Renewable energy commercialisation | Wikipedia audio article

Renewable energy commercialisation | Wikipedia audio article

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Renewable. Energy, commercialization. Involves. The deployment, of three generations. Of renewable, energy, technologies. Dating, back more than 100 years. First. Generation. Technologies. Which are already mature, and economically. Competitive, include. Biomass. Hydroelectricity. Geothermal. Power and, heat. Second. Generation, technologies. Are market ready and are being deployed at the present, time they include, solar heating, photovoltaics. Wind. Power solar. Thermal, power stations. And modern, forms, of bioenergy. Third. Generation. Technologies. Require, continued. R&D, efforts, in order to make large contributions on. A global, scale and include, advanced, biomass, gasification. Hot. Dry rock geothermal. Power and ocean, energy as, of. 2012. Renewable. Energy, accounts, for about half of new nameplate, electrical. Capacity. Installed, and costs, are continuing, to fall public, policy. And political leadership. Helps, to level the playing field and, drive the wider acceptance, of, renewable, energy, technologies. Countries. Such as Germany, Denmark. And, Spain have, led the way in implementing. Innovative policies. Which has driven most of the growth over the past decade. As of. 2014. Germany. Has a commitment, to the energy, wind transition. To a sustainable, energy, economy. And Denmark, has a commitment, to 100%, renewable, energy. By 2050. There. Are now. 144. Countries with renewable energy. Policy, targets. Renewable. Energy, continued, its rapid, growth in, 2015. Providing. Multiple benefits. There. Was a new record set for, installed, wind and photovoltaic. Capacity. 64. Gigawatts, and 57. Gigawatts, and a new high of, 329. Billion, dollars, for global, renewables, investment. A key, benefit, that this investment, growth brings as a growth in jobs. The. Top countries, for investment, in recent, years were China Germany, Spain. The United States, Italy, and Brazil. Renewable. Energy, companies, include, BrightSource, Energy First Solar Games a GE, Energy Gold, wind Sinovel. Tar gray Trina, Solar, Vestas. And Yingli, climate. Change concerns are, also driving increasing. Growth in the renewable, energy industries. According. To a 2011. Projection. By the IEA. International. Energy Agency, solar. Power generators. May produce most, of the world's electricity within, 50, years reducing. Harmful greenhouse gas. Emissions, renewable. Power has, been more effective in, creating jobs than coal or oil in, the United States. Topic. Background. Topic. Rationale. For renewables. Climate. Change pollution, and, energy insecurity. Are, significant. Problems, and addressing, them requires, major, changes. To energy, infrastructures. Renewable. Energy, technologies. Are essential, contributors. To the energy, supply, portfolio. As they contribute, to world energy, security. Reduce, dependency. On fossil, fuels, and provide, opportunities. For mitigating. Greenhouse gases. Climate. Disrupting. Fossil, fuels are being replaced, by clean, climate. Stabilizing. Non depletable. Sources. Of energy. Dot, the transition. From coal oil and, gas to, wind solar, and geothermal energy. As, well underway, in the. Old economy, energy. Was produced, by burning something. Oil. Coal, or natural gas. Leading. To the carbon, emissions, that have come to define our economy. The. New energy, economy harnesses. The energy in, wind the energy, coming from the Sun and heat from within the earth itself. In. International. Public, opinion surveys, there is strong support for. A variety of methods, for addressing the problem, of energy supply. These. Methods, include promoting. Renewable sources. Such as solar, power, and wind power requiring.

Utilities, To. Use more renewable energy. And providing. Tax incentives to, encourage the development and. Use of such technologies. It. Is expected, that renewable. Energy investments. Will pay off economically. In the long term, EU, member countries have. Shown support for ambitious. Renewable, energy, goals in. 2010. Eurobarometer. Pulled. The 27. EU member, states about the target, to. Increase, the share of renewable. Energy, in the EU by 20%, by. 2020. Most, people, in all 27. Countries either approved, of the target, are called for it to go further. Across. The EU. 57%. Thought the proposed, goal was about. Right, and. 16%. Thought. It was too. Modest, in. Comparison. 19%, said it was too. Ambitious as, of. 2011. New evidence has emerged that, there are considerable, risks, associated, with, traditional energy. Sources and, that major changes, to the mix of energy, technologies. As needed. Several. Mining tragedies. Globally. Have underscored. The human, toll of the coal supply, chain. New. EPA, initiatives. Targeting, air toxics. Coal ash and effluent, releases, highlight, the environmental. Impacts, of coal and the cost of addressing, them with control, technologies. The. Use of fracking and natural gas, exploration is. Coming, under scrutiny with, evidence, of groundwater, contamination. In greenhouse, gas emissions. Concerns. Are increasing. About the vast amounts, of water used, at Coal Fired and. Nuclear, power plants. Particularly. In regions, of the country facing. Water shortages. Events. At the Fukushima. Nuclear plant. Have, renewed doubts about the ability to operate, large, numbers, of nuclear, plants, safely, over the long term. Further. Cost, estimates. For next. Generation. Nuclear. Units. Continue, to climb and lenders, are unwilling, to finance, these plants, without taxpayer. Guarantees. The, 2014. Ren21. Global. Status report says. That renewable. Energies, are no longer just energy. Sources, but, ways to address pressing, social political. Economic. And environmental. Problems. Today. Renewables. Are seen not only as, sources, of energy but also as, tools to address many other pressing needs including. Improving, energy security. Reducing. The health and environmental, impacts. Associated with. Fossil, and nuclear energy. Mitigating. Greenhouse gas. Emissions, improving. Educational. Opportunities. Creating. Jobs reducing. Poverty, and increasing. Gender equality. Renewables. Have entered the mainstream. Topic. Growth, of renewables. In, 2008. For the first time more renewable, energy than conventional power. Capacity. Was added in, both the European Union. And United States. Demonstrating. A, fundamental. Transition. Of the. World's, energy markets, towards, renewables.

