Science and technology in the People's Republic of China | Wikipedia audio article
Science, and Technology, in China have developed, rapidly during, the 1990s. To 2010. The. Chinese, government, has placed, emphasis through, funding, reform, and societal. Status, on science, and technology, as a fundamental, part of the socio-economic, development, of. The country, as well as for national, prestige. China. Has made rapid, advances. In areas such, as education. Infrastructure. High-tech. Manufacturing. Academic. Publishing, patents. And commercial. Applications. And is now in some areas and by some measures, a world, leader. China. Is now increasingly. Targeting. Indigenous. Innovation and, aims to reform, remaining, weaknesses. Topic. History, China was a world leader in science, and, technology until. The early years, of the Qing Dynasty. Chinese. Discoveries. And Chinese, innovations. Such as paper, making printing. The compass, and gunpowder the, four great inventions. Contributed. To the economic, development. In Asia and Europe. Chinese. Activity, started. To decrease in the 14th, century. Unlike. In Europe, scientists. Did not attempt, to reduce, observations. Of nature to, mathematical. Laws and, they did not form, a scholarly, community, with criticisms. And progressive. Research. There. Was an increasing. Concentration. On literature, arts, and public administration while. Science, and technology. Were seen as trivial, or restricted. To limited practical. Applications. The. Causes, of this great, divergence, continued. To be debated, one. Factor, is argued, to be the Imperial. Examination. System, which removed, the incentives. For Chinese, intellectuals to, learn mathematics. Or to conduct. Experimentation. After, being defeated repeatedly. By Western, nations in the 19th, century, Chinese, reformers. Be again promoting. Modern, science, and technology as. Part of the self strengthening, movement, after. The communist, victory in, 1949. Science. And technology. Research was organized, based, on the model of the Soviet, Union, it. Was characterized. By a bureaucratic. Organization. Led by non, scientists. Research, according, to the goals of central, plans. Separation. Of research, from production, specialized. Research, institutes. Concentration. On practical. Applications and. Restrictions. On information. Flows. Researchers. Should work as collectives. For society. Rather than as individuals. Seeking, recognition. Many. Studied, in the Soviet, Union which also transferred. Technology. The. Cultural, Revolution which. Sought to remove perceived. Bourgeois. Influences. And attitudes, caused large, negative, effects, and disruptions. Among. Other measures it, saw the scientific. Community, and formal, education. Attacked, intellectuals. Were sent to do manual, labor, universities. And academic journals. Were closed, most, research, ceased, and for nearly a decade China. Trained, no new scientists. And engineers after, Mao, Zedong's, death, S&T, was, established. As one of the four modernizations, in. 1976. The. New leader Deng, Xiaoping an, architect. Of the Chinese, economic, reform was, a strong, promoter, of S&T, and, reversed, the policies, of the Cultural, Revolution, the. Soviet, inspired, system. Was then gradually. Reformed. Media. Began promoting the, value, of SNT. Scientific. Thinking, and scientific. Achievement. The. Third and fourth generations. Of leaders, came almost exclusively. From technical, backgrounds. The. State Council, of the People's Republic of, China in. 1995. Issued. The decision, on accelerating. Centi development. Which described, planned, science. And technology. Development for, the coming decades. It. Described. SNT. As the chief productive. Force in affecting, economic, development. Social, progress, national. Strength and living, standards. S&T. Should, become closely, associated. With market. Needs not. Only soviet-style. Institute's. Should do research but, also, universities. And private industries.
State. Institutions. Should form, joint, ventures, with Chinese, or foreign, venture, capital, in order for S&T, developments. To reach the industry. SNT. Personal. Should become more occupational. EMobile pay should be linked to economic results. An age and seniority should, become, less important, for personal, decisions. Intellectual. Property, rights should be respected. Information. Exchange, should improve, and there should be competition. And open bidding on projects. The. Environment. Should be protected. Chinese. Indigenous. S&T, in certain, key areas should, be especially, promoted. Public. Officials, should improve, their understanding of. S&T, and, incorporate. SNT. In decision, making. Society. Including. Communist. Party, youth organizations. Labor unions. And the mass media should. Actively, promote respect, for knowledge and human talents. During. The last thirty years China. Concentrated. On building, physical, infrastructure. Such, as roads, and ports. One. Policy, during, the last decade. Has been to ask for, technology. Transfer in, order for foreign companies, to gain access to the Chinese market. China. Is now increasingly. Targeting. Indigenous. Innovation. During. This period China has succeeded. In developing an, innovation. Infrastructure. Founded. On the establishment. Of over 1 hundred science, and technology. Parks, in many parts, of the country along. With encouragement. Of entrepreneurship. Outside, the state-owned, sector. Yip. And McKern, argued, that chinese firms, have evolved, through three phases as, their innovation, capabilities. Have matured, and that by, 2017. Many of them are of world standard. They. Are now strong, competitors. In the China market, and increasingly. In foreign, markets where. They are establishing. Local, operations. Topic. Techno, nationalism. While the term techno, nationalism. Was originally. Applied to the United, States in, the 1980s. It has since been used to describe. Nationalistic. Technology. Policies. In many countries, particularly. In Asia. Chinese. Techno. Nationalism. Is rooted, in the country's, humiliation. At the hands, of more advanced. Countries in the 19th, century. Indeed. China's. Leaders, like those of other countries have. Long seen, scientific. And technological. Development. As vital, for achieving, economic affluence. National.
