Internet technologies | Wikipedia audio article

Internet technologies | Wikipedia audio article

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The. Internet, Protocol. Suite as. The conceptual. Model and, set of communications. Protocols. Used, on the Internet and similar, computer, networks. It. Is commonly, known as tcp/ip. Because. The foundational. Protocols. In the suite are the transmission. Control, protocol. TCP, and. The Internet Protocol, IP. It. Is occasionally, known, as the Department of Defense, DoD. Model. Because, the development, of the networking, method, was funded, by the United States Department, of, Defense through. DARPA. The. Internet, Protocol, suite provides. End-to-end. Data. Communication. Specifying. How data should be packetized. Addressed. Transmitted. Routed. And received. This. Functionality. Is, organized, into, four abstraction. Layers which, classify. All related, protocols, according. To the scope of networking, involved. From. Lowest, to highest the, layers are the link layer containing. Communication. Methods, for data that remains, within a single network segment, link the internet, layer providing. Internetworking between, independent. Networks, the transport. Layer handling. Host-to-host. Communication. And the application. Layer providing. Process, to process, data exchange. For applications. Technical. Standards, specifying. The Internet Protocol, suite and. Many of its constituent. Protocols. Are maintained, by the internet, Engineering, Task Force. IETF. The. Internet, Protocol, suite predates. The OSI, model a, more comprehensive, reference. Framework. For general, networking, systems. Topic. History. You. You. Topic. Early. Research. The, Internet, Protocol. Suite resulted. From research, and development, conducted. By the Defense, Advanced. Research Projects. Agency DARPA. In the late 1960s. After. Initiating. The pioneering, ARPANET, in 1969. DARPA started. Work on a number of other data, transmission. Technologies. In. 1972. Robert, econ joined, the DARPA information. Processing. Technology. Office, where, he worked on both satellite. Packet, networks, and ground-based, radio, packet, networks, and recognized. The value of being able to communicate across, both, in. The spring of 1973. Vinton. Cerf the developer. Of the existing, ARPANET, network, control, program.

NCP. Protocol. Joined, Conn to work on open architecture, interconnection. Models, with the goal of designing, the next protocol, generation. For the ARPANET. By. The summer of 1973. Khan. And Cerf had worked out a fundamental. Reformulations. In which the differences. Between local. Network protocols. Were, hidden by using a common, internetwork. Protocol. And instead. Of the network being responsible. For reliability. As in the ARPANET, this function, was delegated, to the hosts. Cerf. Credits, Hubert, Zimmermann, and Louis posin designer. Of the Cyclades, Network with important, influences. On this design. The. Protocol. Was implemented. As the transmission. Control program. First, published, in, 1974. Initially. The tcp, managed, both Datagram. Transmissions. And routing, but as the protocol, grew other researchers. Recommended. A division, of functionality. Into, protocol, layers. Advocates. Included. Jonathan, postal, of the university. Of southern california's. Information. Sciences. Institute who. Edited, the request for comments, RFC's. The, tech cool and strategic. Document. Series, that has both documented. And catalyzed, internet, development. Postal, stated, we, are screwing, up in our design, of Internet protocols. By, violating. The principle, of layering. Encapsulation. Of different, mechanisms, was intended, to create an environment. Where the upper layers could, access, only what was needed from the lower layers a. Monolithic. Design, would, be inflexible, and, lead to scalability. Issues, the. Transmission. Control program, was split into two distinct. Protocols. The transmission. Control protocol. And the internet, protocol. The. Design, of the network included. The recognition. That it should provide only the functions, of efficiently. Transmitting. And routing, traffic between, end nodes and that all other intelligence. Should be located, at the edge of the network in the end nodes. This. Design, is known as the end-to-end, principle. Using. This design, it, became, possible to connect, almost, any network, to the ARPANET, irrespective. Of the local, characteristics. Thereby. Solving, Kahn's initial. Internetworking. Problem. One. Popular, expression. Is that, tcp/ip. The, eventual, product, of Cerf and cons work can, run over two. Tin cans and, a string. Years. Later as a joke, the IP over, avian, carriers, formal, protocol. Specification. Was created. And successfully. Tested a. Computer. Called a router as, provided. With an interface to each network. It. Forwards, network, packets, back and forth between them. Originally. A router was, called Gateway but the term was changed, to avoid confusion. With other types, of gateways. Topic. Specification. From. 1973. To. 1974. Surfs, networking. Research, group, at Stanford, worked out details, of the idea, resulting. In the first TCP. Specification. A. Significant. Technical influence. Was the early networking, work at Xerox, PARC, which, produced, the Parc Universal. Packet, protocol, suite much, of which existed. Around that time. DARPA. Then, contracted. With BBN. Technologies.