According. To a report, released by, re and 21, a global, renewable energy. Policy, network based in Paris, in. 2010. Renewable. Power consisted. About a third, of the newly built power generation. Capacities. By the end of 2011, total. Renewable, power capacity, worldwide. Exceeded. 1360. Gigawatts, up eight percent. Renewables. Producing. Electricity, accounted. For almost half, of the 208. Gigawatts, of capacity added. Globally. During 2011. Wind. And solar photovoltaics. PV. Accounted. For almost 40, percent and 30 percent. Based. On ren21. S 2014. Report, renewables. Contributed. 19%, to our energy consumption. And 22, percent to our electricity, generation. In, 2012. And 2013, respectively. This. Energy, consumption. As divided, as 9 percent, coming from traditional. Biomass. 4.2. Percent as, heat energy non, biomass. Three. Point eight percent. Hydroelectricity. And 2 percent electricity. From wind solar, geothermal, and. Biomass during. The five years from the end of 2004. Through, 2009. Worldwide. Renewable. Energy, capacity grew. At rates of 10 to 60, percent annually. For many technologies. While, actual, production, grew one-point-two percent. Overall. In. 2011. You and undersecretary, general a, chemist, I nur said the, continuing. Growth in this course segment, of the green economy is. Not happening by chance. The, combination. Of government target. Setting policy. Support, and stimulus. Funds as underpinning. The renewable, industries, rise and bringing, the much-needed. Transformation. Of our global, energy system, Within, Reach. He. Added, renewable. Energies. Are expanding. Both in terms of investment. Projects. And geographical. Spread, in. Doing, so they, are making an increasing. Contribution. To combating, climate change. Countering. Energy, poverty, and energy, insecurity. According. To a 2011. Projection. By the International. Energy Agency, solar. Power plants, may produce most, of the world's, electricity within, 50, years, significantly. Reducing. The emissions of, greenhouse gases. That harm the environment. The. IEA, has said. Photovoltaic. And. Solar thermal. Plants. May meet most of the world's, demand, for electricity, by. 2060. And half of all energy. Needs with, wind, hydropower. And biomass. Plants. Supplying, much of the remaining, generation. Photovoltaic. And. Concentrated. Solar power together. Can become the major source, of electricity. In, 2013. China, led the world in renewable, energy, production with, a total, capacity of. 378. Gigawatts. Mainly. From hydroelectric, and. Wind power as, of. 2014. China. Leads the world in the production, and use of wind power solar. Photovoltaic. Power. And, Smart Grid technologies. Generating. Almost as much water wind, and solar energy, as all of France and Germany's, power plants. Combined. China's. Renewable, energy, sector, is growing faster, than its fossil, fuels and nuclear power. Capacity.

Since. 2005. Production. Of solar cells, in China has expanded. 100, fold as. Chinese. Renewable. Manufacturing has. Grown the costs, of renewable, energy, technologies. Have dropped. Innovation. Has helped, but the main driver, of reduced, costs. Has been market, expansion, see. Also renewable energy. In the United, States for US figures. Topic. Economic. Trends. You. Renewable. Energy, technologies. Are getting cheaper, through, technological. Change and through the benefits, of mass production and market, competition. A, 2011. IEA. Report said. A, portfolio. Of renewable energy. Technologies. As becoming, cost, competitive. In an increasingly. Broad, range, of circumstances, in. Some, cases providing. Investment. Opportunities. Without the need for specific. Economic support. And added. That cost. Reductions. In critical, technologies. Such, as wind and solar are, set, to continue. As. Of. 2011, there. Have been substantial, reductions. In the cost of solar and wind technologies. The, price of PV modules. Per megawatt, has fallen by 60% since. The summer of 2008. According, to Bloomberg, New Energy Finance, estimates. Putting, solar power for the first time on a competitive. Footing with the retail, price of electricity in. A number of sunny countries. Wind. Turbine, prices, have also fallen, by, 18%, per megawatt, in the last two years reflecting. As with solar fierce, competition in. The supply, chain. Further. Improvements. In the levelized, cost, of energy for solar, wind, and other technologies. Lie ahead posing. A growing, threat to the dominance, of fossil, fuel generation, sources. In the next few years. Hydro. Electricity, and, geothermal electricity. Produced. At favourable, sites are now the cheapest. Way to generate, electricity. Renewable. Energy, costs, continue, to drop and the levelized, cost, of electricity. LCOE. Is declining, for wind power solar. Photovoltaic. PV. Concentrated. Solar power. CSP. And some biomass, technologies. Renewable. Energy, is also the most economic. Solution. For new grid connected, capacity. In areas, with good resources.

As, The. Cost of renewable, power Falls, the scope of economically. Viable, applications. Increases. Renewable. Technologies. Are now often the most economic. Solution. For new generating. Capacity. Where. Oil-fired. Generation. As the predominant power, generation. Source, eg. On islands, off grid, and in some countries, a lower-cost. Renewable. Solution. Almost, always exists. Today. As of, 2012. Renewable. Power generation. Technologies. Accounted. For around half, of all new power generation capacity. Additions. Globally. In. 2011. Additions. Included, 41, gigawatt. GW. Of new wind power capacity. 30 gigawatts, of, PV, 25. Gigawatts, of hydroelectricity. 6, gigawatts, of BMS. 0.5. Gigawatts, of CSP, and. 0.1. Gigawatts, of geothermal power. Topic. 3 generations. Of technologies. Renewable. Energy, includes, a number of sources, and technologies. At different, stages, of commercialization. The. International. Energy Agency, IEA. Has, defined, three generations. Of renewable, energy, technologies. Reaching. Back over, 100 years. First generation. Technologies. Emerged, from the Industrial, Revolution at. The end of the 19th, century and include, hydropower. Biomass. Combustion. Geothermal. Power and, heat, these. Technologies. Are quite, widely used. Second. Generation. Technologies. Include, solar heating, and cooling wind, power modern. Forms, of bioenergy. And solar, photovoltaics. These. Are now entering, markets, as a result, of research, development, and, demonstration. RD&D. Investments. Since the 1980s. Initial. Investment. Was prompted, by energy. Security. Concerns, linked, to the oil crises. Of the, 1970s. But the enduring, appeal of, these technologies. Is due at least, in part to, environmental. Benefits. Many. Of the technologies. Reflect, significant. Advancements. In materials. Third-generation. Technologies. Are still under, development and. Include, advanced, biomass, gasification. Bio. Refinery. Technologies. Concentrating. Solar thermal power hot, dry rock geothermal. Power and ocean, energy. Advances. In nanotechnology, may. Also play, a major role, first. Generation. Technologies. Are well established. Second-generation. Technologies. Are entering markets, and third generation. Technologies. Heavily, depend, on long-term research, and development. Commitments. Where the public, sector, has a role to play. Topic. First. Generation. Technologies. First, generation. Technologies. Are widely used in, locations. With abundant, resources. Their. Future, use depends. On the exploration, of the remaining resource. Potential. Particularly. In developing countries and, on overcoming challenges, related. To the environment, and social acceptance. Topic. Biomass. Byam, asks for heat and power as a fully mature, technology. Which offers, a ready disposal. Mechanism. For municipal. Agricultural. And industrial, organic. Wastes. However. The, industry has, remained relatively, stagnant, over the decade, to 2007. Even though demand for biomass, mostly. Wood continues, to grow in many developing.