Security. And national prestige. Lacking. Indigenous. Technological. Intellectual. Property. And innovation. Are seen as key national problems. The. 21st. Century, has thus seen a series, of central, government initiatives. Designed, to promote indigenous. Innovation, and technological. Development. More generally. In China. These. Include, the national, medium, and long term program, for science and technology development. 2006. 220 the strategic. Emerging, industries, initiative. The internet, plus initiative, and the made in China, 2025. Program, among, others. Through. These initiatives the. Chinese, state has intervened, in the economy. In a variety of ways to promote national. Technological. Development. And reduce, reliance on, other countries. Prioritised. Industries. And firms are protected. And guided there. Are systemic, efforts, to replace foreign, technology and, intellectual, properties. With indigenous, technology. Foreign. Companies, are given many incentives, for, technology. Transfer, and for moving R&D. To China at the. Same time the technological. Abilities, of domestic, companies, are supported. In various, ways. Such. Policies. Have generated, considerable, conflict. Between China and, developed, countries, particularly. The, United States although China, has often proved inflexible, when its policies. Have been challenged. Nationalism. And nationalistic. Achievements. Have been seen as becoming, the main, ideological. Justifications. And societal, glue for the regime, as Marxism, loses, influence. Some. Science and Technology. Mega-projects, has been seen as questionable. Trophy, projects. Done for propaganda, purposes with. Chinese, state controlled, media being, filled with reports of Chinese, achievements. Topic. Gross. Best expenditure. On research, and development, in its medium, and long term plan, for the development, of science and technology. 2006. To 2020. China, fixed, itself the target of devoting. 2.5. Percent, of GDP. To research. And development, by 2020. Between. 2003. And 2012. Gross, domestic, expenditure. On research, and development GERD. Rose from one point one three percent to, one point nine eight percent, of GDP. Suggesting. That the country was on track to meet its target the research, firm, Battelle estimates. That China's, GERD will exceed, that of the United, States by, 2023. However. Several, convergent. Factors, cast, doubt, over the accuracy. Of Battelle's, prediction. The deceleration. In China's, rate of economic growth, in, 2014. The considerable. Drop in industrial. Production since, 2012. And the major stock, market, slide in. Mid-2015. After. Progressing. Rapidly for. A decade, GERD, stabilized. At, 2.0, seven, percent, of GDP. In 2015. China devoted. 5.1. Percent of. Total research spending, to basic, research in, 2015. According, to the UNESCO, Institute for. Statistics. This. Is up from 4.8%. On. Average, over the past decade. But less than in, 2004. 6.0%. The. Prolonged, policy. Focus, on experimental, development. Has, resulted, in enterprises. Contributing. Three-quarters. Of Chinese, research, spending. Seventy-seven, percent of total expenditure. On R&D, in, 2015. Enterprise's. Focus, on experimental. Development. Which accounted, for as much as 97. Percent, of their total research, expenditure. By 2015. Business. Enterprises. Contributed. 60%. Of gerd in 2000. And 74%. In, 2008. In. 2004. 74%, of gerd went, on experimental. Development. China. Aims to increase the, share of basic. Research to 15%. Of total research, spending, by 2020. Topic. Institutions. The State Council of the People's Republic of. China as the top administrative. Organ, in China. Immediately. Below it are several, ministries. And Ministry, level, organizations. Involved. With various aspects. Of science, and technology. The. State Council science. And education. Leading group consisting. Of the leaders of the major science.
Bodies, Attempt. To organize the, national, policy. Efficiency. Of overall, coordination. Has been questioned, with various, agencies, seen, as having overlapping. Missions. And rivalries. For resources. And sometimes, engaging, in wasteful, duplication the, Ministry, of Science and Technology, of the People's, Republic of. China formerly. The state Science, and Technology. Commission, is the body, primarily, responsible, for. Science. And Technology. Strategy, and policy. It. Also, administers. National. Research, programs. SNT, development. Zones an international. Cooperation. The. Ministry, of Education of. The People's, Republic of, China oversees. Education. As well as research, institutes. At universities. Several. Other ministries. Such as the Ministry of, Industry, and, Information Technology. Of. The People's, Republic of, China the Ministry, of Health of the People's, Republic of, China and the Ministry. Of Agriculture. Of the People's, Republic of, China are also involved, in SNT. The National, Planning Office, of Philosophy, and social sciences, directs. Play for, social, sciences, and philosophy. The. Chinese, Academy of Sciences. CAS. Is the most prestigious, professional. Science, organization. In China with China's, scientific. Elite being members, it. Directs. Many research, institutes. Research, programs. Graduate. Training programs, and gives influential. Advice. The. Chinese academy of engineering CAE. Gives, important. Advice but unlike the CAS does not have research, institutes. Of its own, the. Chinese, Academy, of Social, Sciences, Cass. Has, a similar, role to CAS. For social sciences, and philosophy. There. Are also many, more narrow academies. Such as the Chinese, Academy of fishery, Sciences. The. National Natural, Science. Foundation. Of China and SFC. Gives, grants, to individual. Researchers. After, peer review the People's, Liberation Army. General, armaments. Department, directs, military, R&D. The. National, scientific, and, academic.
Organizations. Affiliated to. The China Association. For science and technology are. Also important. Forces in scientific. And technological, research. Research. Has carried, out by governmental. Research, institutes. In higher, learning, institutions. And by private enterprises. Local. Governments, have become increasingly. Important. In R&D, funding, and may now contribute. Up to half of government, spending. Intense. Rivalry. For research, and high-tech, industry. Has been argued, to sometimes, create, wasteful. Subsidized. Overcapacity. Dispersal. Of efforts, better centralized. In a few localities. And poorly, judged bureaucratic. Subsidizing. Of technologies. That soon, become, outdated. Topic. National, programs, as of 2010. China's, national, R&D, programs. In compass the key technologies. Program renamed. In, 2006. As ji Chang or support. National, high technology. Program. 863. Program, national. Basic, research, program. 973. Program, spark, program rural. Technology torch. Program, new technology. Commercialization, by. Creating, special, high-tech zones and incubators. Key laboratories. Program, engineering. Research centers, state Quillan new product, program Innovation. Fund for small and medium-sized. Enterprises, special. Technology. Development. Project, for research, institutes. Action, plan for promoting, trade by science, and technology. National, new products, program, agricultural. S&T transfer. Fund the major national. Programs, received. Fifteen, to twenty percent of, government R&D, spending. In 2010. They. Funded, research, after a stated, competitive. Proposal. Procedure, in universities. Institutes. And enterprise. Important. Project, may receive, funding, from several programs. The. Programs, have arguably, had a strong, effect but, have also been, involved, in scandals, corruption. And fraud. They. Have been accused, mainly, of producing. Derivative. Works rather than driving, innovation. And it has been claimed that they ignore merit, in selecting, projects, in favor of cronyism. China. Is trying to improve their efficiency through. Measures, such as more, peer review and evaluations. Topic. Economic. And technological, development. Zones. Based. On the success, of the special, economic zones. Of the People's, Republic of, China China, has created, economic, and technological, development. Zones. They. Have the purposes, of building up high-tech, industries. Attracting. Foreign investment. Increasing. Exports. And improve, the regional, economy. They. Are considered, to have been very successful. And have been expanded. From an initial, 14, to 54. Topic. Education. And R&D, personnel. In the first participation. Of Chinese, student, in an international. Student assessment test, the 2009. Program. For international. Student assessment. Fifteen-year-old. Students. From Shanghai, ranked, first in all of the three categories. Mathematics. Science, and, reading. The. Chinese, students, scored particularly. Well compared. To other nations in, mathematics. One. Explanation, for the Chinese, results. May be a culture, emphasizing. Education. And competitive. Examinations. And more time spend studying in part due to less, participation. In activities such. As sports. Teaching. Have become a higher, status, occupation. Also. Industrialized. Shanghai. Which has done important. Educational. Reforms, may not be representative. For the rest of China. While. There was no evidence of cheating or technical. Problems, with the testing, Shanghai. Which attracts, many immigrants. From the rest of China may have allowed, particularly.
