Medieval technology | Wikipedia audio article
Medieval. Technology, is the technology used, in medieval Europe, under Christian rule, after. The Renaissance, of the 12th century medieval. Europe saw a radical, change in the rate of new inventions, innovations. In the ways of managing traditional. Means of production, and economic, growth the. Period, saw major technological, advances. Including, the adoption of gunpowder, the invention, of vertical, windmills spectacles. Mechanical, clocks and greatly improved water mills building, techniques, Gothic, architecture medieval. Castles, and agriculture. In general 3 field crop rotation. The. Development, of water mills from their ancient origins. Was impressive, and extended, from agriculture. To sawmills, both for timber and stone by. The time of the Domesday book most, large villages, had turnable, mills around. 6,500. In England alone water. Power was also widely used in mining for raising all from shafts, crushing, or and even powering, bellows. European. Technical, advancements. From the 12th to 14th, centuries, were either built on long-established techniques. In medieval, europe originating. From roman, and byzantine antecedents. Or adapted, from cross-cultural. Exchanges. Through trading networks, with the Islamic world China, and India often, the, revolutionary. Aspect lay, not in the act of invention, itself but in its technological refinement. And application, to political, and economic power though. Gunpowder, along with other weapons had been started by Chinese, it was the Europeans, who developed, and perfected its, military, potential, precipitating. European expansion, and eventual, imperialism. In the modern era also. Significant. In this respect, were advances, in maritime, technology, advances. In shipbuilding, included. The multi mastered, ships with lateen sails the stern post mounted, rudder and the skeleton, first hull construction, along. With new navigational. Techniques such, as the dry compass, the Jacob's staff and the astrolabe, these allowed economic. And military control. Of the seas adjacent, to Europe and enabled the global navigational, achievements, of the dawning age of exploration. At. The turn to the Renaissance. Gutenberg's, invention, mechanical. Printing made possible, a dissemination of knowledge to, a wider population that, would not only lead to a gradually, more egalitarian society. But one more able to dominate other cultures, drawing, from a vast reserve of knowledge and experience, the. Technical, drawings, of late medieval artists. Engineers Dido, Davi, Javon O and Villa de Haan court can be viewed as forerunners, of later Renaissance. Works such as tackler, or da Vinci. Topic. Civil. Technologies. The, following is a list of some important, medieval technologies. The, approximate, date or first mention, of a technology in medieval, Europe is given. Technologies. Were often a matter of cultural, exchange and date and place of first inventions, are not listed here see main links for a more complete history, of each. Topic. Agriculture. Carrucha. Six to nine centuries a, type. Of heavy wheeled plow commonly, found in northern europe the. Device consisted. Of four major parts the. First part was a culture, at the bottom of the plow this. Knife was used to vertically cut into the top sod to allow for the ploughshare to work the. Ploughshare was the second pair of knives which cut the sod horizontally. Detaching, it from the ground below the. Third part was the moldboard, which cold the sod outward the. Fourth part of the device was the team of a toxin, guided, by the farmer, this. Type of plow eliminated, the need for cross, plowing, by turning over the furrow instead, of merely pushing, it outward this. Type of wheeled plow made seed placement more consistent, throughout the farm as the blade could be locked in at a certain level relative, to the wheels a. Disadvantage. To this type of plow was its maneuverability. Since. This equipment, was large and led by a small herd of oxen turning, the plow was difficult, and time-consuming. This. Caused many farmers, to turn away from traditional. Square fields, and adopt a longer more rectangular, field to ensure maximum efficiency. Art Power, 5th century, an. Early, medieval plow that consisted. Of a sharpened wooden post pulled by either animals, or humans, this. Lightweight and, primitive plow was used primarily before. The invention of the carrucha, the. Art was inefficient, in more firm northern, soil but did decent work in southern areas where the soil was much softer, although. The Ardra, quired the user to apply constant pressure to the plow in order to make sure the edge could break the ground the soil was merely pushed to the sides instead, of being properly turned over horse collar six to ninth centuries.
