Military technology | Wikipedia audio article
Military. Technology. As the application. Of technology. For use in warfare, it. Comprises. The kinds, of technology. That are distinctly. Military. In nature and, not civilian. In application. Usually because, they lack useful, or legal civilian, applications. Or are dangerous, to use without appropriate, military. Training. Military. Technology. Has often researched, and developed by, scientists. And engineers. Specifically. For use in battle by, the Armed, Forces. Many. New technologies, came. As a result, of the military funding. Of science. Weapons. Engineering. As the design, development. Testing. And lifecycle, management, of, military. Weapons, and systems. It. Draws, on the knowledge of several, traditional. Engineering, disciplines. Including. Mechanical, engineering, Electrical. Engineering. Mechatronics. Electro-optics. Aerospace. Engineering. Materials. Engineering. And chemical. Engineering. The. Line is porous, military. Inventions, have, been brought, into civilian, use throughout history with, sometimes, minor, modification. If any and civilian. Innovations. Have similarly, been put, to military, use. Topic. History. This, section, is divided, into the broad cultural, developments. That affected, military. Technology. Topic. Ancient. Technology. The, first use of stone, tools may, have begun during, the Paleolithic. Period. The. Earliest, stone, tools, are from the site of Lamech we Turkana, dating, from, 3.3. Million years, ago. Stone. Tools, diversified. Through the Pleistocene. Period which, ended approximately. 12,000. Years ago. The, earliest, evidence, of warfare, between two, groups as recorded, at the site of natter, akin Turkana, Kenya. Where human, skeletons, with major traumatic, injuries. To the head neck, ribs, knees, and hands, including, an embedded, obsidian, blade lit on a skull, or evidence, of intergroup, conflict. Between groups. Of nomadic, hunter-gatherers. 10,000. Years ago humans.
Entered The Bronze Age as, they learn to smelt, copper into, an alloy with tin to make weapons, in. Asia, where, copper, tin ores are rare this development. Was delayed, until trading. In bronze began. In the third millennium BCE. In, the. Middle East and southern, European. Regions, the Bronze Age follows. The Neolithic. Period but, in other parts, of the world, the Copper, Age as a transition. From Neolithic. To the Bronze Age. Although. The Iron Age generally. Follows, the Bronze Age in some, areas, the Iron Age intrudes. Directly. On the Neolithic, from outside, the region with, the exception. Of sub-saharan. Africa, where it was developed independently, the, first large-scale, use of iron, weapons began, in Asia Minor, around, the 14th, century, BCE. And in Central, Europe around, the 11th, century BCE. Followed. By the Middle, East, about 1000. BCE, in India, and China the, Assyrians. Are credited, with the introduction. Of horse cavalry, in warfare, and the extensive. Use of iron, weapons by, 1100. BCE. Assyrians. Were also, the first to use iron tipped arrows. Topic. Post-classical. Technology. The, Wu Jing Zhang Yao essentials. Of the military, arts, written by zong Gong Liang ding, do and others, at the order of Emperor Ren, Zhong around. 10:43. During, the Song Dynasty, illustrate. The eras focus, on advancing. Intellectual. Issues, and military, technology due. To the significance. Of warfare, between the song and the Liao Jen. And yuan to their North, the. Book covers, topics of, military, strategy. Training. And the production, and employment of, advanced. Weaponry. Advances. In military technology. Aided. The Song Dynasty in. Its defence against, hostile, neighbors to the north. The. Flamethrower found. Its origins, in Byzantine, era Greece employing. Greek fire a chemically. Complex, highly flammable. Petrol, fluid, in a device, with, a siphon, hose by, the seventh, century. The. Earliest, reference, to Greek fire in China, was made in. 917. Written, by Wu rinchen, in his spring, and autumn annals, of, the ten kingdoms in. 919. The siphon, projector, pump was used to spread the fierce fire oil that could not be doused, with water as, recorded. By Lin, Yue in his wuyu a Bey she hence, the first credible, Chinese, reference, to the flamethrower, employing, the chemical, solution of Greek fire see also pin, hoooo chi. Lin. You mentioned, also that, the fierce fire oil, derived. Ultimately from, one, of China's, maritime. Contacts. In the southern, seas Arabia. Dashi glow in, the. Battle of Lang Shandong, in. 919. The, naval, fleet of the when mu Qing from Wu Yu a defeated. A wine an army, from the Wu state when Lu success, was facilitated. By the use of fire oil, qu, to burn their fleet signifying. The first Chinese, use of gunpowder, in a battle, the, Chinese. Applied, the use of double, piston bellows, to pump petrol, out of a single cylinder, with, an up stroke and down stroke, lit at the end by a slow, burning gunpowder. Match to fire a continuous. Stream of flame. This. Device, was, featured, in description. And illustration. Of the Wu Jing Zhang Yao military. Manuscript. Of 1044. In, the. Suppression, of the southern, Tang state, by. 976. Early, song naval, forces, confronted. Them on the Yangtze, River in. 975. Southern. Tang forces, attempted, to use flamethrowers. Against, the song Navy but, were accidentally. Consumed, by their own fire, when, violent, winds, swept in their direction. Although. The destructive. Effects, of gunpowder, were, described, in the earlier, Tang Dynasty. By a Taoist, alchemist, the earliest, developments. Of the gun barrel and the projectile, fire cannon, were found in late song China. The. First art depiction. Of the Chinese, fire, lands, a combination. Of a temporary, fire, flamethrower.