Stanford. University. And the University College. London to. Develop, the operational. Versions, of the protocol, on different, hardware platforms. Four. Versions were, developed, TCP. V1. TCP. V2. T, CP, v3. And IP V, 3, and, tcp/ip. V4. The. Last protocol. Is still in use today. Topic. Early. Implementation. In. 1975. A two Network TCP. IP, communications. Test was performed between, Stanford, and, University. College London, UCL. In. November. 1977. A three, network. Tcp/ip. Test. Was conducted between sites, in the US the UK and, Norway. Several. Other, tcp/ip. Prototypes. Were developed, at multiple, research, centers, between. 1978. And, 1983. The. Migration. Of the ARPANET, to, tcp/ip. Was, officially. Completed on, Flag Day January. 1st. 1983. When. The new protocols. Were permanently, activated. Topic. Adoption. In March 1982. The. US Department. Of Defense declared. Tcp/ip. As. The standard, for all military, computer, networking, in. 1985. The, Internet Advisory, Board later, renamed, the internet, architecture, board, held, a three-day workshop on, tcp/ip. For. The computer, industry, attended. By 250. Vendor, representatives. Promoting. The protocol. And leading to its increasing. Commercial, use, in. 1985. The, first interrupt. Conference. Focused, on network interoperability. By, broader adoption. Of tcp/ip. The. Conference, was founded, by Dan Lynch an early, internet activist. From. The beginning large. Corporations. Such, as IBM, and, Dec attended. The meeting IBM. AT&T. And. Dec were the first major, corporations. To adopt. Tcp/ip. This. Despite, having competing. Proprietary. Protocols. In. IBM. From. 1984. Barry appleman's. Group, did. Tcp/ip. Development. They. Navigated, the corporate, politics, to, the stream of tcp/ip. Products. For various, IBM, systems. Including. MVS. VM, and, os/2. At. The, same time several. Smaller companies. Such, as FTP. Software and. The Wollongong, group began, offering. Tcp/ip. Stacks. For, dos than Microsoft. Windows, the, first, VM CMS. Tcp/ip. Stack. Came, from the University of Wisconsin. Some of the early, tcp/ip. Stacks. Were, written single-handedly. By, a few programmers. Jay. Olinsky. And Oleg vishna, Polsky of IBM, Research, wrote. Tcp/ip. Stacks. For, VM CMS. And os/2. Respectively. In. 1984. Donald gillies, at MIT, wrote. To n tcp. Multi, connection. Tcp, which ran atop, the IP packet. Driver layer, maintained. By John ROM P at MIT, in. 1983. - for. Romkey. Leveraged, this TCP, in. 1986. When, FTP. Software was, founded. Phil. Karn created. Ka, 9q. TCP. A multi, connection, TCP. For ham radio, applications. Starting. In 1985. The, spread of tcp/ip. Was. Fueled, further in, June 1989. When. The university. Of california berkeley. Agreed, to place the tcp/ip. Code. Developed, for bsd, unix into. The public domain. Various. Vendors including. IBM. Included. This code in their own tcp/ip. Stacks. Microsoft. Released, a native, tcp/ip. Stack. In Windows 95. This. Event, was a little, late in the evolution. Of the internet, but it cemented. Tcp/ip. Z' dominance. Over other protocols. Which, began to lose ground. These, protocols. Included. IBM. Systems. Network, architecture. SNA. Digital. Equipment, corporations. Decnet, open, systems, interconnection. OSI. And Xerox, network, systems, X NS. Topic. Key, architectural. Principles. You. The, end-to-end, principle has. Evolved, over time, its. Original, expression, put, the maintenance, of state and overall, intelligence, at, the edges, and assumed, the internet that connected, the edges retained, no state and concentrated. On speed, and simplicity. Real-world, needs, for firewalls, network. Address, translators. Web content, caches, and the like have forced, changes in, this principle the robustness, principle. States in. General, an, implementation. Must be conservative. In its sending, behavior. And liberal, in its receiving. Behavior. That. Is it must be careful, to send well-formed. Datagrams. But, must accept, any Datagram. That it can interpret. Eg. Not, object, to technical. Errors, where, the meaning is still clear. The. Second, part of the principle. Is almost, as important. Software. On other hosts. May contain, deficiencies. That make, it unwise, to exploit. Legal, but obscure, protocol. Features. Encapsulation. Is used to provide, abstraction. Of protocols. And services. Encapsulation. Is usually. Aligned, with the division, of the protocol, suite into, layers of general, functionality.