Countries. One. Of the problems, of biomass, is that material. Directly, combusted. In cook stoves produces. Pollutants, leading, to severe, health and environmental. Consequences. Although improved, cookstove. Programs, are alleviating. Some of these effects. First. Generation. Biomass, technologies can. Be economically. Competitive but, may still require, deployment. Support to overcome public. Acceptance, and small-scale issues. Topic. Hydroelectricity. You. Hydroelectricity. As, the term referring, to electricity. Generated. By hydropower, the, production, of electrical, power through the use of the gravitational, force, of falling, or flowing water, in. 2015. Hydropower. Generated. Sixteen. Point six percent of, the world's, total electricity. And seventy, percent of all renewable electricity. And, is expected. To increase, about, 3.1. Percent each year for the next 25. Years. Hydroelectric. Plants, have the advantage, of being long-lived. And many existing. Plants, have operated. For more than 100. Years. Hydropower. Is produced, in, 150. Countries with, the asia-pacific region, generating. 32. Percent, of global hydropower. In 2010. China. As the largest, hydroelectricity. Producer. With. 721. Terawatt-hours of. Production. In 2010. Representing. Around 17% of, domestic electricity, use. There. Are now 3 hydro, electricity, plants. Larger, than 10 gigawatts, the, Three Gorges Dam in, China e, type u dam across, the brazil paraguay, border, and Guri dam in, venezuela. The cost. Of hydroelectricity. Is low making. It a competitive, source, of renewable electricity. The. Average, cost of electricity, from, a hydro, plant larger. Than 10 megawatts, as 3 to 5 US, cents per kilowatt, hour. Topic. Geothermal. Power and, heat. Geothermal. Power plants. Can operate, 24. Hours per, day providing. Base load capacity. Estimates. For the world potential. Capacity for, geothermal, power generation. Very, widely ranging, from, 40, gigawatts by, 2020. To as much as 6,000. Gigawatts. Geothermal. Power capacity. Grew from around one gigawatt, in, 1975. To almost 10 gigawatts, in 2008. The. United States. As the world leader in terms, of installed, capacity. Representing. 3.1. Gigawatts. Other. Countries. With significant. Installed, capacity. Include, the Philippines. 1.9. Gigawatts. Indonesia. 1.2. Gigawatts. Mexico. 1.0. Gigawatts, italy. 0.8. Gigawatts. Iceland. 0.6. Gigawatts. Japan. 0.5. Gigawatts, and new zealand. 0.5. Gigawatts. In. Some, countries, geothermal. Power accounts. For a significant. Share of the total electricity, supply. Such, as in the Philippines, where, geothermal. Represented. 17, percent of the total power mix at the end of 2008. Geothermal. Ground source heat pumps. Represented. An estimated. 30 GW. Th, of installed, capacity at. The end of 2008. With other direct, uses, of geothermal heat, ie for, space heating agricultural. Drying and other uses reaching. An estimated, 15, GW. Th as. Of. 2008. At least, 76. Countries use, direct, geothermal energy. In, some form. Topic. Second. Generation. Technologies. You. Second-generation. Technologies. Have gone from being a passion, for the dedicated, few, to a major economic. Sector, in countries, such as Germany, Spain.

The United, States and Japan. Many. Large industrial. Companies, and financial institutions, are. Involved, and the challenge, is to broaden the market, base for continued, growth worldwide. Topic. Solar. Heating. Solar, heating, systems, are a well-known second-generation. Technology. And generally, consists of solar thermal collectors. A fluid, system, to move the heat from the collector, to its point of usage, and a reservoir, or tank for heat storage. The. Systems, may be used to heat domestic, hot water swimming. Pools or homes, and businesses. The. Heat can also be used for industrial, process, applications. Or as an energy, input for other uses such as cooling equipment in, many warmer, climates, a solar, heating, system, can provide a very high percentage. Fifty to seventy-five percent of, domestic hot, water energy, as, of. 2009. China. Has 27. Million rooftop. Solar, water, heaters. Topic. Photovoltaics. Photovoltaic. PV. Cells. Also, called, solar, cells, convert. Light into electricity, in. The. 1980s. And early 1990s. Most. Photovoltaic. Modules. Were used to provide remote area, power supply, but from around, 1995. Industry. Efforts, have focused increasingly. On developing. Building, integrated photovoltaics. And. Photovoltaic, power. Stations for. Grid connected, applications. Many. Solar, photovoltaic. Power. Stations have. Been built mainly in Europe as of. July 2012. The, largest photovoltaic. PV. Power, plants. In the world are the agua, caliente. Solar project. USA. 247. Megawatts. Charaka solar, park India. 214. Megawatts, goal, mid solar park China, 200. Megawatts, Provo. Solar park Russia 100. Megawatts, Sarnia. Photovoltaic, power. Plant, Canada. 97. Megawatts. Brandenburg. Brest solar Park Germany, 91, megawatts, solar. Park phenotype. Termini, eighty four point seven megawatts. Mont Alto DeCastro. Photovoltaic. Power. Station. Italy, eighty four, point two megawatts, AG Ubik solar Park Germany. Eighty three, point six megawatts. Samton. Berg solar Park Germany, 82 megawatts, finsterwald. Solar, park germany 80 point, seven, megawatts, Oh cat Nico voz solar park Russia, 80 megawatts. Lopburi. Solar farm, Thailand. Seventy-three, point one six megawatts, row. Vigo photovoltaic, power. Plant Italy. Seventy, two megawatts, and the libros, photovoltaic, Park, Germany. Seventy. One point eight megawatts, there, are also many, large plants, under construction. The. Desert, sunlight solar, farm, under construction. In Riverside County. California and. Topaz, Seoul farm being built in San Luis Obispo County, California, are. Both, 550. Megawatt, solar, parks, that will use thin-film solar photovoltaic. Modules. Made by First Solar. The. Blythe solar, power project. As a five hundred megawatts. Photovoltaic. Station. Under construction in. Riverside County. California. The. California. Valley solar, ranch, CVS. Are is a, 250. Megawatt, MW. Solar, photovoltaic, power. Plant which. Is being built by Sun power in the Carrizo, Plain northeast. Of California. Valley, the. 230. Megawatts, Antelope, Valley solar, ranch as, a first solar, photovoltaic. Project. Which is under construction. In the Antelope, Valley area. Of the Western, Mojave, Desert, and due to be completed, in 2013. The. Mesquite, solar project. As a photovoltaic, solar. Power, plant, being built in Arlington, Maricopa. County Arizona owned, by Sempra, generation. Phase.