Once. Oxen, started, to be replaced by horses on farms, and in fields, the yoke became obsolete due to its shape not working well with a horses posture, the. First design for a horse collar was a throat and girth harness, these. Types of harnesses were, unreliable, though, due to them not being sufficiently set, in place the. Loose straps were prone to slipping and shifting positions, as the horse was working, and often caused asphyxiation. Around. The 8th century the introduction, of the rigid collar eliminated. The problem of choking the. Richard caller was placed. Over the horse's, head and rested, on its shoulders, this, permitted, unobstructed, breathing. And placed the weight of the plough or wagon where, the horse could best support, it. Horseshoes. 9th century. Allowed. Horses, to carry larger, loads and move around with greater traction on hard to walk surfaces, the. Practice, of shoeing horses was. Initially practiced, in the Roman Empire but lost popularity, throughout, the Middle Ages until, around the 11th century although. Horses in, the southern lands could easily work while on the softer soil the rocky soil of the north proved to be damaging, to the horse's hooves, since. The north was the problematic, area, this is where shoeing horses first, became popular the. Introduction, of gravel roadways, was also cause for the popularity, of horse shoeing the. Loads eschewed horse could take on these roads were significantly. Higher than one that was barefoot, by. The 14th, century not only did horses, have shoes but many farmers, were shoeing oxen and donkeys in, order to help prolong the life of their hooves the size. And weight of the horse shoe changed, significantly over. The course of the Middle Ages in. The 10th century horseshoes, were secured, by six nails and weighed around 1/4. Of a pound but, throughout the years the shoes grew larger, and by the 14th, century the shoes were being secured, with eight nails and weighed nearly half a pound, crop. Rotation eighth century. Also. Called the - field system, this, system included. The farmer's field being divided, into two separate crops one. Field would grow a crop while the other was allowed to lie fallow and was used to feed livestock and. Regain lost nutrients. Every. Year the two fields would switch in order to ensure fields, did not become nutrient, deficient, in the. 11th century this system, was introduced, into Sweden, and spread to become the most popular form of farming 3 field system, 8th century, the, ideal, 3 field system, is one that separates, a section of land into, three equal parts. Each, one of the three parts, holds a different crop one, part holds a spring crop such as barley or oats another, part holds a winter crop such as wheat or rye and the third part is an off field that is left alone to grow and is used to help feed livestock, by. Rotating the three crops to a new part of the land after each year the off field regains, some of the nutrients, lost during the growing of the two crops this. System, increases, agricultural. Productivity, over, the two field system, by only having one third of the field not being used instead of 1/2 another. Advantage of crop rotation, is that many scholars believe it, helped increase yields, by up to 50% winepress, 12th. Century. This. Device was the first practical, means of pressing, wine on a plain surface, the. Wine press was an expensive, piece of machinery that only the wealthy could afford the. Method of grape stomping, was often used as a less expensive alternative. While. White wines required, the use of a wine press in order to preserve the color of the wine by removing, the juices, quickly, from the skin red wine did not need to be pressed until the end of the juice removal, process, since the color did not matter many. Red wine wine makers used the feet to smash the grapes then used a press to remove any juice that remained in the grape skins can, at 5th century, an, underground. Passage, used to water fields, crops and provide, drinking water these. Tunnels had a gradual, slope which, used gravity, to pull the water from either an aquifer or water well this. System was originally found in Middle Eastern areas, and is still used today in places where, surface water is hard to find. Topic. Architecture. And construction. Pendant. Of architecture. 6th century a, specific. Spherical, form in the upper corners to support a dome, although. The first experimentation. Was made in the 200s. It was in the 6th century in the Byzantine Empire that its potential, was fully achieved. Artesian. Well 11:26. A thin. Rod with a hard iron cutting, edge is placed in the bore hole and repeatedly, struck with a hammer underground.
