting. Of tens of thousands, of nuclear bombs is slowly, being dismantled, the. Comprehensive, Test Ban Treaty will. Ensure that new ones are not developed, here, at the United Nations Center, in Vienna the, technical, organization, that verifies, the test ban is centered. While. Underground sensors, monitor, the Earth's movements, another, device checks the air for radionuclides. Particles. From the atom's nucleus. If. A. Nuclear explosion, occurs, it leaves, telltale, traces on a filter this, worldwide monitoring. System, covering earth sea and air is unique and, hopefully, enough to prevent the development of any more bombs. The. Treaty to ban the testing, of nuclear weapons, is a major step in putting the genie of atomic, warfare back, in the bottle. Located. In Germany they look like atomic bomb shelters, but, they're actually designed to prevent the possibility, of nuclear war deep. In a Bavarian, forest these, facilities. How, sensitive, seismometers. Serving. A vital, monitoring, purpose, they. Can pick up anything from a minor earthquake to a bomb blast inside, the Earth's crust. This. Is one of more than 321. Monitoring, stations, around the world they're. Designed to make sure that the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban. Treaty. Is a dear to the. Historic, treaty is close to completion as more, and more nations ratify. It. Also. Has, made all the more urgent our. Common, quest to eliminate weapons. Of mass destruction. Overcast. Skies but, the weather failed to dampen the spirits of those about to board the city's latest landmark, the, Space Age, London, I a. Month. After its expected, launch, passengers. Who had been disappointed, on New Year's Eve made, it on board the wheel as it finally, began to turn the. Thirty-two. Ninth on capsules, whose, clutches, had proved so problematic, past, their final, safety check, offering. Unprecedented. Views over London. The. 56, million u.s., dollar, 150. Meter eye is now, the world's, largest observation. Wheel, it's. 2,100. Tonne structure, can carry 800, people at any one time just. As well as. 600,000. People have already booked tickets in advance. British. Airways has. Planning, permission for the wheel for five years, given. That the Eiffel Tower was only expected, to last 12 months it's quite probable, the London Eye will, prove to be one of the city's most outstanding, landmarks. For years to come. Still. In the air British Airways are, developing, innovative, new, in-flight, products, to enhance traveler. Comfort, this, make or break strategy, is to position itself as the business executives. Favorite, airline, costing. The company nine hundred and sixty million u.s., dollars it's the biggest investment, of its kind in airline history, British.
Airways Are, presenting, products that, will attract more executives. And travelers willing to pay higher prices for premium, services, such, as this unique sleeper, seat in business, class. The. Airliners, added a fourth class called. World traveler, plus revamped. Its products in other classes refurbish. Concorde and is introducing. A new terminal, at New York's JFK Airport. After. Three, years of research and development VA. Says, the overall will, redefine travel, for the new millennium. The. Airline business has, never been more competitive, British. Airways is, investing, for the future to, stay ahead of its competitors to. Be the airline's of the 21st, century. Great. But, what about the rest of us down here. Just. Looking to each other again this one lovely. Rush-hour. Congestion. A phenomenon. Of modern urban life nobody. Wants it but then nobody has come up with an answer that. Is. Until, now this, is the sparrow an electric, car little bigger than a motorbike, as it arrives outside, Parliament, House in London it's. Driven by veteran, Member of Parliament Tony. Benn he's, enthusiastic about. The ease and comfort of driving, and the reception, the little car gets everywhere. Now. Made in the US the electric, single seater alternative, to the gas guzzling company, car is about, to go into manufacture. In the north of England it can, be refueled, by simply, plugging into the mains at home. The. Factory, is opening, in tony ben's north of england constituency. Where he hopes Sparrow manufacturing. Will generate, three to four hundred jobs, a year and. In. Two years time there should be two thousand, of these easy to drive cars rolling, off the production line, new, technology, making life more pleasant for all britain's. Technological. Development, is nothing, new but the changes, wrought in offices, today by the internet, and e-commerce are set, to be as revolutionary. As those, which saw britain transform, from an agricultural. To an industrial economy in, the 18th, and 19th centuries. What. Does this second, Industrial, Revolution mean, for businesses, and jobs for the way we educate and train people. That. Is the question being debated at the knowledge 2000. Conference, in London. According. To British Prime Minister, Tony Blair all types, of businesses, need to be attuned to the demands, of today's knowledge, driven economy. As. You know. The. Problem though is that access, to this new technology, and the new skills it demands, isn't, yet open to everyone to, overcome, this technological class, barrier, Mr, Blair pledged to open up Internet access to the entire population of, Britain within five years through. School homes, workplaces, or, community. Centres like this one. European. Leaders