And Gun was from a Buddhist mural, painting, of dunwall dated. Circa. 950. These. Fire, lances, were widespread in, use by the early, 12th century featuring. Hollowed, bamboo, poles as, tubes to fire sand, particles. To blind and choke lead pellets bits, of sharp metal and pottery, shards, and finally. Large gunpowder. Propelled. Arrows, and rocket, weaponry. Eventually. Perishable. Bamboo, was replaced, with hollow, tubes, of cast iron and so too did, the terminology. Of this new weapon change, from, fire spear, hoooo Chang, - fire - hoooo Tong. This. Ancestor. To the gun was complemented. By the ancestor. To the cannon what the Chinese, referred, to since the 13th, century as. The multiple, bullets, magazine. Erupt, er by Zhu, Li and zu pal a tube of bronze or cast iron that was filled with about 100. Lead balls the, earliest, known depiction of. A gun as a sculpture. From a cave in Sichuan, dating. To 11:28. That portrays, a figure, carrying a vase shaped, bombard, firing. Flames, and a cannonball. However. The oldest, existent. Archaeological. Discovery, of a metal barrel handgun. Is from the Chinese, Heilongjiang. Excavation. Dated, to 12 88. The Chinese, also discovered. The explosive. Potential, of packing, hollowed cannonball. Shells, with gunpowder. Ridden. Later by djalu in, his hua long jean mid 14th, century. This manuscript, recorded. An earlier, song, era cast iron, cannon known, as the Flying Cloud thunderclap. Eruptor, FEI yan pi li pal. The. Manuscript. Stated, that. As noted. Before the change in terminology for. These new weapons during, the song period, were gradual. The. Early, song cannons, were at first termed, the same way as the Chinese trebuchet. Catapult, a later. Ming, Dynasty. Scholar known. As Mao ung, would explain, this use of terminology. And true, origins, of the cannon in his text, of the wub. EIG. Written, in, 1628. The. 14th, century hua, Long Jing was also, one of the first Chinese, texts, to carefully, describe, to the use of explosive. Landmines. Which had been used by the late song Chinese, against, the Mongols in. 1277. And employed, by the Yuan Dynasty afterwards. The. Innovation. Of the detonated. Landmine. Was accredited to, one Luo GaN, Xie, in the campaign, of defense, against, the Mongol, invasion, by Kublai, Khan later, Chinese, texts, revealed, that the Chinese, landmine. Employed, either a ripcord. Or a motion booby. Trap of a pin releasing. Falling, weights that rotated, a steel Flint wheel which, in turn created. Sparks, that ignited, the Train of fuses. For the land mines. Furthermore. The song employed, the earliest, known gunpowder. Propelled. Rockets, in warfare, during the late 13th, century its. Earliest, form being, the archaic, fire arrow. When. The northern song, capital. Of Chi Fung fell to the urchins, in, 11:26. It was written by Zhao Xiao Zhang that, 20,000. Fire arrows, were handed, over to the urchins, in their conquest. And even, earlier Chinese, text, of the Wu Jing Zhang Yao, collection. Of the most important. Military, techniques. Written. In 1044, by the song, scholars, Hong Kong Liang and, yang YT described. The use of three spring, or triple, bow our Q ballista, that fired arrow bolts, holding, gun powder packets, near, the head of the arrow. Going. Back yet even farther. The woolly Xiao Shi, 1630. Second. Edition. 1664. Of Fang Zhi Zhi stated, that fire arrows, were presented, to Emperor Tai zu of song our. 962. 976. In. 960. Topic. Modern. Technology. You. You. Topic. Armies. Rapid. Development. In military, technology had. A dramatic impact, on, armies, and navies in, the industrialized. World in. 1840. To 1914. For. Land warfare, cavalry. Faded, in importance, while infantry. Became, transformed, by the use of highly accurate more, rapidly, loading, rifles, and the use of smokeless powder.