Water Pressure forces, the water up the hole without pumping. Artesian. Wells are named after the town of Artois in France where the first one was drilled by Carthusian. Monks in 11:26. Central. Heating through underfloor, channels, ninth century. In. The early medieval Alpine, upland, a simpler, central heating system where. He traveled, through underfloor, channels, from the furnace room replaced, the Roman hypocaust, at some places in. Reichenau abbey a network, of interconnected underfloor. Channels, heated, the 300 square meters large assembly, room of the monks during the winter months the. Degree of efficiency of the system, has been calculated at 90 percent revolt, 12th, century, an, essential. Element for the rise of Gothic architecture revolts. Allowed vaults, to be built for the first time over rectangles. Of unequal, lengths it. Also greatly facilitated. Scaffolding. And largely replaced, the older groin vault. Chimney. 12th, century, the, earliest. True chimneys, appeared, in northern Europe during the 12th century and, with them came the first true fireplaces. Segmental. Arch bridge, 13:45. The. Ponte Vecchio in Florence is. Considered, medieval, Europe's first stone segmental, arch bridge. Tread. Will crane 12 20s. The. Earliest reference, to a tread wheel in archival, literature. Is in France about 1225. Followed, by an illuminated, depiction, in a manuscript of probably also French origin, dating to 1240. Apart. From tread drums windows's, and occasionally, cranks, were employed for powering cranes stationary. Harbour crane 12:40, for, stationary. Harbour cranes are considered, a new develop, of the Middle Ages its earliest use being documented for utrecht in 1244. The. Typical, harbor crane was a pivoting, structure, equipped with double tread wheels there. Were two types wooden, gantry, cranes pivoting, on a central, vertical, axle in stone tower cranes which housed the windlass and tread wheels with only the jib arm and roof rotating. These. Cranes were placed on dock sides for the loading and unloading of, cargo where, they replaced, or complemented, older lifting methods like Cecil's, winches, and yards, slowing. Cranes which allowed a rotation. Of the load and with us particularly, suited, for dockside work appeared, as early as 1340, floating, crane. Beside. The stationary, cranes floating, cranes which could be flexibly, deployed, in the whole port base and came into use by the 14th, century mass, crane. Some. Harbor cranes were specialized, at mounting masts, to newly built sailing, ships such as in Gdansk, Cologne and Bremen wheelbarrow, eleven seventies, the. Wheelbarrow, proved useful in building construction mining. Operations, and agriculture. Literary. Evidence for the use of wheelbarrows, appeared, between 1170. And 1250. In northwestern, Europe the. First depiction. Is in a drawing by Matthew Paris in the mid 13th, century. Topic. Art. Oil, paint, by 11:25. As. Early, as the 13th century, oil was, used to add details, to tempera, paintings, and paint wooden statues. Flemish. Painter yan van Eyck developed, the use of a stable oil mixture, for panel painting, around 1410. Topic. Fox. Our, glass, 13:38. Reasonably. Dependable, affordable and, accurate, measure of time, unlike. Water in a class I drew the rate of flow of sand is independent. Of the depth in the upper reservoir and the instrument, is not liable to freeze our. Glasses, are a medieval, innovation, first documented. In siena italy. Mechanical. Clocks 13th, to 14th, centuries, a, european. Innovation, these weight driven clocks were used primarily in clock towers. Topic. Mechanics. Compound. Crank, the. Italian physician Guido. Davi Javon OH combines, in his 1335. Tech Soros a collection, of war machines intended. For the recapture, of the Holy Land, two simple cranks, to form a compound crank for manually powering war carriages, and paddle wheel boats the. Devices, were fitted directly to the vehicles axle, respectively. To the shafts, turning the paddle wheels. Topic. Metallurgy. Blast. Furnace, 1150, to 1350. Cast-iron. Had been made in China before the fourth century, BC European, cast-iron first appears, in middle, Europe for, instance lappa tan in sweden der s'tel in switzerland and the marker show Saarland in germany, around 1150. In some places according, to recent, research even, before 1100. The technique. Is considered, to be an independent European. Development. Topic. Milling. Ship, mill sixth-century. The. Ship mill is a Byzantine, invention, designed to mill grains using, hydraulic, power the.