In. General, an application. The highest level, of the model, uses, a set of protocols to. Send its data down, the layers the, data, is further, encapsulated. At each level an. Early. Architectural. Document. RFC. 1122. Emphasizes. Architectural. Principles. Over layering. RFC. 1122. Titled. Host requirements. Is structured. In paragraphs. Referring. To layers but, the document. Refers, to many, other architectural. Principles. And does not emphasize layering. It. Loosely, defines, a four layer model with, the layers having, names not, numbers as. Follows. Application. Layer. The. Application. Layer as the scope within which applications. Create, user data, and communicate. This data to other applications on. Another or the same host. The. Applications. Or processes. Make use of the services provided by, the underlying, lower, layers, especially. The transport. Layer which, provides, reliable. Or unreliable pipes. To other processes. The. Communications. Partners, are characterized. By the application. Architecture. Such as the client-server, model and, peer-to-peer networking. This. Is the layer in which all higher-level, protocols, such. As SMTP. FTP. SSH. HTTP. Operate. Processes. Are addressed, via ports, which essentially. Represent, services. Transport. Layer. The. Transport layer performs. Host to host communications. On either the same or different hosts. And on either the local network or remote networks, separated. By routers. It. Provides, a channel for the communication. Needs of applications. UDP. As the basic, transport. Layer protocol. Providing. An unreliable, Datagram. Service. The. Transmission. Control protocol. Provides, flow, control, connection. Establishment. And reliable. Transmission. Of data Internet. Layer. The. Internet, layer exchanges. Datagrams. Across, network, boundaries. It, provides, a uniform, networking. Interface that, hides the actual, topology. Layout, of the underlying, network, connections. It. Is therefore, also referred. To as the layer that establishes. Internetworking. Indeed. It defines, and, establishes. The Internet this. Layer defines, the addressing, and routing structures. Used, for the tcp/ip. Protocol. Suite. The, primary, protocol. In this scope as the Internet Protocol, which, defines, IP, addresses. Its. Function. In routing is, to transport, data grams to the next IP router, that, has the connectivity. To a network, closer, to, the final data destination. Link. Layer. The link layer defines. The networking, methods, within the scope of the local, network link, on which hosts, communicate. Without intervening, routers. This. Layer includes. The protocols. Used, to describe, the local network, topology. And the interfaces. Needed, to affect transmission of, internet, layer datagrams. To next neighbor hosts. The layers of the protocol, suite near the top are logically, closer, to, the user application. While those near the bottom are logically, closer, to, the physical, transmission, of, the data. Viewing. Layers as, providing. Or consuming. A service, as a method, of abstraction. To isolate, upper layer protocols. From the details, of transmitting. Bits over for example, ethernet, and collision, detection, while, the lower layers avoid, having to know the details, of each and every application, and its protocol. Even. When the layers are, examined. The assorted, architectural. Documents. There is no single, architectural. Model such as iso. 7400. 98, the, open systems, interconnection. OSI. Model, have fewer, and less rigidly, defined layers. Than, the OSI, model and, thus provide, an easier fit for real-world protocols. One. Frequently. Referenced document. RFC. 1958. Does, not contain, a stack of layers. The. Lack of emphasis, on layering, as a major difference, between, the, IETF. And OSI, approaches. It. Only refers, to the existence, of the internet, working layer, and, generally, two upper layers this, document. Was intended as. A 1996. Snapshot. Of the architecture. The Internet and its architecture. Have grown in evolutionary. Fashion. From modest beginnings, rather than from a grand plan. While. This process of evolution as. One of the main reasons, for the technology's. Success, it nevertheless, seems, useful to record a snapshot of the current principles. Of the internet architecture, the. Internet, Protocol. Suite and. The layered protocol. Stack design were, in use before the OSI, model was. Established. Since. Then the, tcp/ip. Model, has. Been compared, with the OSI, model in. Books and classrooms. Which often results, in confusion because.