Machine. Guns were developed, in the 1860s. Artillery. Became, more powerful as new high explosives. Based on nitroglycerin. Arrived. After, 1860. And the French introduced. Much, more accurate, rapid-fire. Field, artillery. Logistics. And communications, support. For land warfare. Dramatically. Improved, with use of railways, and Telegraph's. Industrialization. Provided. A base of factories, that could be converted to produce munitions. As well, as uniforms. Tents, wagons, and essential, supplies. Medical. Facilities. Were enlarged, and reorganized. Based, on improved, hospitals. And the creation, of modern nursing, typify. By Florence, Nightingale, in, Britain, during the Crimean War of. 1854. To 56. Topic. Navel. Naval. Warfare was, transformed. By many innovations, most. Notably, the cold based steam, engine, highly, accurate long-range. Naval. Guns heavy, steel, armor, for battleships. Mines, and the introduction, of the torpedo, followed. By the torpedo. Boat, and the destroyer. Coal. After, 1900. Was eventually displaced. By more efficient, oil but, meanwhile, navies, with an international, scope, had to depend, on a network, of coaling, stations, to refuel. The. British, Empire, provided. Them in abundance, as did, the French Empire, to a lesser, extent. War. Colleges. Developed. As military. Theory, became, a specialty. Cadets. And senior, commanders, were taught the theories, of jomini, Clausewitz. And maeín and engaged, in tabletop, wargames. Around. 1900. Entirely, new, innovations. Such as submarines. And airplanes, appeared. And were quickly, adapted, to warfare, by. 1914. The. British HMS. Dreadnought. 1906. Incorporated. So much of the latest technology. In weapons, propulsion. And armor that it at a stroke, made all other battleships. Obsolescent. Topic. Organization. And finance. New, financial. Tools were, developed to fund the rapidly, increasing costs. Of warfare, such, as popular, bond sales and income, taxes, and the funding, of permanent, research centers. Many. Nineteenth-century. Innovations. Were largely, invented, and promoted, by loan individuals. With small, teams, of assistance, such as David, Bushnell, and the submarine, John, Erickson, and the battleship, Hiram, Maxim and the machine, gun Ernest, Swinton and, the tang and Alfred, Nobel, and high explosives. By. 1900. The military, began to realize that they needed to rely, much more heavily on large-scale.
Research Centers. Which needed, government, funding. They. Brought in leaders, of organized, innovation. Such as Thomas, Edison in the US and chemist Fritz Haber of the Kaiser Wilhelm, Institute, in. Germany. Topic. Postmodern. Technology. The, postmodern. Stage, of military, technology, emerged. In the 1940s. And one with recognition, thanks. To the high priority. Given during the war to scientific. And engineering research. And development. Regarding, nuclear, weapons, radar. Jet engines, proximity. Fuses, advanced. Submarines. Aircraft, carriers. And other weapons. The. High priority. Continues. Into the 21st, century it, involves. The military, application. Of advanced. Scientific, research. Regarding. Nuclear weapons. Jet engines, ballistic. And guided, missiles, radar. Biological. Warfare and, the use of electronics. Computers. And software. Topic. Space. During. The Cold War the world's, two great, superpowers. The. Soviet, Union, and the United States of, America. Spent. Large proportions. Of their GDP on, developing. Military, technologies. The. Drive to place objects. In orbit, stimulated. Space research, and started, the space race in. 1957. The USSR. Launched. The first artificial, satellite, Sputnik. 1. By. The end of the, 1960s. Both countries, regularly. Deployed, satellites. Spy. Satellites. Were used by militaries. To take, accurate pictures. Of their rivals, military. Installations. As. Time. Passed, the resolution and. Accuracy, of orbital, reconnaissance. Alarmed, both sides, of the Iron Curtain. Both. The United, States and the Soviet Union, began to develop anti-satellite. Weapons. To blind or destroy, each other's satellites. Laser. Weapons. Kamikaze. Style satellites. As well as orbital, nuclear. Explosion. Were researched, with varying, levels of success. Spy. Satellites. Were and continued, to be used to, monitor the dismantling. Of military. Assets, in accordance, with arms, control treaties. Signed between, the two superpowers. To. Use spy, satellites. In such a manner, as often, referred, to in treatises. National. Technical means, of verification. The. Superpowers. Developed. Ballistic, missiles, to enable, them to use nuclear, weaponry. Across, great, distances as. Rocket. Science, developed. The range of missiles increased, and intercontinental, ballistic, missiles. ICBM. Were created. Which could strike virtually. Any target, on earth in a timeframe measured. In minutes rather, than hours or, days in. Order. To cover, large distances.