One Will have a nameplate capacity of. 150. Megawatts. Many, of these plants, are integrated. With agriculture. And some use innovative, tracking. Systems, that follow the sun's daily, path across the sky, to generate. More electricity than conventional. Fixed, mounted, systems. There. Are no fuel, costs or, emissions, during operation. Of the power stations. Topic. Wind, power. You. Some. Of the second-generation. Renewables. Such, as wind power have. High potential. And have already realized, relatively. Low production, costs. Wind. Power could, become cheaper, than nuclear power, global. Wind power, installations. Increased, by thirty five thousand. Eight hundred megawatts. In 2010. Bringing, total installed, capacity up. To one hundred ninety four thousand. Four hundred megawatts. A twenty, two point five percent increase. On the one hundred fifty, eight thousand. Seven hundred megawatts. Installed at, the end of 2009. The. Increase, for twenty ten represents, investments. Totaling, forty, seven point three billion, euros, sixty. Five billion dollars. And for the first time more than half of all new wind power was, added outside, of the traditional markets. Of Europe and North America mainly. Driven by the continuing. Boom in China which accounted, for nearly half of all of the installations. At sixteen, thousand, five hundred megawatts. China. Now has forty. Two thousand, three hundred megawatts. Of wind power, installed. Wind. Power accounts. For approximately, nineteen. Percent of electricity, generated. In denmark, nine percent, in spain and portugal and. Six, percent, in germany, in the republic, of ireland an. Australian. State of south australia wind. Power championed. By premier, mike gran. 2002. To 2011, now. Comprises, twenty, six percent of the state's electricity. Generation, edging. Out coal-fired. Power, at. The. End of 2011, South. Australia. With, 7.2. Percent of, Australia's. Population had. 54. Percent, of the nation's, installed, wind power capacity. Wind. Power share, of worldwide, electricity. Usage, at the end of 2014, was, 3.1. Percent. These. Are some of the largest wind farms, in the world. As of, 2014. The, wind industry, in the USA, is able to produce more, power at lower cost, by using taller, wind turbines, with longer, blades capturing. The faster, winds at higher elevations. This. Has opened up new opportunities and. In Indiana, Michigan, and, Ohio the. Price of power from wind turbines, built 300 feet, to 400, feet above the ground can, now compete, with conventional. Fossil fuels, like coal. Prices. Have fallen to, about 4 cents per kilowatt, hour in some cases and, utilities, have been increasing. The amount of wind energy in, their portfolio. Saying. It is their cheapest, option. Topic. Solar. Thermal, power, stations. Solar. Thermal power stations. Include, the. 354. Megawatt, MW. Solar, energy. Generating. Systems, power plant, in the USA, Sol nova solar power station. Spain. 150. Megawatts, andasol. Solar power, station. Spain, 100. Megawatts, Nevada. Solar, one u.s.. A 64. Megawatts, PS. 20, solar power tower, Spain. 20, megawatts, and the PS, 10 solar, power tower, Spain, 11. Megawatts. The. 370. Megawatts, Ivanpah, solar power. Facility. Located, in California's. Mojave, Desert, is the world's, largest solar, thermal power, plant, project currently. Under construction. Many. Other plants, are under construction. Or plant mainly, in Spain in the USA. In, developing. Countries, three World Bank projects. For integrated, solar thermal combined. Cycle gas turbine. Power plants. In Egypt, Mexico. And Morocco. Have been approved. Topic. Modern. Forms, of bioenergy. Global. Ethanol, production, for, transport. Fuel tripled, between 2000. And 2007. From, 17, billion, to more than 52, billion, liters while biodiesel. Expanded. More than tenfold from less than 1 billion to, almost 11, billion liters. Biofuels. Provide, 1.8. Percent of. The world's, transport. Fuel and recent, estimates, indicate, a continued. High growth. The. Main producing. Countries, for transport, biofuels. Are the USA, Brazil and the EU Brazil. Has one of the largest renewable. Energy, programs, in the world involving. Production, of ethanol fuel, from sugarcane, and, ethanol, now provides. 18%. Of the country's automotive. Fuel as a. Result. Of this and the exploitation, of, domestic, deepwater, oil sources. Brazil. Which for years had to import, a large share, of the petroleum. Needed for domestic, consumption, recently. Reached complete. Self-sufficiency. In liquid, fuels. Nearly. All the gasoline, sold, in the United, States today is mixed, with 10% ethanol a, mix known as e 10 and motor vehicle, manufacturers. Already produce, vehicles, designed to run on much, higher ethanol. Blends. Ford. Daimler. Chrysler and. GM, are among the automobile. Companies that sell flexible. Fuel cars trucks. And minivans, that, can use gasoline and, ethanol blends. Ranging, from pure gasoline, up to 85%, ethanol. E85. The. Challenge, is to expand, the market for, biofuels.

Beyond, The farm states, where they have been most popular, to date, the. Energy, Policy Act, of 2005. Which, calls for 7.5. Billion US. Gallons, 28. Million cubic, meters of biofuels. To be used annually, by 2012. Will also help to expand, the market the, growing ethanol, and biodiesel, industries. Are providing, jobs in plant construction. Operations. And maintenance, mostly. In rural communities. According. To the Renewable, Fuels Association. The. Ethanol, industry, created. Almost one hundred fifty-four. Thousand. US jobs, in, 2005. Alone, boosting. Household. Income, by. 5.7. Billion dollars. It. Also, contributed. About 3.5. Billion dollars. In tax revenues. At the local, state, and federal, levels. Topic. Third. Generation. Technologies. Third generation renewable. Energy, technologies. Are still under, development and, include, advanced, biomass, gasification. Bio. Refinery. Technologies. Hot dry rock geothermal. Power and ocean, energy. Third. Generation. Technologies. Are not yet widely, demonstrated. Or have limited. Commercialization. Many. Are on the horizon, and may have potential. Comparable. To other renewable. Energy, technologies. But still depend, on attracting, sufficient. Attention, and research, and development funding. Topic. New. Bioenergy. Technologies. According. To the International. Energy Agency. Cellulosic. Ethanol. Biorefineries. Could allow biofuels. To play a much bigger role, in the future than organizations. Such as the IEA. Previously. Thought. Cellulosic. Ethanol, can, be made from plant matter composed, primarily of, inedible. Cellulose. Fibers that form the stems and branches of, most plants. Crop. Residues. Such as corn stalks wheat, straw and rice straw, wood waste and municipal solid. Waste are, potential. Sources of, cellulosic, biomass. Dedicated. Energy, crops such. As switchgrass, are, also promising, cellulose. Sources, that can be sustainably. Produced in, many regions. Topic. Ocean. Energy. Ocean. Energy as all forms of renewable energy. Derived from the sea including wave. Energy, tidal, energy river. Current, ocean, current, energy offshore. Wind salinity. Gradient, energy, and ocean, thermal gradient, energy, the Rance tidal, power station. 240. Megawatts, is the world's, first tidal, power station. The. Facility. Is located on, the estuary of the Rance River in Brittany. France. Opened. On the 26th. Of November. 1966. It is currently, operated. By electricity, de France, and as the largest tidal power station. In the world in, terms of installed capacity. First. Proposed, more than 30 years ago systems. To harvest, utility-scale. Electrical. Power from, ocean waves have recently, been gaining momentum as, a viable, technology. The. Potential. For this technology, is considered, promising. Especially on, west facing coasts. With latitudes. Between 40, and 60. Degrees. In the, United, Kingdom for, example, the Carbon, Trust recently. Estimated the, extent, of the economically. Viable offshore. Resource, at 55. Terawatt-hours. Per. Year about 14. Percent of current national, demand. Across. Europe, the, technologically. Achievable. Resource, has been estimated to, be at least 280. Terawatt-hours. Per. Year in. 2003. The, US Electric, Power Research, Institute. EPRI. Estimated. The viable, resource in the United, States at. 255. Terawatt. Hours, per year six percent of demand. There. Are currently nine projects. Completed, or in development. Off the coasts, of the United, Kingdom, United, States Spain. And Australia, to harness the rise and fall of waves, by Ocean Power Technologies. The. Current, maximum, power output as. One point five megawatts, breeds, sport Oregon. With development. Underway, for 100.