Technology Eventually. Spread to the rest of Europe and was in use until CA, 1800. Paper. Mill 13th, century. The. First certain, use of a water-powered, paper mill evidence, for which is elusive, in both chinese and muslim, paper making dates to 1282, rolling, mill 15th, century. Used. To produce metal, sheet of an even thickness, first. Used on soft malleable metals, such, as lead gold, and tin, leonardo, da vinci described, a rolling mill for wrought iron. Tidal. Mills 6th, century, the, earliest. Tidal, Mills were excavated. On the Irish coast where water Millers new and employed the two main waterwheel, types a sixth-century type, mill at killa turin near waterford, was powered by a vertical waterwheel. While the tide changes, at little island were exploited, by a twin flume horizontal. Wheeled mill see 630. And a vertical undershot, waterwheel, alongside it, another. Early example is, the nen drum monastery mill from, 787. Which is estimated to have developed, seven to eight horsepower at its peak vertical, wind mills 1180s. Invented. In europe is the pivotable, post mill the first surviving, mention of one comes from Yorkshire in England in 1185. They. Were efficient, at grinding, grain or draining, water, stationery. Tower mills were also developed, in the 13th century. Water. Hammer 12th, century, at the latest. Used. In metallurgy, to forge the metal blooms from Blue Marie's and Catalan forges, they replaced manual hammer work the. Water hammer was eventually superseded. By steam, hammers in the 19th century. Topic. Navigation. Dry. Compass, 12th century, the. First European, mention of the directional, compass, is in Alexander. Neck ins on the natures of things written in Paris around eleven, ninety it. Was either transmitted. From China all the Arabs or an independent European. Innovation, dry. Compass, were invented, in the Mediterranean. Around 1300. Astronomical. Compass, 1269. The. French scholar Pierre de Mary Court describes, in his experimental. Study a pistola de magnete, 1269. Three different compass designs, he has devised, for the purpose, of astronomical, observation. Stern. Mounted, rudders 1180s. The. First depiction, of a pintle and gudgeon rudder on church carvings, dates to around 1180. They. First appeared with cogs in the north and Baltic seas and quickly spread to Mediterranean. The. Iron hinge system was the first stern rudder permanently. Attached to the ship hull and made a vital, contribution, to the navigation, achievements, of the Age of Discovery and, thereafter. Topic. Printing. Paper, and reading. Movable-type. Printing press. 1440s. Johannes. Gutenberg's, great innovation, was not the printing itself, but instead of using carved, plates as in woodblock printing, he used separate, letters types from which the printing plates for pages were made up this. Meant the types were recyclable. And a page cast could be made up far faster. Paper. 13th, century. Paper. Was invented in China and transmitted, through Islamic Spain in the 13th century in. Europe, the paper making processes, was mechanized, by water-powered, Mills and, paper presses, see paper mill. Rotating. Book mark 13th, century, a. Rotating. Disc and string device used to mark the page column, and precise, level in the text where a person, left off reading, in a text. Materials. Used were often leather vellum, or paper. Spectacles. 12 ATS the first, spectacles. Invented, in Florence used convex, lenses, which were of help only to the farsighted. Concave. Lenses, were not developed, prior to the 15th, century. Watermark. 1282. This. Medieval innovation. Was used to mark paper products, and to discourage counterfeiting. It. Was first introduced, in bologna italy. Topic. Science. And learning. Theory. Of impetus, sixth-century, a. Scientific. Theory that was introduced, by john, philoponus, who, made criticism. Of Aristotelian. Principles, of physics and it served as an inspiration to medieval, scholars, as well as to galileo galilei who ten centuries later during, the Scientific, Revolution extensively.
Cited, Philoponus, in his works while making the case as to why Aristotelian. Physics was flawed it. Is the intellectual, precursor. To the concepts, of inertia momentum. And acceleration. In classical, mechanics. Arabic. Numerals, 13th, century. The. First recorded, mention in Europe was in, 976. And they were first widely published, in 1202, by Fibonacci. With his library barchi. University. The. First medieval. Universities. Were founded between the 11th and 13th centuries, leading, to a rise in literacy. And learning by. 1500. The institution. Had spread throughout most of Europe and paid a key role in the Scientific, Revolution, today. The educational. Concept, an institution. Has been globally, adopted. Topic. Textile. Industry. And garments. Functional. Button 13th, century. German. Buttons appeared, in 13th, century Germany. As an indigenous innovation. They. Soon became widespread, with the rise of snug fitting clothing. Horizontal. Loom 11th, century. Horizontal. Looms operated, by foot treadles were faster, and more efficient. Silk. 6th century. Manufacturer. Silk began in Eastern Europe in the 6th century and in Western Europe in, the 11th or 12th century. Silk. Had been imported over the Silk Road since, antiquity the. Technology, of silk, throwing, was. Mastered, in Tuscany, in the 13th century the. Silk works used water power and some regard these as the first mechanized, textile, mills. Spinning-wheel. 