Ballistic. Missiles, are usually, launched, into suborbital. Spaceflight. As. Soon, as, intercontinental. Missiles, were developed, military. Planners began. Programs. And strategies, to counter their effectiveness. Topic. Mobilization. A significant. Portion of military. Technology as. About transportation. Allowing. Troops and weaponry, to be moved from their origins, to the front. Land. Transport has, historically. Been mainly, by foot land vehicles. Have usually been used, as well from chariots, to tanks. When. Conducting, a battle, over a body of water, ships, are used. There. Are historically. Two main categories of, ships those for transporting. Troops and those for attacking other ships. Soon. After, the invention, of aeroplanes. Military. Aviation. Became, a significant. Component, of warfare, though usually, as a supplementary. Role. The. Two main types of military, aircraft are, bombers, which attack land or sea based, targets, and fighters, which attack, other aircraft. Military. Vehicles are land combat, or transportation. Vehicles. Excluding. Rail-based which. Are designed, for or insignificant, use. By military. Forces. List. Of military, vehicles. List. Of armored fighting, vehicles. List. Of tanks military, aircraft. Includes, any use of aircraft, by a country's. Military including. Such, areas, as transport. Training, disaster. Relief Border, Patrol. Search-and-rescue. Surveillance. Surveying. Peacekeeping. And very, rarely aerial. Warfare. List. Of aircraft. List. Of aircraft weapons. Warships. Or watercraft, for, combat, and transportation. In a non seas and oceans. Submarines. Complex, masts ting and sail systems. Found on warships, during the age of sail. List, of historical. Ship and boat types. List. Of aircraft, carriers. List. Of submarine, classes. Topic. Defends. Fortifications. Are military, constructions. And buildings, designed, for defense, in warfare, they. Range in size and. Age from, the Great Wall of China to. A sangar. List. Of, fortifications. List, of Ford's. Topic. Sensors. And, communication. Sensors. And communication. Systems, are used to detect enemy's, coordinate. Movements, of Armed Forces and, guide weaponry. Early. Systems, included. Flag signaling. Telegraph. And heliographs. Radar. Laser. Guidance. Missile. Guidance. Satellite. Guidance, in guidance, weapons. Norden. Bombsight. Proximity. Fuze. Topic. Future. Technology. The, Defense, Advanced. Research Projects. Agency as. An agency, of the United States, Department, of, Defense, responsible. For the development, of new technologies. For use by the military. DARPA. Leads, the development, of military, technology. In the United, States and today has, dozens, of ongoing, projects. Everything, from humanoid, robots, to bullets, that are able to change paths before reaching, their target. China. Has a similar. Agency. Topic. Emerging. Territory. You. Topic. Cyberspace. In, 2011. The US, Defense, Department declared. Cyberspace. A new, domain, of warfare since. Then DARPA, has begun, a research, project known. As Project. X, with. The goal of creating new, technologies. That will, enable the, government to, better understand. And map the cyber territory. Ultimately. Giving, the Department. Of Defense, the ability, to plan and manage, large-scale. Cyber, missions, across dynamic. Network, environments. Topic. See, also. List, of emerging, military, technologies. Bella Fortis, late medieval, treatise, on military. Technology. Material. List, of military inventions.