Megawatts, Coos, Bay Oregon. Topic. Enhanced. Geothermal systems. As of. 2008. Geothermal. Power development. Was underway, in more than 40, countries partially. Attributable. To the development. Of new technologies. Such, as enhanced. Geothermal systems. The. Development. Of binary, cycle power, plants. And improvements. In drilling and extraction, technology. May enable enhanced geothermal. Systems. Over a much greater, geographical. Range than. Traditional. Geothermal. Systems. Demonstration. EGS, projects. Are operational. In the USA. Australia. Germany. France, and, the United Kingdom. Topic. Advanced. Solar, concepts. Beyond. The already, established. Solar photovoltaics. And. Solar thermal power, technologies. Are such advanced, solar concepts. As the solar updraft tower. Or space-based, solar, power. These. Concepts. Have yet to if ever be, commercialized. The. Solar. Updraft tower. Sut, is a renewable, energy power, plant for, generating, electricity from, low-temperature solar, heat. Sunshine. Heats the air beneath a very wide greenhouse, like roofed collector, structure, surrounding, the central, base of a very tall chimney, tower, the. Resulting, convection. Causes, a hot air updraft, in the tower by the chimney effect. This. Airflow drives wind, turbines, placed, in the chimney, updraft, are around the chimney base to produce electricity. Plans. For scaled up versions, of demonstration. Models, will allow significant. Power generation. And may allow development, of other applications. Such, as water extraction. Or distillation, and, agriculture. Or horticulture. A more. Advanced, version of a similarly, themed technology. As the vortex engine Avenue. Which aims to replace large. Physical chimneys. With a vortex, of air created. By a shorter, less expensive. Structure. Space-based. Solar, power, Espie Espie is, the concept, of collecting, solar power in space using, an, SPS. That. As a solar. Power, satellite. Aura. Satellite. Power. System. For. Use on earth it has, been in research, since the early 1970s. SB. SP, would differ from current, solar collection, methods, in that demeans used to collect energy. Would reside on an orbiting, satellite instead. Of on Earth's surface. Some. Projected. Benefits of such a system, or a higher collection. Rate and a longer collection. Period due to the lack of a diffusing atmosphere. And night time in space. Topic. Renewable. Energy, industry. Total. Investment in, renewable, energy, reached. 211. Billion dollars, in 2010. Up from, 160. Billion dollars, in 2009. The. Top countries. For investment, in 2010. Were. China. Germany. The United States, Italy. And Brazil. Continued. Growth for the renewable, energy, sector as. Expected, and promotional. Policies. Helped the industry weather, the 2009.

Economic, Crisis, better than many other sectors. Topic. Wind, power companies. As of. 2010. Vestas. From denmark is the world's, top wind, turbine, manufacturer. In terms of percentage, of market, volume and Sinovel. From china is in second, place. Together. Vestas. And Sinovel, delivered, ten thousand, two hundred twenty. Eight megawatts. Of new wind power capacity in. 2010. And their market, share was twenty, five point nine percent. GE. Energy USA. Was in third place. Closely followed. By gold, wind another, Chinese, supplier. German. Enercon ranks. Fifth in the world and, has followed in sixth place by Indian, based Suzlon. Topic. Photovoltaic. Market. Trends. The, solar PV, market has been growing for the past few, years. According. To solar, PV, research, company, PV, in sites worldwide, shipment. Of solar modules, in 2011. Was around 25, gigawatts. And the shipment year-over-year, growth, was. Around 40, percent, the. Top 5 solar, module, players in 2011. Interns, our Sun tech First Solar Yingli. Trina, and sungan. The. Top 5 solar module, companies, possessed. 51.3%. Market. Share of solar, modules. According, to peep in sites market, intelligence report. The. PV, industry has. Seen drops in module, prices since, 2008. In, late. 2011. Factory. Gate prices, for crystalline, silicon, photovoltaic, modules. Dropped, below the $1, per w mark, the. $1.00, per W installed, cost is, often, regarded in the PV industry as. Marking, the achievement. Of grid parity, for PV. These. Reductions. Have taken, many stakeholders. Including. Industry, analysts. By surprise, and perceptions. Of current, solar power economics. Often lags behind reality. Some. Stakeholders. Still have the perspective that solar PV, remains too costly, on an unsubsidized. Basis, to compete with conventional. Generation, options. Yet. Technological. Advancements. Manufacturing. Process, improvements. An industry. Restructuring mean. That further price reductions. Are likely, in coming, years. Topic. Non, technical. Barriers. To acceptance. Many.

Energy, Markets. Institutions. And policies have, been developed, to support the production, and use of fossil, fuels. Newer. And cleaner technologies. May offer social. And environmental, benefits. But, utility, operators. Often reject, renewable, resources, because, they are trained to think only in terms of big conventional. Power plants. Consumers. Often ignore, renewable. Power systems. Because, they are not given, accurate, price signals, about electricity. Consumption. Intentional. Market, distortions. Such as subsidies, and unintentional. Market, distortions. Such as split incentives. May work against, renewables. Benjamin. Caso, vakul has argued, that some. Of the most surreptitious. Yet powerful. Impediments. Facing, renewable, energy, and energy efficiency, in. The United, States, are more about culture. And institutions than. Engineering, and science. The. Obstacles. To the widespread. Commercialization. Of renewable, energy, technologies. Are primarily, political. Not technical. And there have been many studies which, have identified. A range of non, technical. Barriers. To. Renewable, energy use these, barriers, are impediments, which put renewable, energy, at a marketing. Institutional. Or policy. Disadvantage. Relative, to other forms, of energy. Key. Barriers, include. Difficulty. Overcoming, established. Energy, systems, which includes, difficulty. Introducing. Innovative energy. Systems. Particularly. For distributed. Generations. Such as photovoltaics. Because. Of technological, lock-in. Electricity. Markets, designed, for centralized, power plants. And market, control, by established. Operators. As, the. Stern review on the economics. Of climate change, points, out, national. Grids are usually. Tailored, towards, the operation. Of centralized. Power plants. And favor, their performance. Technologies. That do not easily, fit into these networks, may, struggle to enter the market, even if the technology, itself. Is commercially. Viable. This. Applies to distributed. Generation, as, most grids, are not suited, to receive, electricity. From many small sources. Large. Scale, renewables. May also encounter. Problems, if, they are sited in areas, far from, existing. Grids. Lack, of government. Policy, support, which includes, the lack of policies. And regulations, supporting. Deployment. Of renewable, energy, technologies. And the presence, of policies. And regulations, hindering. Renewable, energy, development, and supporting, conventional. Energy development. Examples. Include subsidies. For fossil fuels. Insufficient. Consumer, based renewable. Energy, incentives, government. Underwriting, for nuclear, plant, accidents. And complex. Zoning, and permitting, processes. For, renewable, energy. Lack, of information. Dissemination. And consumer, awareness. Higher. Capital, cost, of renewable, energy, technologies. Compared, with conventional, energy. Technologies. Inadequate. Financing, options, for renewable, energy projects. Including. Insufficient. Access, to affordable financing. For, project, developers.