13th, century. Brought. Europe, probably from India. Topic. Miscellaneous. Chess, 1450. The. Earliest predecessors. Of the game originated. In 6th century AD India, and spread via Persia and the Muslim world to Europe here. The game evolved, into its current form in the 15th century. Forest. Glass, c1000. This. Type of glass uses. Wood ash and sand as the main raw materials, and is characterized. By a variety of, greenish, yellow colors. Grindstones. 834. Grind, stones are a rough stone usually, sandstone, used to sharpen iron the. First rotary, grind stone turned, with a leveraged, handle, occurs, in the utrecht Salter illustrated. Between, 816. And 834. According. To Hagerman the pen drawing, is a copy of a late antique manuscript. A second. Prank which was mounted on the other end of the axle, is depicted, in the luttrell Psalter from, around 1340. Liquor 12th, century. Primitive. Forms of distillation, were known to the Babylonians. As well as Indians, in the first centuries, ad, early. Evidence of distillation, also, comes from alchemists. Working, in Alexandria. Roman Egypt in the 1st century, the. Medieval Arabs adopted, the distillation, process which, later spread to Europe, texts. On the distillation, of waters wine, and other spirits, were written in Salerno and Cologne in the 12th and 13th centuries, liquor, consumption. Rose dramatically, in Europe in and after the mid 14th, century, when distilled, liquors, were commonly used as remedies for, the Black Death these. Spirits, would have had a much lower alcohol, content about, 40%. ABV, than the alchemists, pure distillation, x' and they were likely first thought of as medicinal elixirs. Around. 1400. Methods, to distill spirits, from wheat barley and rye were, discovered, thus. Began the National. Drinks. Of Europe including gin. England, and grapper Italy, in. 1437. Burned, water. Brandy. Was mentioned, in the records, of the county of Katzen on Borgan in Germany magnets twelfth-century. Magnets. Were first referenced, in the Roman Denis, posed between, 11:55. And 1160. Mirrors. 1180. The. First mention of a glass. Mirror. Is in 1180, by, Alexander. Nekima who said take, away the lead which is behind the glass and there will be no image of the one looking in. Illustrated. Surgical atlas, 13:45. Dido. Davidge, of our notes see, 1280. -, 1349. Was the first author to add illustrations. To his anatomical. Descriptions, his. Anna thermia provides pictures, of neuro anatomical, structures, and techniques such as the dissection, of the head by means of try Phoenician and depictions, of the meninges cerebrum. And spinal, cord, quarantine. 1377. Initially. A 40 day period the, quarantine was introduced, by the Republic, of Ragusa as a measure of disease, prevention related. To the black death it. Was later adopted by Venice, from where the practice spread all around in Europe, rat. Traps 1170. S the. First mention of a rat trap is in the medieval romance, even, the night of the lion by cretin, de Troyes. Soap. 9th century. Soap.
Came Into widespread European. Use in the 9th century in, semi liquid form with hard soap perfected by the Arabs, in the 12th century. Topic. Military. Technologies. You. Topic. Armor. Quilted. Armor pre 5th 14th, century. There. Was a vast amount of armour technology, available through, the 5th to 16th, centuries. Most. Soldiers during this time warp added or quilted, armor this, was the cheapest, and most available armor, for the majority of soldiers. Quilted. Armor was usually, just a jacket made of thick linen and wool meant, to pad or soften, the impact of blunt weapons, and light blows, although. This technology, predated, the 5th century it was still extremely prevalent because, of the low cost and the weapon technology, at the time made the bronze armor of the Greeks and Romans obsolete. Quilted. Armor was also used in conjunction with, other types of armor, usually. Worn over or under leather male and later plate armor see you IR Bulli 5th 10th century. Hardened. Leather armor also called cui our Bulli was a step up from quilted, armor made. By boiling leather in either water wax, or oil to soften it so it can be shaped it would then be allowed to dry and become very hard large. Pieces of armor could be made such as breastplates helmets, and leg guards, but many times smaller, pieces would be sewn into the quilting, of quilted, armor or strips would be sewn together on the outside of, the linen jacket this. Was not as affordable as the quilted armor but offered much better protection, against, edged slashing, weapons. Chainmail. 