Good Students, to study in the city and the students, may have been told that the test was important, for China's image, the. OECD. Director, of the testing, ondrea's, Schleicher said, that the results, were expected, to produce astonishment. And, had been examined. For accuracy. By international. Experts, after the OECD. Received, the shanghai scores. He. Also said, that the results, refused the commonly, held, hypothesis. That China just produces. Rote learning and, large, fractions. Of these students, demonstrate. Their ability, to extrapolate, from what they know and apply their knowledge very, creatively. In novel, situations. In. 2015. For, major cities, in China were tested, resulting, in much lower scores. 531. In mathematics. 518. In science, and. 494. In reading, China, has become of the world's, biggest sources, for, research and development personnel. Between. 2000. And 2008. The number of engineers, and scientists, more than doubled, to 1.5. Nine million. Relative. To population. Size this, is still low compared, to major developed. Nations, like the United States and, Japan but, the gap is rapidly, closing. The. Number, of doctorate, Awards in science, and engineering have. Increased, tenfold since, the early 1990s. The. Number of students, in general, at universities. Increased, from 1 million to, 5.4. Million during, the 1998. To, 2007. Period. In. 2009. Alone China, produced over, 10,000. PhD. Engineering. Graduates, and as many as. 500,000. BSC. Graduates. In engineering mathematics. Information. Technology. And computer, science. More than any other country the c9 league pitched, as china's Ivy League is an alliance of nine elite Chinese, universities. Which receive, a high amount of national research, funding, and produce, a large share, of national, research. Output. Chinese. Universities. Contribute. An unusually. Large share, of patents. The. Universities. Receive, about half of R&D, money from private enterprises, eight out of nine members. Of the Politburo, Standing Committee, of, the, honest party, of China have, engineering, degrees. 2.25. Million, students. Have studied abroad since. 1978. 340. Thousand, were studying, abroad in, 2011. Which was an increase, by 20 percent over, the previous year. In. Total. 818, thousand, four hundred have returned, to China with this occurring, in particular. In recent, years. 186, thousand. 200 returned, to China in 2011, which, was an increase, by 38, percent over. The previous year. China. Offers, several benefits for. High achieving foreign, educated. Chinese, who returned to China. Students. Are now also returning, because increased. Job, opportunities. Unlike, previously. When, many stayed, abroad due, lack of jobs in China a. 2009. Study found, that only 10%, of, Chinese, students, plan to stay in the United, States due to visa restrictions, fear. Of lack of job opportunities. And belief, that US, growth will lag behind average, world growth, rates. 52. Percent, believed, that the best job, opportunities. Were in China which, was in marked contrast with, earlier surveys. Seventy-four. Percent felt. That the best days of China's, economy was, coming. 68. Percent, intended, to start businesses. When. They returned for, an educated, students, often, provide, crucial, Science. And Technology. Knowledge, management. Skills, and innovation. Abilities, for scientific. Research in industry. The. Senior, management, and high tech companies, are often foreign. Educated. Topic. Chinese. Diaspora. Overseas. Chinese, as is the case for other diasporas. And their homelands. Have contributed. Significantly. To China's. Development. They. Have been seen as an important, channel for bringing trade investment. And modern, technology. To China by both commercial. Activities. And public nonprofit. Cooperation. By. Using brain gone to attract, highly educated. Overseas. Chinese, to return to China to work China, has made significant.
Improvements In, its innovation. Ecosystem. Although there are some limitations. To how sustainable. This technique, may be. Topic. Industrial. Espionage. One, of the objectives, of Chinese, intelligence, activity. Abroad, as alleged to be industrial. Espionage. As well gaining, military, technology. Also. Private, companies, have been accused, of espionage. Intelligence. Agencies. Suspect. That thousands. Of Western, companies, may have been affected by data, breaches. That can be traced back to China. Topic. International. Cooperation. That China Internet, Information. Center stated, in a 2005. Article that. China had, intergovernmental. Cooperative. S&T, agreements. With 96, nations. Cooperative. S&T, programs. With, 152. Nations. And regions and. Participated. In more than 1,000. International, S&T. Cooperative. Organizations. NGO. International. Exchanges. And cooperative. Activities. Had increased, the. China, Association. For science, and technology, and related. Organizations. As well as the National, Natural Science. Foundation. Of China, participated. In many cooperative. International. Organizations. Chinese. Researchers. Held. 281. Leading, posts, on international. Organizations. Expert, committees, and held. 293. Executive. Member, director, or higher level, positions. Topic. Technology. Transfer. And R&D. By, multinational. Corporations. In the early, 1980s. Foreign, companies, began, transferring. Technology by. Licensing. Agreements. And sales of equipment. Later. In the 1980s. Many, multinational. Corporations. Started, transferring. Technology by. Entering, into joint, ventures, with Chinese. Companies, in order to expand, in China. China. In the 1990s. Introduced, increasingly. Sophisticated. Regulations. Of foreign, investment. By which access, to the Chinese, market was. Traded, for technology. Transfer. The. Entry, of China, into the World Trade, Organization in. 2001. Required. This practice, stopped but critics, argue, that it continues. Chinese. Critics. Have argued such. Technology. Transfer. May be useful, for catching, up but does not create, new cutting-edge. Technologies. China, has increasingly. Encouraged. Multinational. Corporations. To create R&D. Centers, in China. Chinese. Critics. Have argued that, foreign, owned R&D. Mainly, benefits, foreign, companies, and removes, many talented. Chinese, researchers. From indigenous companies. And institutions. Chinese. Supporters. Have argued, that the foreign R&D. Serves as a role model and encouragement, for, indigenous, companies, and creates, skilled, communities. From which labor, and knowledge, can easily, flow to indigenous, companies. In. 2010. There were. 1200, such R&D. Centers, and 400. Out the fortune, 500. Corporations. Had created, such R&D. Centers. Corporations. Have argued, that this is a necessity in, order to adapt products. For the local, requirements. Of the Chinese, market, as well as it being essential. For maintaining global. Competitiveness. To make use the many available, Chinese. Engineers and, scientists. China. Has now ranked, first when, multinational. Corporations. Are asked, in which nation. Future, R&D. Centers, are most likely to be located. Topic. Innovation. A 2005. Report, found serious, shortcomings. To China's, national, innovation system. There. Were problems, with services. To help turn SNT, work, into results, and the allocation. Of national, funding, to support S&T. Was, far from optimal. Sometimes. Researchers, became. Short-sighted. If they get too close to the market. Another. Serious. Problem was. That companies, facing severe. Competition, looked. First to purchase, foreign technology. Rather than investing. In developing, technology. And technology. Development, capacity. At home in China. Many. Of the patent, applications. Came from medium-sized. Enterprises. 70%. Since small enterprises. Invest, little, in research. China's. Hierarchical. Top-down, society. Where Authority, is greatly, respected. And feared has been argued, to stifle creative. Debate, China, in a 2006. Report, outlined, policies. For improving, innovation. They. Include, 20, large mega projects. In areas such, as nanotechnology. High-end. Generic. Microchips. Aircraft. Biotechnology. And new drugs. This. Is combined. With a more bottom-up, approach, on a Silicon. Valley model.