Entrepreneurs And. Consumers. Imperfect. Capital. Markets, which includes, failure, to internalize, all costs, of conventional, energy eg. Effects. Of air pollution risk, of supply, disruption. And failure, to internalize, all benefits, of renewable, energy, eg. Cleaner, air energy, security. Inadequate. Workforce, skills, and training, which includes, lack of adequate, scientific. Technical. And, manufacturing. Skills required. For renewable, energy production, lack. Of reliable, installation. Maintenance, and, inspection. Services. And failure, of the educational. System to provide adequate, training, in new technologies. Lack, of adequate codes. Standards. Utility. Interconnection. And net metering guidelines. Poor. Public perception. Of renewable, energy, system, aesthetics. Lack, of stakeholder. Community. Participation. And, cooperation. In energy, choices and renewable, energy projects. With such a wide range of, non-technical, barriers, there is no silver. Bullet. Solution, to, drive the transition. To renewable, energy, so. Ideally, there is a need for several. Different types of policy, instruments. To complement, each other and overcome, different, types of barriers, a policy. Framework must, be created, that will level the playing field and, redress the imbalance of. Traditional. Approaches, associated. With fossil fuels. The. Policy, landscape must. Keep pace with broad, trends, within the energy sector. As well as reflecting, specific. Social, economic. And environmental priorities. Some. Resource, rich countries, struggle, to move away from fossil fuels, and have failed thus far to adopt regulatory. Frameworks, necessary. For developing, renewable, energy, eg. Russia. Topic. Public. Policy. Landscape. Public. Policy. Has a role to play in renewable, energy, commercialization. Because. The free-market system has, some fundamental, limitations. As, the. Stern Review points. Out. In a, liberalized, energy, market, investors. Operators. And consumers. Should face the full cost of their decisions. But. This is not the case in many economies. Or energy, sectors. Many. Policies. Distort, the market, in favour of existing. Fossil fuel technologies. The. International. Solar energy. Society has, stated that. Historical. Incentives. For the conventional. Energy resources. Continue. Even today to bias, markets.

By Burying, many of the real societal. Costs, of their use. Fossil. Fuel energy systems. Have different production. Transmission. And end-use costs, and characteristics. Than do renewable, energy, systems, and new promotional. Policies. Are needed to ensure that renewable. Systems develop. As quickly and, broadly, as a socially. Desirable, Lester. Brown states, that the market, does. Not incorporate, the indirect. Costs. Of providing goods. Or services. Into prices, it does not value nature's, services. Adequately. And it does not respect, the sustainable. Yield thresholds. Of natural, systems. It also favors, the near-term over the long term thereby, showing limited, concern, for future generations. Tax. And subsidy, shifting, can help overcome, these problems though. Is also problematic, to combine different international. Normative. Regimes, regulating. This issue. Topic. Shifting. Taxes. Tax. Shifting. Has been widely discussed and, endorsed, by economists. It. Involves, lowering income. Taxes, while raising levies, on environmentally. Destructive, activities. In order to create a more responsive. Market. For. Example a tax, on coal that included, the increased, healthcare costs. Associated. With breathing, polluted air the costs, of acid rain damage, and the costs, of climate disruption. Would encourage, investment. In renewable, technologies. Several. Western, European, countries, are already shifting, taxes, in a process, known there as environmental. Tax reform, in 2001. Sweden. Launched, a new ten-year environmental. Tax shift designed, to convert 30 billion kroner. 3.9. Billion dollars. Of income taxes, - taxes, on environmentally. Destructive, activities. Other. European. Countries, with significant. Tax reform, efforts, are France Italy, Norway. Spain. And the United Kingdom. Asia's. Two leading economies. Japan. And China are, considering. Carbon, taxes. Topic. Shifting, subsidies. Just as there is a need for tax shifting. There is also a need for subsidy. Shifting. Subsidies. Are not an inherently, bad thing as many technologies. And industries, emerged, through government, subsidy, schemes. The. Stern Review explains. That of 20 key innovations. From the past 30 years only. One of the 14, was funded, entirely, by the private, sector and 9 were totally, publicly. Funded, in. Terms, of specific, examples. The internet was the result, of publicly, funded links among computers. In government, laboratories. And research institutes. And, the. Combination. Of the federal, tax deduction. In a robust, state tax deduction. In California. Helped to create the modern wind power industry, Lester. Brown has argued, that a world facing, the prospect of, economically. Disruptive. Climate, change can no longer justify, subsidies. To expand, the burning of coal and oil. Shifting. These subsidies, to the development. Of climate, benign energy, sources, such, as wind solar. Biomass. And, geothermal power. Is the key to stabilizing. The earth's climate the International. Solar energy. Society advocates. Leveling, the playing field, by, redressing, the continuing. Inequities, in public, subsidies, of energy, technologies. And R&D. In which the fossil, fuel and nuclear power, received, the largest share, of financial, support some. Countries, are eliminating. Or reducing climate. Disrupting. Subsidies. And Belgium, France, and, Japan, have phased out all subsidies, for coal. Germany. Is reducing. Its coal subsidy, the. Subsidy, dropped from five point four billion dollars. In 1989. To 2.8. Billion dollars. In 2002. And in the process, Germany, lowered, its coal use by 46. Percent. China, cut its coal subsidy. From, 750. Million dollars. In, 1993.

To 240. Million dollars, in, 1995. And more recently, has imposed, a high sulfur, coal tax. However. The, United, States has been increasing, its support for the fossil, fuel and nuclear industries, in, November. 2011, an, IEA, report entitled. Deploying. Renewables. 2011. Said subsidies. In green energy, technologies. That were not yet competitive. Are justified. In order to give an incentive to investing. Into technologies. With clear environmental. And energy security, benefits. The. IEA, s report, disagreed. With claims that renewable, energy technologies. Are only viable through, costly, subsidies, and not able to produce energy, reliably. To meet demand, a fair, and efficient, imposition. Of subsidies. For renewable, energies, and aiming at sustainable. Development. However, require. Coordination, and. Regulation. At a global, level as subsidies. Granted, in one country, can easily, disrupt, industries. And policies, of others thus, underlining, the relevance, of this issue at the World Trade Organization. Topic. Renewable. Energy, targets. Setting. National, renewable, energy, targets, can be an important, part of a renewable, energy, policy. And these targets, are usually, defined, as a percentage. Of the primary, energy and/or. Electricity. Generation, mix. For. Example the European Union. Has prescribed, an indicative, renewable. Energy, target, of 12%. Of the total EU energy, mix and 22%, of, electricity, consumption. By, 2010. National. Targets for individual. EU, Member States have also been, set to meet the overall target. Other. Developed. Countries, with defined, national. Or regional targets. Include, Australia, Canada. Israel, Japan, Korea. New, Zealand, Norway, Singapore. Switzerland. And some US states, national. Targets are also an important, component of, renewable, energy, strategies. In some developing. Countries. Developing. Countries with, renewable energy, targets. Include, China India. Indonesia, Malaysia. The, Philippines, Thailand. Brazil. Egypt. Mali and South, Africa. The, target. Set by many, developing. Countries, are quite modest, when compared, with those in some industrialized. Countries. Renewable. Energy, targets, in most countries are indicative, and non-binding, but they have assisted, government, actions, and regulatory. Frameworks. The. United, Nations, Environment. Program has suggested. That making, renewable energy. Targets, legally, binding, could be an important, policy, tool to achieve higher, renewable, energy, market, penetration. Topic. Leveling. The playing field. The, IEA, has, identified, three, actions, which will allow renewable, energy, and other clean, energy, technologies. To more. Effectively. Compete, for private, sector capital. First. Energy. Prices must, appropriately. Reflect, the, true. Cost of, energy. Eg through. Carbon pricing. So that the positive, and negative, impacts, of energy production. And consumption, are, fully taken, into account. Example. New UK, nuclear, plants, cost 92. Pounds and 50 pence per megawatt hour whereas. Offshore, windfarms. In the UK, are supported. With 74. Euros, and 20 cents per megawatt, hour at, a price of 150. Pounds in 2011. Falling, to 130. Pounds, per megawatt, hour in, 2022. In. Denmark. The price can be 84. Euros, per megawatt hour. Second. Inefficient. Fossil fuel. Subsidies. Must be removed, while ensuring. That all citizens, have, access to, affordable energy. Third. Governments. Must develop, policy. Frameworks. That encourage. Private, sector, investment. In lower carbon. Energy options. Topic. Green. Stimulus. Programs. In, response. To the global financial, crisis. In the late 2000s. The world's, major governments. Made green. Stimulus. Programs. One of their main policy. Instruments. For supporting, economic recovery. Some. 188. Billion dollars, in green stimulus. Funding, had been allocated to renewable, energy and energy efficiency. To, be spent mainly, in 2010. And in 2011. Topic. Energy. Sector, regulation. Public. Policy, determines, the extent to which renewable. Energy, BRE is to be incorporated. Into a developed, or developing countries. Generation. Mix. Energy. Sector, regulators, implement, that policy, thus. Affecting, the pace and pattern of re investments. And connections. To the grid energy. Regulators. Often, have authority to, carry out a number of functions, that have implications, for the financial. Feasibility of, renewable. Energy, projects. Such. Functions. Include, issuing, licenses, setting. Performance, standards, monitoring. The performance, of regulated. Firms determining.