11th, 16th, century. The. Most common type during the 11th, through the 16th, centuries, was the hauberk, also, known earlier than the 11th century as, the Carolingian, Burney made. Of interlinked rings of metal is sometimes, consisted. Of a coif that covered the head and a tunic that covered the torso, arms and legs down to the knees, chainmail. Was, very effective, at protecting against. Light slashing, blows but ineffective, against stabbing, or thrusting, blows, the. Great advantage, was that it allowed a great freedom of movement and, was relatively light with significant, protection, over quilted, or hardened, leather armor, it. Was far more expensive. Than the hardened leather or quilted, armor because of the massive amount of labour it required to create this. Made it unattainable, for, moe soldiers, and only the more wealthy, soldiers, could afford it later. Toward the end of the 13th century bandit. Mail became, popular. Constructed. Of washer shaped rings of iron overlapped, and woven together by straps, of leather as, opposed to the interlinked metal rings of chainmail, banded, mail was much more affordable to manufacture. The. Washers, were so tightly woven together that it was very difficult penetrate. And offered greater protection, from arrow and bolt attacks jazz ruined 11th, century the jazz. Rant or jazz er ain't was an adaptation of, chainmail in which the chainmail would, be sewn in between layers of linen or quilted, armor. Exceptional. Protection, against light slashing, weapons and slightly improved protection against. Small thrusting. Weapons but little protection against, large blunt weapons, such as maces, and axes, this. Gave birth to reinforced. Chainmail, and became more prevalent in the 12th and 13th century. Reinforced. Armor was made up of chainmail, with metal plates or hardened, leather plates sewn in this. Greatly improved, protection from, stabbing, and thrusting, blows. Scale. Armor 12th, century, a type. Of lamellar, armor was made up entirely of small overlapping, plates, either. Sewn together usually, with leather straps or attached, to a backing, such as linen or a quilted, armor, scale. Armor does not require the labor to produce that, chainmail, does and therefore is more affordable it. Also affords, much better protection. Against thrusting, blows and pointed, weapons, though. It is much heavier more restrictive. And impedes free movement. Plate. Armor 14th, century. Plate. Armor covered the entire body, although. Parts of the body were already covered in plate armor as early as 1250. Such as the pollens for covering the knees and kut'rs plates that protected, the elbows the first complete, full suit without any textiles. Was seen around 1410. To 1430. Components. Of medieval, armor the made up a full suit consisted. Of Aquarius a gorget, embraces, gauntlets. Kusas, grieves, and sabatons, held together by internal.
Leather Strap. Improved. Weaponry, such as crossbows, and the longbow had greatly increased, range in power, this. Made penetration. Of the chainmail Halbert. Much easier and more common by. The mid 1400s, most, plate was worn alone and without the need of a hauberk. Advances. In metalworking such, as the blast furnace, and new techniques for carburizing, made plate armor nearly impenetrable and, the best armour protection available, at, the time although. Plate, armor was fairly heavy because, each suit was custom, tailored to the wearer it was very easy to move around in a full. Suit of plate armor was extremely, expensive and, mostly unattainable, for, the majority of soldiers, only. Very, wealthy, landowners. And nobility could, afford it the, quality of plate armor increases. As more armor makers became more proficient in metalworking. A suit. Of plate armor became. A symbol of social, status and the best made were personalized, with embellishments and, engravings. Plate. Armor saw continued, use in battle until the 17th, century. Topic. Cavalry. Arched. Saddle, 11th century, the. Arched saddle, enabled, mounted, Knights to wield Lance's, underarms and prevent the charge from turning into an unintentional. Pole vault, this. Innovation, gave, birth to true, shock cavalry, enabling, fighters to charge on full gallop. Spurs. 11th, century. Spurs. Were invented, by the Normans, and appeared at the same time as the cantle saddle they. Enabled, the horsemen to control his horse with his feet replacing, the whip and leaving his arms free role. Spurs, familiar, from cowboy, films, were already known in the 13th century. Gilded. Spurs were the ultimate symbol of the knighthood even today someone, is said to earn, his Spurs by. Proving his or her worthiness. Stirrup. Sixth-century. Stirrups. Were invented, by step nomads in what is today Mongolia. And northern China in the 4th century, they. Were introduced. In Byzantium in, the 6th century and in the Carolingian, Empire in, the 8th they. Allowed a mounted, Knight to wield a sword and strike from a distance, leading, to a great advantage, for mounted, cavalry. Topic. Gunpowder. Weapons. Kanon, 13:24. Cannons. Are first recorded, in Europe at the siege of Metz in 13 24, in. 1350. Petrarch, wrote these, instruments, which discharged, balls of metal with most tremendous noise and, flashes, of fire. Less. Than pre greater than sash pre greater than dot. Were a few years ago very, rare and were viewed with greatest astonishment and, admiration but. Now they are become as common, and familiar as, any other kinds, of arms. Volley. Gun. See. Raible d qin corn. Gunpowder, late 14th, century. First. Practiced, in western europe corning, the black powder allowed for more powerful, and faster, ignition, of cannons it. Also, facilitated. The storage, and transportation, of, black powder corning. Constituted. A crucial step in the evolution, of gunpowder warfare. Super. Gun late 14th, century. Extant. Examples include. The wrought iron pom heart von steer dull greet and Mons Meg as well as the cast bronze for matter and for great a all from the 15th century.