The Two models use, different, assumptions. And goals including. The relative, importance, of strict layering. This. Abstraction. Also. Allows upper, layers to, provide services. That the lower layers do, not provide. While. The original OSI. Model, was extended, to include connectionless. Services. OSI. Our mcl. IP is, not designed, to be reliable. And as a best effort, delivery protocol. This. Means that all transport. Layer, implementations. Must choose, whether, or how to provide, reliability. UDP. Provides data. Integrity, via, a checksum, but does not guarantee delivery. TCP. Provides both, data integrity, and delivery, guarantee. By retransmitting. Until the receiver, acknowledges. The reception, of the packet. This. Model, lacks the formalism, of the OSI, model and. Associated. Documents. But the IETF. Does, not use a formal, model and does not consider, this a limitation. As illustrated. In the comment, by David, D Clark we, reject, Kings, presidents. And voting, we. Believe in rough consensus. And running code. Criticisms. Of this model, which have been made with respect to, the OSI, model often. Do not consider, is OS later, extensions. To that model. For. Multi access, links, with their own addressing, systems, eg Ethernet. An address, mapping protocol, as needed. Such. Protocols, can. Be considered, to be below IP but, above the existing, link system. While. The IETF. Does, not use the terminology. The, as a subnetwork, dependent. Convergence. Facility. According, to an extension, to the OSI, model the. Internal, organization, of, the network layer I onl. ICMP. And I GMP, operate, on top of IP but, do not transport, data, like UDP. Or TCP. Again. This functionality. Exists. As layer management, extensions. To the OSI, model in, its management, framework. OSI. Our MMF. The SSL, TLS, library. Operates. Above the transport, layer uses. TCP. But below application. Protocols. Again. There was no intention. On the part of the designers, of these protocols, to. Comply, with OSI, architecture. The. Link is treated, as a black box. The, IETF. Explicitly. Does not intend, to discuss transmission. Systems, which is a less academic. But practical, alternative. To the OSI, model. The. Following, is a description, of each layer in the tcp/ip. Networking. Model, starting, from the lowest level. Topic. Link, layer. You. The, link layer has, the networking, scope, of the local, network connection. To which a host is attached. This. Regime is called, the link in, tcp/ip. Literature. It. Is the lowest component. Layer of the Internet protocols. As. Tcp/ip. Is, designed, to be Hardware, independent. As. A result. Tcp/ip. May. Be implemented, on top of, virtually, any hardware, networking. Technology. The. Link layer is used, to move packets, between the internet, layer interfaces. Of two different, hosts, on the same link, the. Processes. Of transmitting. And receiving packets. On a given, link can be controlled, both in the software, device driver, for the network card as well as on firmware or, specialized, chipsets. These. Perform, datalink functions. Such as adding, a packet, header to prepare, it for transmission. Then actually, transmit, the frame over a physical, medium. The. Tcp/ip. Model, includes. Specifications. Of translating. The network, addressing. Methods, used, in the Internet, Protocol, to link layer addresses, such. As media access control, MAC. Addresses. All. Other, aspects. Below that level however, are implicitly. Assumed, to exist in the link layer but, are not explicitly. Defined. This. Is also the layer where, packets may, be selected, to be sent over a virtual, private network. Or other networking. Tunnel, in. This scenario the, link layer data may be considered. Application. Data which, traverses, another, instantiation. Of the IP stack, for transmission. Or reception over. Another IP connection. Such. A connection, or, virtual. Link may, be established with. A transport. Protocol, or even an application. Scope protocol. That serves as a tunnel, in the link layer of the protocol, stack. The, tcp/ip. Model, does. Not dictate a strict, hierarchical. Encapsulation. Sequence. The. Tcp/ip. Models. Link layer corresponds. To the open systems, interconnection. OSI. Model, physical and data link layers, layers. 1, & 2 of the OSI model. Topic. Internet. Layer. You. The, internet, layer has, the responsibility, of, sending packets. Across potentially. Multiple networks. Internet. Working requires. Sending, data from the source network to, the destination. Network, this. Process. Is called routing. The. Internet Protocol, performs. Two basic, functions. Host. Addressing. And identification. This is accomplished. With a hierarchical.