The Price level and structure, of tariffs. Establishing. Uniform systems. Of accounts, arbitrating. Stakeholder. Disputes, like interconnection. Cost, allocations. Performing. Management, audits developing. Agency, human resources. Expertise. Reporting. Sector, and Commission activities, to government, authorities and, coordinating. Decisions, with other government, agencies. Thus. Regulators. Make a wide range of decisions, that affect the financial, outcomes, associated. With, reinvestments. In. Addition. The sector, regulator, is in a position to give advice to, the government regarding the full implications. Of focusing, on climate change or energy, security. The. Energy, sector, regulator, is the natural, advocate, for efficiency. And cost, containment, throughout, the process of designing, and implementing, read policies. Since. Policies. Are not self, implementing. Energy sector. Regulators, become, a key facilitator. Or blocker, of renewable. Energy, investments. Topic. Energy. Transition. In Germany. The, energy, went German, for energy, transition. Is the transition. By Germany, to a low-carbon. Environmentally. Sound reliable, and affordable energy. Supply. The. New system, will rely heavily on renewable. Energy particularly. Wind, photovoltaics. And, biomass. Energy, efficiency. And energy demand. Management. Most. If not all existing. Coal-fired, generation. Will, need to be retired. The. Phase-out, of Germany's, fleet of nuclear, reactors. To be complete, by 2022. Is a key, part of the program, legislative. Support, for the energy, wind was passed in late 2010. And includes, greenhouse, gas. GHG. Reductions. Of 80 to 95. Percent by. 2050. Relative, to 1990. And a renewable, energy target, of 60, percent by 2050. These. Targets, are ambitious. The, Berlin based Policy. Institute Agra. Energy, when noted, that while. The German, approach is not unique, worldwide, the speed, and scope of the energy, wind are exceptional. The, energy, wind also seeks, a greater transparency. In relation. To national. Energy policy, formation. Germany. Has made significant. Progress on, its GHG. Emissions, reduction. Target achieving. A 27, percent decrease, between, 1990. And 2014. However. Germany. Will need to maintain an average, GHG. Emissions abatement. Rate of 3.5. Percent, per annum to reach its energy, wind goal equal, to the maximum, historical. Value, thus far, Germany, spends, 1.5. Billion euros, per annum on energy, research, 2013. Figure, in an effort to solve the technical, and social, issues, raised by the transition. This. Includes, a number of computer, studies, that have confirmed, the feasibility, in a similar, cost relative. To business, as usual and given that carbon, is adequately, priced, of the energy, wind. These. Initiatives, go, well beyond European. Union, legislation. And the national, policies. Of other European states. The. Policy, objectives have, been embraced by the German, Federal Government and has resulted in, a huge expansion, of renewables. Particularly. Wind power. Germany's. Share of renewables. Has increased, from around 5%. In, 1999. To. 22.9%, in. 2012. Surpassing, the OECD. Average of, 18% usage. Of renewables. Producers. Have been guaranteed, a fixed, feed-in, tariff for 20 years guaranteeing. A fixed, income energy. Cooperatives. Have been created, and efforts, were made to decentralize. Control, and profits. The. Large energy, companies have, a disproportionately. Small share, of the renewables, market. However. In, some, cases poor. Investment. Designs, have caused bankruptcies. And low returns, and unrealistic. Promises. Have been shown to be far from reality. Nuclear. Power plants, were closed, and the existing, nine plants, will close earlier, than planned in 2022. One, factor, that has inhibited, efficient, employment, of new renewable energy. Has been the lack of an accompanying. Investment. In power infrastructure. To bring the power to market, it. Is believed. 8300. Kilometres, of power lines must be built or upgraded. The. Different, German states, have varying, attitudes, to the construction. Of new power lines. Industry. Has had their rates frozen.

And So the increased, costs, of the energy, wind have been passed on to consumers, who have had rising, electricity bills. Topic. Voluntary. Market, mechanisms. For renewable, electricity. Voluntary. Markets, also referred. To as green power, markets. Are driven by consumer, preference. Voluntary. Markets, allow a consumer. To choose to do more than policy, decisions. Require, and reduce the environmental impact. Of, their electricity, use. Voluntary. Green power products. Must offer a significant. Benefit, and value to buyers to be successful. Benefits. May include zero. Or reduced, greenhouse, gas, emissions. Other pollution, reductions. Or other environmental. Improvements. On power stations. The. Driving, factors, behind voluntary. Green electricity. Within the EU are the liberalized, electricity. Markets, and the res directive. According. To the directive, the EU, member states must ensure, that the origin, of electricity, produced, from renewables, can be guaranteed and, therefore, a guarantee. Of origin, must. Be issued article. 15. Environmental. Organizations. Are using the voluntary. Market to create new renewables. And improving. Sustainability. Of the existing. Power production, in. The, US the main tool to track and stimulate, voluntary. Actions, as greenie program. Managed, by Centre, for resource, solutions. In. Europe, the main voluntary. Tool used, by the NGOs. To promote sustainable. Electricity. Production as eco energy label. Topic. Recent. Developments. A number. Of events in, 2006. Pushed renewable. Energy, up the political, agenda including. The u.s. midterm, elections, in November which, confirmed, clean energy, as a mainstream issue. Also. In 2006. The, Stern Review made, a strong, economic case. For investing in, low-carbon. Technologies. Now and argued, that economic, growth need, not be incompatible with, cutting energy consumption. According. To a trend analysis. From the United, Nations, Environment, Programme, climate. Change concerns coupled. With recent, high oil prices and, increasing, government support. Are driving, increasing. Rates of investment. In the renewable, energy, and energy efficiency. Industries. Investment. Capital, flowing into renewable, energy, reached a record, 77. Billion dollars, in, 2007. With the upward trend continuing. In 2008. The. OECD. Still, dominates, but there is now increasing. Activity from, companies, in China, India, and Brazil. Chinese. Companies, were the second, largest recipient of, venture capital, in, 2006. After the United, States in, the. Same year India, was the largest, net buyer of companies, abroad mainly, in the more established. European, markets, new government, spending, regulation. And policies. Helped, the industry weather, the 2009. Economic, crisis.