Consisting. Of small startups. Venture. Capital, and cooperation. Between industry. And universities. It has also been argued that, China, is the world leader in making, small innovative. Improvements to. Existing designs. One. Example, as continual. Improvements. To the design of, power supplies, making. Them gradually, smaller less. Expensive, and more energy, efficient. This. May not create completely. New products. Create, headlines but. Maybe more important, for creating employment. A 2016. NBER. Paper found, that the Chinese, economy is becoming increasingly. Innovative. The. Study found that rising. Labor costs. In China and expanded. Market, opportunities. In the world economy, were the main drivers, behind innovations. The. Study also found that state-owned. Firms innovated. Less than private firms, even though state-owned, firms received. Far greater subsidies. Topic. Procurement. The, central, Chinese government. A large buyer, of high-tech, products, in 2009. Proposed, controversial. Policies. Demanding. That companies, selling to it promote, Chinese, innovation. And that the products sold are free of foreign, intellectual. Property. The. Most controversial. Parts, were later withdrawn but. Local, Chinese, governments continue to use procurement. To encourage, indigenous, innovation. Topic. Intellectual. Property. Effective. Protection of, intellectual, property has. Been seen, as weak, there. Has been an increasing, recognition of. That this discourages. Indigenous. Innovation, and efforts, has been made to strengthen, the system China, has been accused, of not protecting, foreign, intellectual. Property. And tacitly, allowing, such technologies. To be copied, and claimed to be Chinese, intellectual. Property, and even of directly, facilitating. The transfer of, foreign, technological. Intellectual. Property, from corporations, to, Chinese, companies. Companies. Are required to divulge to Chinese, authorities. The inner workings, of many technologies. In the name of national security and. Have accused, the Chinese, security, forces, of illegally. Sharing this technology. With civilian, industries. Topic. Patents. In, 2011. China became, the nation with the greatest number, of filed, patent, applications. However. This, reflects. In part that, the government, gives companies, incentives. For filing, patent, applications. Regardless, of if eventually granted. The. Percentage. Of patent, applications. In China filed, by Chinese, companies rose. From less than, 52%. In, 2006. To nearly 73. Percent, in 2010. World. Intellectual, Property Organization. Data. Shows, that Chinese, companies have. Also become more important, regarding, patents, overseas, with Chinese, companies, now being on place 2 & 4 regarding, number of patent, applications. Filed by, individual. Companies. China. Aims to transform, the economy, from made.
In China, to. Designed. In China and, from. Contract. Manufacturing. To having brand name companies, with resulting, improved, profit. Margins, China, lags behind the, United, States for several patent, indicators. In. 2013. US, residents filed. 287,000. 831, patents almost, the same number as non-resident. 283,000. 781. In. China, on the other hand, just, 17% of, patents, were filed by. Non-residents, and, there were as many as 700. 4936. Resident. Applications. To the Chinese, state intellectual. Property, office. This. Compares, with, 21%. Of patent, applications. Involving. Non-residents. In Japan. In addition, although China, is catching, up fast it still, trails the USA, Japan. And the European Union, for the number of patents, in force. China. Counted. 1851. Triadic, patents. In the USPTO. Database. In 2012. Compared. To, 15,000. 391, for Japan. 13,000. 978. For the European, Union and. 13,000. 785. For, the United, States among. Patents, filed with the Chinese, state intellectual. Property. Office in, 2013. Just over half 64. Thousand, one hundred fifty three of those filed, by non-residents. 120. Thousand, 200 were granted. This. Compares, with one, in five for residents, China's, global, share of triadic, patents. Rose from. 0.5%. To, 3.6. Percent between. 2002. And 2012. Over. The same period, the Republic. Of Korea, almost doubled. Its own world share to 5.5. Percent, up, from 2.8. Percent in. 2012. Japan the, European, Union, and the United States, continued. To dominate global, patents. Accounting. For twenty nine point, six percent twenty. Six point nine percent and. Twenty, six point five percent respectively. This. Means that the big five accounted. For 92. Percent, of the triadic, patents, in the world in 2012. Topic. Standards. To, encourage, innovation. Avoid foreign, intellectual. Property, China has been developing. Indigenous. Technical, standards. One. Example, as the td-scdma. 3g. Standard. Critics. Have seen it as costly. And delaying 3g. Introduction. While supporters. Argue, that it has increased, technical. Abilities, and experience. Which has increased, Chinese. Competitiveness. Regarding. 4G. Long. Term evolution time. Division, duplex is, being implemented, as China's, indigenous. 4G. Standard. Topic. Academic. Publishing, the Royal Society in, a 2011, report, on, academic. Publishing, stated. That in share of English, scientific. Research papers, the United, States was first followed, by China, the UK, Germany. Japan, France. And Canada. The. Report, predicted, that China would overtake, the United, States sometime, before, 2020. Possibly. As early as 2013. China's. Scientific. Impact, as measured, by other scientists. Citing, the published, papers, the next year, is smaller, although also, increasing. An. Analysis. Of Issy web of knowledge data. Found, that China had increased, its share of the most highly cited science, articles, from one point eight five percent, in 2001. To eleven, point three percent, in 2011. By. 2014. China could surpass, Germany. In the UK, and be ranked second, after the United, States, the. Share of the United, States declined. From sixty, four point three percent to, fifty point seven, percent during, the same ten-year, period a, 2009. Study of, Chinese social science, studies, in the Social, Sciences Citation. Index, found. A slow increase, until, 1999. The, 1999. To, 2007. Period. Saw very, rapid, increase. However. In, 2007. China, still, only contributed. 1.3. 9 percent, of the studies in mainland, China, only surpassed. Hong Kong in, 2006. Economics. And business, had larger, share than social. Political and. Communication. Science, and psychology. The. Low share of social sciences, compared, to natural sciences.