IP Addressing. System. Packet. Routing, this is the basic, task of sending packets, of data datagrams. From source to destination by. Forwarding, them to the next network router, closer, to the final destination the, internet, layer is not only agnostic, of data structures. At the transport. Layer but, it also does, not distinguish. Between operation. Of the various, transport, layer protocols. IP. Carries. Data for, a variety of different, upper, layer protocols. These. Protocols, are, each identified, by, a unique protocol. Number, for example Internet, control, message protocol. ICMP. An. Internet, group management, protocol. IGMP. Are protocols. 1 and 2 respectively. Some. Of the protocols, carried. By IP such. As, ICMP. Which is used to transmit, diagnostic. Information and. IGMP. Which is used to manage IP, multicast. Data, are layered, on top of IP but. Perform, internetworking. Functions. This. Illustrates. The differences, in the architecture. Of the tcp/ip. Stack, of the internet, and the OSI, model, the. Tcp/ip. Models. Internet, layer corresponds. To layer 3, of the open, systems, interconnection. OSI. Model. Where it is referred, to as, the network, layer. The. Internet, layer provides. An unreliable, Datagram. Transmission. Facility, between hosts. Potentially. Different IP networks. By forwarding, the transport. Layer datagrams. To an appropriate next, hop router for. Further relaying, to its destination. With. This functionality. The, internet, layer makes, possible internet, working the, interworking, of, different, IP networks. And it essentially, establishes. The Internet, the. Internet, Protocol. As the principal, component, of the internet, layer and it defines, two addressing, systems, to identify Network. Hosts, computers, and to locate them on the network. The. Original, address system. Of the ARPANET and its successor. The Internet, is Internet, Protocol, version 4, ipv4. It. Uses, a 32-bit IP. Address. And is therefore capable. Of identifying. Approximately. 4 billion hosts. This. Limitation. Was eliminated. In 1998. By the standardization. Of Internet, Protocol, version 6. Ipv6. Which uses. 128-bit. Addresses. Ipv6. Production. Implementations. Emerged, in approximately. 2006. Topic. Transport. Layer. You. The, transport. Layer, establishes. Basic, data channels, that applications. Use for task specific data, exchange. The. Layer establishes. Host-to-host. Connectivity. Meaning, it provides, end-to-end, message. Transfer services. That are independent. Of the structure, of user data and the logistics, of exchanging. Information for, any particular, specific. Purpose, and independent. Of the underlying, network. The. Protocols. In this layer may, provide, error control. Segmentation. Flow, control, congestion, control, and, application. Addressing, port numbers. End-to-end. Message, transmission. Or connecting, applications. At the transport. Layer can, be categorized. As either connection. Oriented. Implemented. In TCP. Or connectionless. Implemented. In UDP. For. The purpose, of providing, process, specific, transmission. Channels, for applications. The layer establishes. The concept, of the network port. This. Is a numbered, logical. Construct. Allocated. Specifically. For each of the communication. Channels, and application. Needs. For. Many types of services, these port numbers have been standardized. So, that client. Computers, may address specific. Services, of a server computer, without, the involvement of, service, announcements. Or directory, services. Because. IP provides. Only a best effort, delivery some. Transport, layer protocols. Offer, reliability. However. IP can, run over a reliable. Data link protocol. Such as the high level data link control, hdl-c. For. Example, the TCP. As a connection oriented protocol. That addresses, numerous, reliability. Issues, in providing, a reliable byte, stream. Data, arrives, in order. Has minimal, error ie, correctness. Duplicate. Data is discarded. Lost. Or discarded packets. Are resent. Includes. Traffic, congestion, control. Newer, stream, control, transmission, protocol. SCTP. Is also, a reliable. Connection-oriented. Transport. Mechanism. It. Is message, stream oriented. Not. Byte stream, oriented.