Topic. Mechanical. Artillery. Counterweight. Trebuchet, twelfth-century. Powered. Solely by the force of gravity, these catapults. Revolutionized. Medieval, siege warfare and, construction, of fortifications. By hurling huge stones unprecedented. Distances. Originating. Somewhere, in the eastern Mediterranean basin. Counterweight, trebuchet, 'z were introduced, in the Byzantine, Empire around 1100, CE and was later adopted, by the Crusader, States and as well by the other armies, of Europe and Asia. Topic. Missile. Weapons. Greek, fire seventh-century, an, incendiary. Weapon, which could even burn on water is also attributed to the Byzantines. Where they installed, it on their ships it. Played a crucial role in the Byzantine, empires, victory, over the Umayyad Caliphate, during, the siege of Constantinople. 717. To 718. Granade, 8th century. Rudimentary. Incendiary, grenades, appeared, in the byzantine empire as the byzantine soldiers, learned that greek fire a byzantine, invention, of the previous, century could not only be thrown by flamethrowers at the enemy but also in stone and ceramic jars. Longbow. With massed disciplined, archery, thirteenth-century. Having. A high rate of fire and penetration. Power the longbow contributed. To the eventual demise, of the medieval night class, used. Particularly, by the English, to great effect against, the French cavalry during, the Hundred Years War. 1337. To 1453. Steel. Crossbow, late 14th, century. European. Innovation came. With several different cocking, aids to enhance draw power making, the weapons also the first handheld mechanical. Crossbows. Topic. Miscellaneous. Combined. Arms tactics 14th. Century. The. Battle of Halidon Hill, 1333. Was the first battle where intentional, and disciplined, combined arms infantry, tactics were, employed, the. English men at arms dismounted. Aside the archers, combining, thus the staying power of super, heavy infantry, and striking, power of the two-handed, weapons with the missiles and mobility of the archers using, long bows and short bows. Combining. Dismounted, knights and men at arms with archers, was the archetypal, Western medieval, battle tactics, until, the Battle of Flodden 1513. And final emergence, of firearms. Topic. Gallery. You. Topic. Notes, and references. Topic. Bibliography. Andrews, Francis, be the medieval, builder, and his methods, New. York Barnes, & Noble, 1973. Medieval. Construction. Technique, with a brief chapter on tools Blair. John, and Nigel, Ramsay editors, English. Medieval, industries, craftsman. Techniques, products, London Hambledon, press 1991. ISBN. One. Eight five two eight five three two, six three burns, Robert, the first, 1996. Paper comes, to the west 800. - 1400. In Lindgren, booter europe i technic, in Mittal alter, 800. Biss 1400. Tradition. And innovation for. Fared Berlin GE BR, manfor. Log PP. 413. -, 422. ISBN. Three seven, eight six one one seven, four eight nine Crosby. Alfred, the. Measure of reality. Quantification. In Western Europe 1250. To 1600. Cambridge. Cambridge, University. Press, 1997. Jared, Diamond Guns, Germs and, Steel a short. History of everybody, for the last 13000. Years, 1997. Die. Ie VA Antonio. Al, 2007. The neuroanatomical, plates, of Guido da vinci vano euro surgical, focus, 23. 1 1 2 4 DOI ten, point three one seven, one fo, c o7 o 7 e 15, Gies francis. And joseph, cathedral. Forge. And waterwheel, technology and. Invention, in the Middle Ages, New. York HarperCollins. 1994. ISBN. Oo, 609. Two five eight one seven, Gimple, jean the. Medieval, machine the Industrial Revolution of, the Middle Ages London. Pimlico, 2nd, ed, 1992. ISBN, Oh. One four zero four five, one four seven Hagerman, dieter, schneider, Helmut, 1997. Propylene, Technica, shifter and. Bow and hand work, 750. V, CHR. This 1000. N CH. Our second, aired Berlin. ISBN three. To five hundred and forty nine oh five six three 2x Hall Bert s, 1979. The technological, illustrations. Of the so called anonymous, of the hussite wars, codex. Latinus mana census. 197. Part 1 Wiesbaden dr.. Ludwig Reichert, furlong ISBN. Three nine two zero one five three nine three six, halt richard 1988. The mills of medieval, england, oxford, blackwell, publishers, ISBN, nine, seven eight oh six, three one one five six nine two five long Pamela, Oh editor. Science. And technology, in medieval, Society in annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 441. New york new york academy of sciences. 1985. ISBN o, eight nine seven six six two seven seven six a series, of papers on highly specific topics.