May Reflect that this is a common, pattern in Asian, nations that Chinese, social, scientists. Publish, in national, journals, not included. In the index and have less career, incitements. Regarding, publishing. In international. Journals and, that state ideology and, control, is more important, for social sciences. Than Natural, Sciences. In. China, Natural, Sciences. Are administered. By the Ministry of, Science and, Technology, while social, sciences, are administered. By the National Planning, Office, of philosophy. And social, sciences, which may hinder, interdisciplinary. Collaboration. Articles. Published in, China related. To basic medial. Science, and clinical research. And indexed, by PubMed, increased, on average by. 31.2%. And. 22% each, year between 2000. And 2009. Randomized. Clinical, trial. Were about one third of clinical, research articles. However. In. 2009. This, still represented. Only, 1.5. Percent, of worldwide, clinical. Research articles, and, 1.7. Percent of, worldwide, randomized. Clinical, trials. Clinical. Research, education. For medical, students, and the involvement. And the supporting, environment. For medical, doctors regarding. Clinical research. Have shortcomings, science. Metrics. A Canadian. Data analysis. Company predicted. That in 2010. China, would, publish as many Natural, Sciences, and engineering. Peer-reviewed. Papers, as the United, States in. 2015. China is predicted, to publish, as many papers, as the US across, all fields in. 2030. China is, predicted, to surpass, the u.s. in life and Social Sciences there, are 8,000, journals, and. 4,600. In scientific. Fields. Almost. All Chinese science. Organizations. Publish, their own journal. The. Government, owns or supports, most journals, with only a small number being. Privately, owned, the. Publish, or perish system. Has been argued, to contribute. To many low quality journals. And articles that, are infrequently. Cited, and also to plagiarism. And fraud, the. Chinese, government, has put into place stricter, regulations. Punished, are terminated. Some journals, and aims increased, quality, control, and peer evaluation. Of journals, as well as to create five, to ten large, publishing, groups, as, part. Of the reforms, in 2012. The China, Association. For science and technology which. Oversees. 1,050. Journals, in a declaration. Listed, various, forms, of misconduct, plagiarism. And fraud, and as well the penalties, for perpetrating. Them such as written warnings, blacklisting. Contacting. The researchers. Home institution. Or funding, agencies. Or public, disclosure, it. Has. Also been seen as important. By increasing. Pressure on other journals, and by informing, editors, who may not know that some actions, such as favoring. Researchers. Based on personal, relations. Are unacceptable. China. Also plans, to give substantial. Financial. Incentives, to top journals, based on factors, such as their Chinese, and international impact. Factor. It has been questioned, if this will have an effect on the many poor quality, journals, who in return for, money help researchers. Fill their institutional. Requirements. For published, papers. Topic. State-owned, enterprises. Chinese. State-owned. Enterprises. Are owned by a variety of actors, such as local, governments. And governmental. Agencies. They. May benefit, from advantages. Not available. For smaller more, innovative, firms which, have been seen as problematic. In. 2010. State-owned. Enterprises. Won, many biddings, for renewable, energy projects. Since they did not have worry about paying, off investments. For several, decades and, could ignore risks, and costs the. Owners. May attempt, to protect their enterprises. From competition, by regulations. Or otherwise, use, their influence, in an unfair, manner which, may stifle more, innovative. Private, competitors. Private. Enterprises, surpassed. Stated, owned enterprises. During, the 2002. To 2007. Period. Regarding, rapidity, of increase, of research, spending, patent. Applications. And R&D. Laboratories. The. Number, of research, scientists. And engineers increased. Rapidly, in private, enterprises, while, they declined, in state-owned, enterprises. Topic. Corruption. Concerned. About corruption. In Chinese, science, some, Chinese, scientists. Including, professor, Liu Ming looming, of Jaejoong University.
In His 2005. Book critique, of the academic. Evaluation. System, Shui Xiu ping, Jaji, du pie pan argued, that interference. From government, officials, and university. Bureaucrats. Makes, peer-review. Far less effective in China than it could be the. Time scientists. Spend cultivating. Politically. Influential, people, as lost to scientific. Research. Liu, argues, that the command, economy. Mentality. Of measuring, everything, by the numbers, combined, with pervasive. Political. Interference, results. In a great waste of money human. Talent, as well as considerable. Corruption. In Chinese, science, a. 2008. Investigation. Into a certification. For. High-tech, enterprises. Allowing, large tax, breaks, and other advantages. Found that more than 70 percent of the enterprises. Had gained this under questionable, circumstances, and. An investigation. Of a sample, found that 73. Percent did. Not pass, the requirements. Topic. Awards. The, state Science, and Technology. Prizes, including. The state preeminent. Science, and Technology. Award are, the highest, honor in People's, Republic of, China in science, and technology in. Order, to recognize citizens. And organizations who. Have made remarkable. Contributions. To scientific, and, technological, progress. And, to promote the development of. Science and Technology. Topic. Specific. Areas, of R&D. The 13th five-year. Plan for the national, economy, and social, development. 2016. To 2020 will. Initiate the key, scientific and. Technological. Innovation. 2030. Project. In the following, key areas, aero engines. And gas turbines, a deep-sea, station, quantum, communication. And quantum, computers, brain, sciences. And brain research. The. Project, also, encompasses. Nine other sub projects. Including. An innovative, seed industry, smart. Grid space, terrestrial. Information. Network intelligent. Manufacturing. And robots. Topic. Agriculture. There, is a lack of arable land, and water which means only new technology. Can increase the, output of Chinese, agriculture. Former. President, Jiang Zemin's, has therefore called, for a new. Revolution. In agricultural. Science, and technology. Restrictions. And regulations. Concerning. Genetically. Modified, foods, have been introduced. Or proposed, after widespread, public. Concern. China. Has been buying millions, of foreign, breeder animal, as well as large amount, of foreign seamen and livestock, embryos. In order to rapidly improve, the genetics of Chinese, livestock. More. Advanced. Agricultural. Methods such, as increasing. Use of pesticides. Has, contributed, to, concerns, regarding, the, food safety in China. Topic. Aquaculture. And fishing. In, 2008. The fishing, industry in, China accounted. For 34. Percent, of the global output. Aquaculture. In China, had more than twice the output, of capture, fishing, and contributed. Sixty, two point three percent of, the global aquaculture, output. The. Rapid, growth of aquaculture, is, in part due to Chinese, research, such, as regarding. The artificial. Breeding of carps. Topic. Chemistry.
Materials. Science and, nanotechnology, a. 2012. Study found, that China's, share of academic. Papers, in the field of nanotechnology, had. Increased, from less than 10%, in 2002. Nearly a quarter, in 2009. And had overtaken, the United, States for first position. However. China. Was less influential, in, the top three journals, and regarding, citations. Suggesting. A lesser, quality in. Terms. Of the density of publication. However, the United, States remained. Ahead with sixty, eight point seven six, articles, on nanotechnology, per. Million inhabitants, compared. To twenty five point, four four per million for China, in 2014. China. Was in second, place for the number of patents, granted a, number. Of bodies, have been created. To establish. National, standards. And ensure oversight. According. To the institute, of scientific. And technical, information of. China which, is affiliated with the Ministry, of Science, and, Technology, China, contributed. About one-quarter. Of all academic, articles. Published around. The world in material science, and chemistry, and, 17%. Of those published, in physics, between, 2004. And 2014, but. Just eight point seven percent of, those in molecular biology and, genetics. This. Nevertheless. Represents. A steep rise from, just, 1.4, percent of, the world, share of publications. In molecular, biology, and genetics, over. 1999. To, 2003. KPMG. In 2010. Predicted. That the Chinese, chemical, industry, will become, world's, largest producer. By 2015. The. Chinese, government, aims to make China, self-sufficient. Regarding. Petrochemicals. And plastics. With the exception, of the raw feed stock of oil and gas. The. Chinese industry, as increasing. R&D. In order, to create higher, value, products, using more advanced, technology. Another. Development. Topic. Deep-sea. Exploration. China. Is developing its, deep-sea, exploration. Capabilities. Such, as by the jaw long submersible. With an eye to future. Applications. Such as deep-sea, mining. Topic. Electronics. And information. Technology. In. 2009. China. Manufactured. 48 point three percent of, the world's televisions. Forty, nine point, nine percent of mobile phones, sixty. Point nine percent of. Personal, computers, and 75. Percent of LCD, monitors. Indigenously. Made, electronic. Components. Have become an important, source of recent, growth. Topic. Artificial. Intelligence. On the. 8th of July, 2017. The Chinese state council, announced, plans to turn China, into, the world leader in artificial, intelligence, AI by, 2030. Seeking, to make the industry, worth 1 trillion, yuan. The. State council, published a three-step, roadmap, to that effect, in which it outlined, how it expects, AI to be developed, and deployed across. A wide, number of industries. And sectors, such. As in areas, from the military, to City Planning. According. To the roadmap china, plans to catch up to current, AI world, leaders, technological. Abilities, by 2020. Make major breakthroughs. By, 2025. And be the world leader in 2030. Topic. Drones and robotics, China as the leader in drone, technology it. Is the first country, in the world to, create large-scale. Transport. Drones as well, as the first to produce an amphibious. Drone. Chinese. Drone, companies, such as DJI. And, E hang Beijing. Rehang, creation. Science, and Technology. Conquered, majority. Of the civilian, drone industry with, DJI, alone. Dominating. 85, percent, of the global market share, he. Hang also, created, the world's, first flying. Taxi, drone, he hang 180. For an eco-friendly, low. Altitude. Autonomous. Aerial, vehicle, capable, of providing, transportation.