Like TCP. And, provides. Multiple streams. Multiplexed. Over a single, connection, it. Also provides. Multihoming. Support. In which a connection, end can be represented. By multiple, IP addresses. Representing. Multiple physical. Interfaces, such. That if one fails the, connection, is not interrupted. It. Was developed, initially for, telephony applications, to. Transport. Ss7. Over, IP but. Can also be used for other applications. The. User Datagram, protocol. As a connectionless. Datagram, protocol. Like. IP it, is a best-effort. Unreliable. Protocol. Reliability. As addressed, through error detection, using, a weak checksum, algorithm. UDP. As typically, used for applications. Such as streaming media audio, video, voice, over, IP etcetera. Where on-time arrival, is more important, than reliability. Or for, simple, query response. Applications. Like DNS, lookups, where, the overhead, of setting, up a reliable, connection, as disproportionately. Large. Real-time. Transport, protocol. RTP. Is, a Datagram. Protocol. That, is designed, for real-time, data such, as streaming, audio, and video, the. Applications. At any given network, address, are distinguished. By their tcp, or UDP port. By. Convention. Certain, well-known ports. Are associated. With specific, applications. The. TCP. P models, transport. Or host-to-host, layer. Corresponds. Roughly to, the fourth layer in the open systems, interconnection. OSI. Model. Also called the transport, layer. Topic. Application-layer. You. The, application. Layer includes. The protocols. Used, by most applications. For providing user services. Or exchanging. Application. Data over, the network connections. Established, by the lower-level, protocols. This. May include some, basic network. Support, services, such as protocols. For routing and host configuration. Examples. Of application. Layer protocols. Include. The hypertext. Transfer, Protocol. HTTP. The, File Transfer, Protocol. FTP. The, Simple Mail Transfer, Protocol. SMTP. And. The dynamic, host configuration. Protocol. DHCP. Data. Coded, according to application. Layer protocols. Are, encapsulated, into. Transport. Layer protocol. Units, such, as TCP. Or UDP, messages. Which in turn use lower, layer, protocols. To, affect actual, data transfer. The. Tcp/ip. Model, does. Not consider, the specifics. Of formatting. And presenting, data and does not define, additional, layers between, the application. And transport. Layers as, in the OSI, model, presentation. And session, layers. Such. Functions. Are the realm of libraries. And application. Programming, interfaces. Application. Layer protocols.