Better Than many other sectors. Most. Notably, US, President. Barack Obama's. American. Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Of 2009. Included. More than 70, billion dollars in, direct spending, and tax credits for, clean energy and, associated. Transportation. Programs. This. Policy. Stimulus, combination. Represents. The largest federal, commitment, in US history for, renewables, advanced. Transportation, and, energy conservation. Initiatives. Based. On these new rules many, more utilities. Strength, they're clean energy, programs. Clean. Edge suggests. That the, commercialization. Of clean energy will help countries around, the world deal, with the current economic, malaise. Once. Promising, solar energy, company, Solyndra. Became, involved in a political, controversy, involving. US President. Barack Obama's. Administration's. Authorization. Of a, 535. Million dollars, loan guarantee, to the corporation. In 2009. As part of a program, to promote alternative, energy. Growth, the. Company, ceased all business, activity. Filed, for chapter, 11 bankruptcy, and. Laid off nearly all of its employees, in early September, 2011, in, his the 24th. Of January. 2012. State, of the Union address. President Barack. Obama, restated. His commitment, to renewable energy. Obama. Said, that he will. Not walk away from the promise of clean energy. Obama. Called, for a commitment, by the Defense, Department. To purchase, 1,000. Megawatts, of renewable energy. He. Also mentioned. The long-standing, Interior. Department. Commitment, to permit 10,000. Megawatts of renewable energy. Projects. On public land, in 2012. As of 2012. Renewable. Energy, plays a major role in the energy mix of many countries globally. Renewables. Are becoming, increasingly. Economic. In both developing. And developed countries. Prices. For renewable, energy technologies. Primarily. Wind power and solar power, continue, to drop, making renewables, competitive. With conventional energy, sources. Without. A level, playing field however high, market, penetration of. Renewables, is still dependent, on robust, promotional. Policies. Fossil. Fuel subsidies. Which are far higher than those for renewable. Energy remain. In place and quickly, need to be phased out United. Nations, secretary-general. Ban ki-moon. Has. That, renewable. Energy has, the ability. To lift the poorest, nations, to new levels of prosperity. In October. 2011, he, announced. The creation of, a high-level, group to drum up support for, energy access, energy. Efficiency. And greater use, of renewable, energy. The. Group is to be co-chaired, by candy, yum Killa the chair of u and energy, & Director, General, of the UN Industrial, Development Organisation. And, Charles, Holliday, chairman. Of Bank of America, worldwide. Use of solar power and wind power continued. To grow significantly. In 2012. Solar. Electricity. Consumption. Increased. By 58 percent to. 93. Terawatt-hours. Twh. Use. Of wind power in 2012, increased. By 18, point 1 percent to. 520. 1.3. Terawatt-hours. Global. Solar and wind energy installed. Capacities. Continued. To expand, even though new investments. In these technologies. Declined, during 2012. Worldwide. Investment. In solar power in 2012. Was, 140. Point four billion dollars. An 11, percent decline, from 2011. And wind power investment. Was down 10.1, percent to. 80 point, 3 billion dollars. But. Due to lower production costs for, both technologies. Total, installed, capacities. Grew sharply. This. Investment. Decline, but growth in installed, capacity. May again occur in 2013. Analysts. Expect the market to triple, by 2030. In. 2015. Investment. In renewables, exceeded. Fossils. Topic. 100%. Renewable. Energy. The, incentive, to use, 100%. Renewable, energy, for electricity. Transport. Or even, total, primary energy supply. Globally. Has been motivated. By global. Warming and other ecological as. Well as economic. Concerns. The. Intergovernmental. Panel on, Climate Change. Has said that there are few fundamental. Technological. Limits to integrating. A portfolio. Of renewable energy. Technologies. To meet most of the total, global energy demand, in. Reviewing. 164. Recent, scenarios, of future, renewable, energy, growth the, report, noted that the majority expected. Renewable, sources, to supply, more than 17, percent of total energy by, 2030, and, 27. Percent by, 2050. The highest forecast, projected. 43, percent supplied, by renewables. By 2030, and, 77.

Percent By. 2050. Renewable. Energy, use has grown, much faster than, even advocates. Anticipated. At the, national, level at least 30 nations, around the world already, have renewable, energy, contributing. More than 20%. Of energy, supply. Mark. Z Jacobson, professor. Of civil and environmental engineering. At. Stanford, University. And director of its atmosphere and, energy program says, producing. All new energy, with wind power solar. Power and, hydropower, by 2030. As feasible and, existing. Energy supply, arrangements. Could be replaced by 2050. Barriers. To implementing, the renewable, energy, plan are seen to be primarily. Social, and political not. Technological. Or economic. Jacobson. Says that energy costs, with a wind solar, water, system. Should be similar, to today's, energy, costs, similarly. In the United, States the independent. National Research. Council, has noted, that sufficient. Domestic, renewable, resources. Exist, to allow renew. Electricity. To play a significant. Role in future. Electricity, generation. And, thus help confront, issues related. To climate change, energy. Security. And the escalation, of energy, costs. Renewable. Energy, as an attractive. Option because. Renewable. Resources, available. In the United, States, taken. Collectively can, supply, significantly. Greater amounts. Of electricity. Than the total current, or projected. Domestic. Demand. The. Most significant. Barriers, to the widespread implementation, of. Large-scale, renewable energy. And low-carbon. Energy strategies. Are primarily, political and, not technological. According. To the 2013. Post-carbon. Pathways. Report, which reviewed, many international, studies. The key roadblocks, are climate, change denial, the fossil, fuels Lobby, political. Inaction. Unsustainable. Energy, consumption. Outdated. Energy infrastructure. And financial. Constraints. Topic. Energy. Efficiency. Moving. Towards, energy, sustainability. Will require, changes. Not only in, the way energy is supplied but in the way it is used, and reducing. The amount of energy required. To deliver various. Goods or services, as essential. Opportunities. For improvement, on the demand side of the energy, equation are. As rich and diverse as, those on the supply, side and often, offer significant. Economic benefits. A sustainable. Energy, economy. Requires, commitments. To both renewables. And efficiency. Renewable. Energy, and energy efficiency. Are said to be the twin. Pillars of. Sustainable. Energy policy, the. American. Council, for an, energy-efficient. Economy has, explained, that both resources, must, be developed, in order to stabilize and, reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Efficiency. Is essential, to slowing, the energy, demand growth so that rising. Clean energy, supplies, can make deep cuts in, fossil, fuel use if. Energy. Use grows too fast, renewable. Energy, development, will chase a receding, target. Likewise. Unless, clean, energy, supplies, come, online rapidly, slowing. Demand growth will only begin, to reduce total, emissions, reducing. The carbon content of energy, sources, is also needed. The, IEA, has stated, that renewable. Energy and energy efficiency. Policies. Are complementary. Tools for the development, of a sustainable, energy future and, should be developed, together instead. Of being developed, in isolation. Topic. See, also. Topic. Lists. Topic. Topics. Equals. Equals, equals people.

2019-01-11 17:41

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