And, Medium, distance, communication in. Some, regions, such, as the Pearl River Delta. Manufacturers. Have problems, with labor shortages. Raising, wages and, higher, expectations, regarding, work, from more highly, educated young. People. This. Has increased, the demand, for industrial robots. As of. 2017. China, is the largest user. And producer, of robotics. Technology. As well as the first country in the world to, perform an automated, dental, implant. It, is the largest and fastest-growing. Robotics. Market, in the world and plans to manufacture. At least. 100,000. Industrial. Robots, annually. By 2020. Topic. Software. Industry. The, Chinese, software. Industry. In 2010. Had a higher than, 15%, share of the world's software, an information. Service market. And had been growing by an average 36. Percent, each year during, the previous, decade. Chinese. IT companies. Have been moving away from narrow, downstream. Services and products, to having a full range. China. With, the active, support of the Chinese, government, is a leading, pioneer. In Internet, of Things technology. According. To the China internet, Network Information, Center there were 750. 1, million, Internet, users as. Of 2017. With. 53.2%, of, the population. Being Internet, users. The. Number of mobile Internet. Users reached. 724. Million, with high penetration. Rates for mobile phones and broadband, internet. By. 2017. China, has the largest, e-commerce, market. In the world worth, one point one three two trillion dollars. With a significant. Lead on other markets, an almost, tripling, US, market, the second-largest in. 2017. There were more than 1.3. 6 billion, mobile subscribers, in. China with, the number of, fixed line subscriptions. Hitting, 310. Million. The. Number of 4G users. Increased, significantly. Hitting. 932. Million. By August, 2017. By. 2020. China, plans to adopt 5g. Network, nationwide. State-owned. China Telecom, has, already, deployed, 5g. Oriented. C ran front-hall, network unveiling. That it will be conducting commercial. Trials, of 5g. Technology. In 2019. And carry out Network, field trials, in six Chinese, cities, in the latest sign of China's, determination. To lead the global deployment. Of the next-generation mobile, technology. You. Topic. Micro. Processors. China. Has its own versions, of micro, processors. Manufactured. And developed, domestically. Which are also used, to build the world's, most powerful, supercomputers. Topic. Supercomputing. Supercomputing. In China has, expanded. Rapidly. Supercomputing. Affects the possibility. To do cutting-edge, research, in many areas such, as design, of pharmaceuticals. Cryptanalysis. Natural. Resource, exploration. Climate. Models and military. Technology as. Of. 2017. China, had, 202. Of the 500. Greatest, supercomputers. In the world far. Exceeding, any other country, including, the US which has, 143. In, addition. To possessing the, top two most powerful. Supercomputers. China. Is developing, the capacity to, manufacture the, components, domestically. And plans to be the first to build an exascale. Supercomputer. China. May also be planning to create much more powerful. Large-scale. Distributed. Supercomputing. By connecting, its supercomputer.
Centers, Together. Tianhe. One was for a period, in, 2010-2011. The. World's, fastest. Supercomputer. In, June. 2013. Tianhe. - the. Successor. To Tianhe, one took, the crown from its predecessor. In. 2016. China's, new supercomputer, son, Waitaha light became, the world's, most powerful. Supercomputer. Significantly. Surpassing. Tianhe, twos capabilities. By three folds, while using Chinese, made chips. This. Signals, China's, success not, only in the supercomputing. Industry, but also its, domestic, chip, making technology. Topic. Semiconductors. China's. Semiconductor. Industry. Has despite, extensive, governmental. Support had, many problems, in areas such as innovative. New designs. This. May be due to factors, such as poorly, guided, state and local, government, support, for soon, outdated. Technologies. And, geographically. Scattered, efforts, lacking, engineering. Education and. Poor, protection. Of intellectual, property. This. May change by factors, such a new emphasis on market. Mechanisms. Rather than direct, support. Concentration. Of effort return. Of Chinese, who have studied, abroad increased. Pressure, on foreign, companies, to transfer, technology. Indigenous. Chinese. Technological. Standards, and increased, demands, for indigenous, technology in, the local market, the country, has rapidly, progressed, in the semiconductor industry, while. Backing its largest, chip, maker and developer, Tsinghua, University. Nizam. Ihnen syn the semiconductor. Technology. And build a world-class. Semiconductor. Industry, over the next five, years. Topic. Energy. As China. Rapidly. Industrialized. As power consumption. And power generation are, also increasing. As well as research, on these issues. Topic. Power, generation. And, transmission. Cole. As predicted, to remain the most important. Power source, in the near future and China has been seen as the world leader in clean, coal technology. In. 2009. China, become, the world's, largest investor. In renewable. Energy, technologies. Nuclear. Power is planned to be rapidly, expanded. With China wanting, to maximize. Self-reliance. In nuclear, reactor. Technology. Manufacturing. And design, although, international. Cooperation. And technology. Transfer are, also encouraged. Advanced. Pressurized. Water reactors. Such as the CPR. 1000. And the, ap1000. Are the mainstream, technology. For the near future. Later. Very, high-temperature. Reactors, such. As pebble bed reactors. Are a priority. By. Mid-century. Fast-neutron. Reactors. Are seen as being the main technology, China. In 2012. Intended. To spend 100. Billion, dollars, on smart, grid technology during. The next five years to, install, 300, million smart, meters, before, 2016. And to become the world leader in electric. Power transmission. Ultra. High voltage, electricity. Transmission, in, China is being introduced, order, to reduce transmission, losses. Is increasing. Focus on environmental, concerns. And renewable, energy technology. Topic. Entertainment. That Chinese animation. Industry, and access, to the latest technology, such. As 3d. Computer-generated. Imagery. Technology. Is actively. Supported. By the Chinese, government, and included. In the latest national, planning, in. Part, this may be because, of a desire to increase. Chinese. Soft power. The. Same technology. As in Hollywood, as available. And much post-production. As outsourced, to China. Successful. Indigenous. Artistic. Creativity, as seen as a problem, and may be restricted. By factors, such as production, being, aimed at getting government patronage. Rather than public, approval, censorship. And some storylines, based, on Chinese, culture not. Appealing, to foreign, audiences. DreamWorks. Animation.