Generally. Treat the transport. Layer and lower protocols. As black boxes, which provide, a stable, network, connection. Across which to communicate, although, the applications. Are usually, aware of key qualities, of the transport. Layer connection. Such as the endpoint IP, addresses. And port numbers. Application. Layer protocols. Are often associated with, particular. Client-server. Applications. And common, services, have well-known port, numbers, reserved, by the internet, assigned numbers Authority. Jana, for. Example, the hypertext, Transfer. Protocol, uses, server, port ad and tow net uses, server port, 23. Clients. Connecting, to a service, usually. Use ephemeral, ports, ie, port, numbers, assigned, only for the duration of the transaction. At random, or from a specific range configured. In the application. The. Transport. Layer and lower-level. Layers, are, unconcerned. With the specifics. Of application. Layer protocols. Routers. And switches do. Not typically, examine. The encapsulated. Traffic. Rather they just provide a conduit, for it. However. Some, firewall. And bandwidth, throttling, applications. Must, interpret, application. Data an. Example. As the resource, reservation. Protocol. RSVP. It. Is also sometimes, necessary. For network, address, translator. NAT traversal to, consider, the application payload. The. Application. Layer in the tcp/ip, model. Is. Often compared, as equivalent to a combination. Of the fifth session sixth. Presentation. And the seventh, application. Layers, of the open systems, interconnection. OSI. Model. Furthermore. The, tcp/ip. Reference. Model. Distinguishes. Between user, protocols. And support, protocols. Support. Protocols. Provide, services. To a system, user. Protocols. Are used for, actual user applications. For. Example. FTP. As a user protocol. And DNS, as a support, protocol. Topic. Layer, names, and, number of layers in, the literature. You. The, following, table, shows various. Networking, models, the. Number of layers varies. Between three, and seven. Some. Of the networking, models, are from textbooks which, are secondary, sources that. May conflict with the intent, of RFC. 1122. And, other IETF. Primary. Sources. Topic. Comparison. Of, tcp/ip. And. OSI, layering. The, three top layers in the OSI, model ie. The, application. Layer the presentation. Layer and, the session, layer are, not distinguished. Separately. In the tcp/ip, model. Which. Only has an application layer. Above, the transport. Layer, while. Some pure OSI, protocol. Applications. Such, as by point, four zero zero, also, combined, them there is no requirement, that, a tcp/ip. Protocol. Stack must, impose monolithic. Architecture above. The transport, layer, for. Example the. NFS, application. Protocol. Runs over the external, data, representation. XD, our, presentation. Protocol. Which, in turn runs, over, a protocol. Called, remote, procedure call. RPC. RPC. Provides, reliable. Record, transmission. So it can safely use the best-effort, UDP. Transport. Different. Authors, have interpreted. The tcp/ip. Model, differently. And disagree.

Whether The link layer or, the entire. Tcp/ip. Model covers. OSI. Layer one physical. Layer issues. Or whether a hardware, layer is assumed, below, the link layer. Several. Authors have attempted. To incorporate the. OSI, models, layers 1 & 2 into, the tcp/ip. Model since. These are commonly, referred to in modern, standards. For example by, I Triple. E and ITU. This. Often, results, in a model, with 5 layers where, the link layer or network, access layer, is split into the OSI, models, layers 1, & 2. The. IETF. Protocol. Development. Effort, is not concerned, with strict, layering. Some. Of its protocols. May, not fit cleanly, into the OSI, model although. RFC's. Sometimes. Refer, to it and often, use the old OSI. Layer numbers. The. IETF has. Repeatedly. Stated that Internet, Protocol. And architecture. Development. Is not intended, to be OSI. Compliant. RFC. 3439. Addressing. Internet, architecture, contains. A section entitled. Layering. Considered, harmful. For. Example, the session, and presentation. Layers of, the OSI suite. Are considered, to be included, to the application. Layer of the tcp/ip. Suite. The. Functionality. Of the session, layer can, be found in protocols. Like. HTTP. And SMTP, and. As more evident, in protocols. Like telnet and the session, initiation, protocol. Sip. Session. Layer, functionality. Is also realized, with the port numbering, of the TCP. And UDP, protocols. Which, cover the transport. Layer in, the tcp/ip. Suite. Functions. Of the presentation. Layer are realized, in the tcp/ip. Applications. With the mime standard, in data exchange. Conflicts. Are apparent, also, in the original, OSI. Model, ISO. 7400. 