Lucas. Adam, Robert, 2005. Industrial. Milling in the ancient and medieval worlds. A survey. Of the evidence, for an industrial revolution, in medieval, Europe technology. And culture, 46. 1 1 - 30 DOI. Ten point one three five three tech. Point 200, 5.00. - six, Mac DC George. 1970. Madrasa and university, in the Middle Ages Studio, Islamic, ax 32. - 255. -. 264. Mateus, Michael. 1996. Mittal, telly chafing crane in Lindgren, booter europe i technic, in Mittal alter, 800. Biss 1400, tradition. And innovation for. Faired Berlin GE BR, manfor. Lard pp. 345. -, 348. ISBN. Three seven, eight six one one seven four eight nine Mathies andrea, 1992. Medieval, tread wheels, artists. Views of building construction technology and. Culture, 33. Three, 510. -, 547. DOI, ten, two. Thousand, three hundred and seventy three million one hundred and, six thousand, six hundred and thirty fifths, JSTOR, three million one hundred and, six thousand, six hundred and thirty-five. McCullen. Thomas, Crothers. Norman. 2007. Harnessing, the tights the early medieval tide, Mills at ninja monastery, Strangford, Lough Belfast. Stationery. Office books, ISBN, nine, seven eight oh three three. Seven oh eight eight seven seven three. Murphy. Donald. 2005. Excavations. Of a mill at killer Terran co waterford. As, part of the n25, waterford, bypass, project PDF. Estrine, alluvial, archeology, in ireland. Towards. Best practice, University. College Dublin and, National Roads Authority archived. From the original PDF. On, the 18th of November, 2007. Rin. :, mm. Water, power in medieval, Ireland, in, Squa treaty Paulo working, with water in medieval, Europe technology. And change in history 3 Leiden, Brill pp, 1 250, ISBN, 900. For 106. 804. Singer. Charles, editor. History. Of Technology, Oxford. Oxford, University. Press, 1954. Volumes. 2 & 3 cover, the Middle Ages with, great scope and detail this. Is the standard, work. Taylor. Eg, our, 1951. The, South pointing, needle a Mego, Mundi 8 - 1 - 7, DOI 10.1. Oh 800. 308. Five six, nine five one oh eight five nine one nine seven, three. Thompson. Susan, 1978. Paper. Manufacturing. And early books, annals. Of the New York Academy of Sciences. 314. To, 167. -. 176. DOI, 10.1, 1 1 1 / J dot 1 7 4 9 -, 6 6 3 2, 1978. TB. 47,000. 791. X, white. Jr., Lin 1962. Medieval, technology and social change, Oxford, at the Clarendon, press. White. Lynn jr. the study of medieval, technology. 1924. To, 1974. Personal, reflections. Technology. And culture, 16.4. October. 1975. PP. 519. - 530. A chronology. And basic bibliography. Of landmark, studies. Week. Endure örjan 1985. Archaeological. Evidence, for early water mills an interim. Report, history. Of technology, 10 PP. 151. -, 179. Topic. See, also. Griet, technology. Renaissance. Of the 12th century. Roman. Technology. History. Of Technology. Medieval. Transport. Topic. External. Links the. Medieval. Technology pages. Technology. In the medieval age.