In A joint venture with Chinese. Companies, will set up a studio, in Shanghai that, may eventually get, bigger than DreamWorks, HQ. In part, to avoid to quota restrictions. On foreign films, with China within a decade having. Been predicted, to become the world's, biggest cinema. And entertainment. Market. Disney. Has also entered into a partnership in, order to help develop. The Chinese, animation. Industry the, China research institute, of film Science and Technology, and the China Film, Group corporation. Developed, and in 2012, put into commercial, use the DMA, X motion, picture, film format, as well as associated, technologies. It. Has been described, as a competitor. To IMAX, and as laying the foundation. For Chinese. Film, projection, technology, using. Indigenous Chinese. Technology. And intellectual, property. Topic. Environment-friendly. Technologies. Rapid. Industrialization. Has been accompanied, by many, environmental. Problems. And rising, pollution, in China. One. Part of the Chinese, response, involves. Advanced. Technology. Such as the world's, largest high-speed. Rail network and high fuel efficiency. Requirements. For vehicles. China. Is rapidly, expanding. Its wastewater, treatment, systems. And power plant, emissions reduction. Systems. Due. To the Chinese, water crisis. As well as for future exports. China, is building up its desalination. Technological. Abilities, and plans to create an indigenous, industry. Some. Cities, have introduced, extensive. Water conservation. And, recycling, programs. And technologies. Topic. Health. Topic. Biotechnology. And genetics. Monitor. Group in a 2010, report predicted. That China within, a decade will, become the world leader in discovery. And innovation in, life sciences. Some. Research, is seen as less controversial. In China than elsewhere such as research, regarding. The genetic, causes of intelligence. BGI. Formerly. Beijing. Genomics, Institute, has. Been described, as having the world's largest DNA. Sequencing. Facilities. Stem, cell research, and stem cell treatments, are less controversial. In Chinese, culture which, have supported, Chinese, research, as well medical, tourism to, China in order to receive, experimental. And often in proven, therapies, in. 2012. A regulatory, crackdown. Was instituted. Which may increase the ability of the Chinese industry. To get approval, for sales of future, therapies, to other nations. More. Generally. China, aims and has made progress towards. Becoming, a world leader in regenerative, medicine which. Also includes. Areas, such as tissue engineering. And gene therapy China. In 2011, stated. That, biotechnology. Including. Bio pharmacy. Biological. Engineering, bio, agriculture. And bio manufacturing, was. A major priority, for, science, and technology spending. Biotechnology. Will be used to enhance economic.
Development. As well as for improving. Chinese, environmental. Protection. Nutrition. Healthcare. And medicine. The. Chinese, government's, expects. Biotechnology. To add 1 million, jobs during, the 2011. To 2015. Period. Topic. Brain, research. On the. 22nd. Of March 2018. An, agreement, was signed establishing. The Chinese, Institute. For brain science, Beijing. The. Launch of this Institute. May represent. A significant. Departure from the current, policy, focus, on applied, research and. Development. Once. Completed, the new brain Institute. Will serve as a core, facility for, the country's, planned, project, to study the human brain, the. Institute, will not be part of the Chinese, Academy of Sciences. Rather. It, will collaborate, with the Academy, along, with Beijing's, other leading, biomedical. Institutions. Including. Tsinghua, University, Peking. University and. The Academy, of Military, Medical Sciences. The new Institute, will probably, receive, funding, both from the National Natural, Science. Foundation. And from the mega science, programs. Within the scientific. And technological. Innovation. 2030, project. In, March. 2018. The, government, announced, plans to place the National, Natural Science. Foundation. Under the Ministry, of Science and Technology, but the implications. Of this latest. Reorganization. Of science, are unclear, as the, two agencies, have, different missions in support, of basic, research. Topic. Pharmaceuticals. And medical, technology. Merrill. Lynch predicted. In 2011. That China would become the world's second-largest. Pharmaceutical. Market, in 2013. And the largest in 2020. The. Chief executive. Of hoffman-laroche. In 2012. Stated, a few years ago many Chinese, life sciences. Scientists. Had to leave China but that many were now returning, to conditions. Often better, than in the West regarding, laboratories. Funding. And political. Support, for the industry. Counterfeit. Drugs have caused a number of scandals as well as being a problem for, drug development, and authorities. Have increased, regulations. And enforcement, a 2011, report, by PwC. Stated. That a decade, earlier China, barely, had any presence, in the medical, technology, industry. But its abilities, had been rapidly, growing. China. Could well become more, important, than Europe by 2020. Topic. Machine. Tools. Development. Of advanced, machine, tools such. As computer. Numerical. Control, machine, tools are seen as a priority and, supported. By the Chinese, government. China. Is the world's leading, producer and. Consumer of, machine, tools a. 2010. US, government. Report, stated, that US export. Controls, have advanced, 5-axis, machine, tools were, ineffectual, due, to the technical, capabilities. Of Chinese, and Taiwanese. Manufacturers. Topic. Military. Technology. One example, of new Chinese, military. Technology. As the df2 one D&E. Ship ballistic, missile, which reportedly. Has contributed, to a quick, and major change, in u.s. naval, strategy. China. Is developing, anti-satellite. Weapons. And plans to make the navigational. Bado system, global, by 2020. Other. New, technologies, include. Chinese, anti-ballistic. Missile. Developments. The Chengdu, j-20. Fifth-generation. Jet, fighter, and possibly. Electromagnetic. Pulse weapons. Chinese. Reconnaissance. Satellites. Are according. To a 2011, report, almost. Equal, to those of the United, States in some areas, in which China had almost no, capability. A decade, earlier. Despite. Increased, defense spending, China's. Share of the world's, import, of arms, as rapidly, falling in part, reflecting. The increased, abilities. Of the indigenous, military. Production. China. Is also developing power, projection, military. Capabilities. Such as through the Chinese, aircraft carrier. Programme, and the type of 7-1, amphibious. Transport dock, 15. To 28, percent of, governmental, R&D. Expenditures. May go to military, research, according, to some unofficial, estimates.