meeting, in Portugal, will discuss how they can all participate in, this new inclusive. Democratic, knowledge-based. Economy. A. Biotechnology. Company is beginning, to see the fruits of more than a decade of research into. Developing, antibodies one. Of which will be trialed, soon in colon, cancer patients. KS. Biomedics. Specializes. In engineering. Antibodies, derived, from sheep because, of their unique qualities an, antibody, is a floating molecule, which acts as the body's first line of defense in combating, disease the, antibodies, of sheep are particularly, effective. Through. Genetic, engineering the antibody, is extracted, from the original, sheep blood sample, then, fused, in the laboratory to other cells making, them immortal, and allowing, many more to be grown the. Process, continues, until grams, indeed, kilograms, of the antibody, are available. For use. Very. Soon this particular antibody, is going to clinical trial, dose. Will be injected, into colon, tumor cells in cancer patients if all. Goes according to, plan the antibody, should adhere well to the tumor cells. The. Antibody, targets, the outside, of a colon cancer tumor and it sits there and binds very tightly to, that tumor. That. Enables, doctors to, use that antibody, as a means of carrying an imaging. Radioisotope. To, deliver other drugs to the site that, will ultimately kill or eradicate. The tumor. The. Company has also made some exciting, advances, in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and. Rheumatoid arthritis, which. Are in the second phases, of their clinical trials. The, launch of the space shuttle the. World's first reusable space. Transport, system heralding. A new era in the exploration, of space a unique. Concept, a spacecraft. That takes off as a rocket but lands, of the plane. Outfitted, with a set of twin solid rockets, and an extendable, liquid, fuel tank as tall as an 18-story, building the. Space shuttle was from the very beginning the, most complicated aerospace.
Vehicle, Ever conceived. The. 4.5, million pound spacecraft, lifts off with more than 6 million pounds, of thrust and reaches. A hundred miles per hour before it's clear of the launch tower in. Only eight and a half minutes, the crew achieved, their orbit traveling. At 17,500. Miles. Per hour eight times faster than a bullet from a rifle. The. Hubble Space Telescope and. Its subsequent repair, the, Galileo, mission to Jupiter and, its moons roper Magellan's, mapping, of Venus and the, exploration. Of our Sun by Ulysses, each, had their start in the shuttle cargo bay. Taking. Off like a rocket and landing like a plane the, shuttle is NASA's means to building the International, Space Station and achieving. A permanent, presence in space. It. Can. Be argued that the space program, had its beginnings, in the simple act of looking skyward and an, unquenchable thirst for, understanding. That's, what Galileo did in 1609, he. Sought to understand, our solar system, by combining, a set of lenses to magnify distant. Objects, the, telescope, still serves as one of the primary tools of astronomical, discovery. Robert. Garda also looked skyward he, proposed sending a rocket to the moon although. Many skeptics, ridiculed, his plans to make Jules Verne science fiction a reality guardeth. Press forward in 1926. He achieved the first successful, launch of a liquid propellant rocket it, flew to an altitude of less than half the height of the shuttle launch Tower and lasted. Only two and a half seconds. He, too was looking for answers. As. You watch the spectacle of a successful, shuttle, launch think, of Galileo, and Garda and also think of the challenges, of the future since. The dawn of the Space Age nASA has pressed the boundaries, of science with, spectacular, results. New. Tools and advanced technologies, have, been developed to propel the u.s. space program forward. The scientists, strive to unravel, the mysteries of the universe explore. Our solar system, and search, for signs of life beyond, Earth in. The. Years ahead, NASA, will continue this quest for knowledge a. Major. Step towards, NASA's goal is the development, of the International, Space Station the, orbiting, scientific, platform, will have over an acre of solar panels, generating. Four times the electrical, power of Mir. During. Its assembly, more than a hundred pieces will be put together during, 45 space, flights from four launch sites. NASA. Undertake, this endeavor to benefit all humankind, and to, move boldly, into the next century of space exploration. The. Space station embodies, a future, of peaceful, international. Scientific, and technological, cooperation. This. World-class laboratory. Will help members of the International, crew to unravel, the physical, chemical, and biological. Mysteries, of the universe. Without. The masking, influence, of Earth's gravity this, team may discover technological, advances, that will strengthen, our economies, and lead, to amazing medical breakthroughs that, one day will save lives. The. Space station, is in essence a seedbed, for discovery, and a testbed for further exploration, it. Embodies, the dreams of our children and the promise of untold discoveries. In the next millennium. With. These new tools NASA, will leave Earth's orbit, and engage, in further exploration. To Mars and beyond and certainly. Like Galileo, and Garda in the, pursuit of knowledge. Thanks, for joining us we look forward to your company for, the next edition of science. Inside. You.