The. Chinese, defense, sector, remains almost completely. State-owned. But military. Production. Has been reorganized. Into, corporate, bodies, allowing limited, competition, and, the defense patent, system, has been reformed, to allow greater rewards. To innovative, enterprises. And individuals. The. Organizational. Structure, has, shed civilian, applications. While at the same time. Cooperation. With the civilian, sector has, increased, and state supported, civilian, research sometimes, have, dual use applications. Chinese. Jet, engines, remains, a problematic. Area that has caused concern, at, the highest levels, with China, still, being largely, dependent. On imports, from foreign, manufacturers. One. Possible, explanation as. A continued. Soviet, style fragmentation. Of the research, and production, line into many isolated, units, having, little contact, with one another causing. Problems, with overall. Standardization. Integration. And quality. Control. More. Problems, from this may be duplication. Of efforts, dispersal. Of efforts, an unproductive. Competition. Over patronage, causing, problems, such as dishonest. Reporting. Of problems. High-precision. Jet. Engines, may be particularly. Sensitive. To accumulated. Quality. Problems. Topic. History. Of China's, hydrogen. Bomb. China. Successfully. Tested, a hydrogen bomb. On june 17. 1967. At lop newer nuclear. Weapon, test base in Malin shinjang, also. Known as test. Number, 6. China. Became, the fourth country, to have successfully. Developed a thermonuclear, weapon. After the United, States Soviet. Union, and the United Kingdom. The. Device was dropped from a Hong six Chinese. Manufactured. To 16. And was parachute, retarded. For an air burst at 2,000. 960. Meters, the. Bomb was a three-stage. Device, with a boosted. U-235. Primary. In. U-238. Pusher. The, yield. Was, 3.3. Megatons. It was a fully functional. Full-scale. Three, stage hydrogen. Bomb tested. 32, months after, China had made its first fish and device. China. Thus produced, the shortest, fission, to fusion development. Known in history. China. Had received, extensive, technical, help, from the Soviet, Union to, jumpstart. Their nuclear, program, but by, 1960. The rift between the, Soviet, Union and China had, become so great that the Soviet, Union ceased all assistance to, China one thus the number six test was indeed an independent. Endeavor after, the induced, military. And economic sanctions. Enacted by, the superpowers. At the time the United, States and the Soviet Union. China's. H-bomb, was different, from the traditional teller. Ulam, configuration. As an. Advantage, it was completed, without the calculations. Needed from, supercomputers. Which would consume, a lot of time. To. Shrink the size of the weapon the reflectors. Were made parabolic. With the solid, fusion fuel, located. At the fossa, it. Is also known, as Yuman design, or you dang design, as you men made major contributions. Included. The solutions. To a series, of fundamental. And critical, theoretical. Problems, of nuclear weapons, which, led to breakthrough, of the unique hydrogen.
Bomb. The. Goal of China was to produce a thermonuclear, device. Of at least a Megaton, in yield that could be dropped by an aircraft or, carried, by a ballistic. Missile. Several. Explosions. To test thermonuclear, weapon. Designs. Characteristics. And yield boosting, preceded, the thermonuclear, test. One. Topic. Mining. And rare earth industry. Advisory. Firm, the Beijing, axis, director, Lillian, luca in 2010. Stated, that China was, becoming, a world leader in mining, technology. Technological. Solutions. Were initially concentrated, on. Achieving, massive, low-cost, production. But increasing. Emphasis has been placed, on, environmental. And safety issues. In part reflecting. Greater concern, in China with environmental. Issues. China. Was already, a world leader in certain, areas, such as rare, earth elements. China. Has imposed, export. Quotas on, rare earth elements. Ninety-five, percent of which are mined in China citing. Environmental. Issues, but has been accused, of wanting to force high-tech, industry. Using, rare earth elements. To move to China. Finding. Rare earth elements. As only the first and some argue the easiest, step, other. Steps, towards. Manufacturing. Such as refining. Is controlled, by China, and Japan with, the previously, dominant, United, States having, lost all of its producers. And much of its fundamental. Technological. Ability, with the number of scientists. And engineers in. The area declining, dramatically. Topic. Polar, research. The, Chinese, Arctic, and Antarctic. Administration. CAA. Organises. China's, scientific. Program, for both the Arctic and Antarctic. Polar. Research, by, China in particular. In Antarctica. Has been growing rapidly. China. Now has three, Antarctic. Research, stations. And one in the Arctic, on the Norwegian island. Of Svalbard. Topic. Space. Science. The, Chinese, space program is. A major source, of national pride in. 1970. The first Chinese, satellite, Dongfang. Hong I was, launched, in. 2003. China, become, the third country to independently. Send humans, into space with, young leeway space, flight aboard, shun jo5, in. 2008. China, conducted. A spacewalk with. The shun jo7 mission, in. 2011. Tiangong 1, was launched, which was the first step towards, a Chinese, space station, around 2020. The. Active, Chinese, lunar, exploration. Program includes. A lunar, rover in, 2013. And possibly, a manned, lunar landing. In the 2020s. Experience. Gained, from the lunar program will, be used for future programs. Such as exploration. Of mars and venus china. Plans to launch five commercial. Satellites, for foreign customers, in 2012. And aims to capture. 15%. Of the commercial, launch market, and 10%, of the satellite, export, market, by 2015. In. 2011. China launched, a total, of 19, rockets, which was the second most after, Russia the, 500-meter. Aperture. Spherical. Telescope. Completed. In 2016. Is the world's. Largest radio, telescope. Topic. Textiles. China. In 2012. Produced, more than one-third. Of the developed, world's, apparel, import but, the share has been decreasing, in recent, years as low technology. And labor-intensive. Production. Has been moving to regions, like Southeast, Asia, and Eastern, Europe. Topic. Transportation. Transportation. Infrastructure. Continues, to, be rapidly, developed. The, National trunk. Highway, system, was in 2011. Estimated, to surpass, the, u.s. interstate, system, in length, many. Chinese cities. Have are planning, to build metros. Or other forms, of Rapid Transit. Topic. Commercial. Aircraft. The, state-owned, Commack aerospace. Manufacturer. Aims to reduce Chinese. Dependency. On foreign, companies. For large passenger, aircraft. The. Future. C919. Aims. To be completely, made in China. Topic. Motor, vehicles. The, automotive, industry in, China as the world's, largest producer. Of Motor Vehicles. However. China's. Indigenous. Car companies, have had difficulties. On the global, market, and the growing electric. Vehicle, market has, been seen as way, to remedy this. China. In 2010, proposed. Controversial. Legislation. Requiring. Foreign. Electric, vehicle, producers. To form minority. Joint ventures, and share technologies. With Chinese, car makers in, order to get market, access a. 2011. Report. Financed. By the World Bank stated, that China was, becoming, the world leader on electric. Vehicles. Topic. Shipbuilding. In. 2009-2010. China, become, the world's, largest, shipbuilder. But South Korea, regained, the top position. In 2011. In part due to more advanced, technology. China. Is developing its, technological. Abilities. And competition. As expected, to increase. Topic. Trains. The, BBC. Wrote in a 2011, article, on high speed rail in China that China in 2005.