98, when not considering. The annexes, to this model eg. The, ISO. 7490. Eight quarters, management. Framework, or the ISO. 8601. At. Work layer I onl. When. The I onl, and, management, framework, documents. Are considered, the, ICMP. And IGMP. Are defined, as layer management, protocols. For, the network layer, in. Like, manner the I onl, provides. A structure, for sub. Network, dependent. Convergence. Facilities. Such. As arp, and rarp. IETF. Protocols. Can be encapsulated. Recursively. As demonstrated. By tunneling. Protocols. Such, as generic, routing encapsulation. GRE. GRE. Uses. The same mechanism. That OSI. Uses, for tunneling, at the network layer. Topic. Implementations. You. The, Internet, Protocol. Suite does, not presume, any specific. Hardware, or software, environment. It. Only requires, that hardware, and the software layer. Exists. That is capable, of sending, and receiving packets. On a computer, network, as. A result. The suite has been implemented. On essentially. Every computing, platform. A, minimal. Implementation. Of tcp/ip. Includes. The following Internet. Protocol. IP, address. Resolution, protocol. ARP internet. Control, message protocol. ICMP. Transmission. Control, protocol. TCP. User. Datagram. Protocol. UDP, an. Internet, group management, protocol. IGMP. In. Addition, to IP. ICMP. TCP. UDP. Internet. Protocol. Version 6. Requires. Neighbor, discovery. Protocol. And DP. Icmpv6. And. IGMP. V6. And is often accompanied, by an, integrated, IPSec, security. Layer. Application. Programmers. Are typically, concerned, only with interfaces. In, the application. Layer and often. Also in the transport. Layer while. The layers below, are services. Provided. By the tcp/ip. Stack, in, the operating, system. Most. IP. Implementations. Are accessible. To programmers. Through sockets, and api's. Unique. Implementations. Include lightweight. Tcp/ip. An, open, source stack designed, for embedded, systems and ka9. Q, and OS a stack, and associated. Protocols. For, amateur, packet, radio, systems. And personal, computers, connected. Via serial lines. Microcontroller. Firmware. In the network, adapter, typically. Handles, link issues, supported. By driver software, in, the operating, system. Non-programmable. Analog. And digital electronics. Are. Normally, in charge of the physical, components. Below the link layer typically. Using, an application-specific. Integrated. Circuit, as. Ik chipset, for each network, interface or. Other physical, standard. High-performance. Routers, are to a large extent, based on fast non programmable. Digital, electronics.

Carrying, Out link level switching. Topic. See, also. BBN. Report. 1822. Flip. Protocol. Fast, local, internet, protocol. Stack. List. Of automation, protocols. List. Of information, technology. Acronyms. List. Of IP protocol. Numbers. List. Of network, protocols. List. Of tcp. And UDP port. Numbers. Topic. Bibliography. Douglas. A comer, internet. Working with tcp/ip. Principles. Protocols. And architecture. ISBN. Eight. Six, seven. Nine nine one. One, four two nine. Joseph. G Davies, and Thomas, F Lee. Microsoft. Windows, Server, 2003. Tcp/ip. Protocols. And services. Is. B, and O seven. Three five six, one, two nine, one nine. Four. Is in the Roos a. 2003. Tcp/ip. Protocol. Suite 2nd, ed mcgraw-hill. ISBN. Nine. Seven, 800, seven. Two, four six, oh six oh five. Craig. Hunt tcp/ip. Network. Administration. O'Reilly. 1998. ISBN. One. Five, six, five nine two. Three, two two seven. Mouf. Er Thomas, a, 1999. IP. Fundamentals. Prentice. Hall ISBN. Nine. Seven. Eight oh one three, nine, seven, five four, eight three, eight. Ian. MacLean, Windows. Are, 2000. Tcp/ip. Black. Book. ISBN. One. Five, seven, six one oh six, eight 7x. Ajit, Mongol Pro dotnet. 1.1. Network, programming. ISBN. One five, nine oh. Five, nine, three, four. Five, six. W. Richard, Stevens. Tcp/ip. Illustrated. Volume one the protocols. Is. Bno. -, oh one, six. Three three four. Six nine. W. Richard, Stevens and, Gary are right. Tcp/ip. Illustrated, volume. To the, implementation. ISBN. 0, to 200. 1 6, 3 3, 5 4x. W. Richard, Stevens. Tcp/ip. Illustrated. Volume, 3, TCP. For transactions. HTTP. Nntp. And, the UNIX, domain protocols. Is. B, and O two O one, six, three four, nine five, three. Andrew. S Tannenbaum. Computer. Networks, is. B no1. 306. Six one oh two three. Clark. D. 1988. The. Design philosophy. Of the DARPA internet, protocols. PDF. Sigcomm. 88. Symposium. Proceedings. On communications. Architectures. And protocols. ACM. PP. 106. To, 114. Joy. 10.1. One four five fifty. Two thousand, three hundred twenty, four point, five two three three, six. ISBN. Nine seven, eight oh eight, nine, seven, nine one two. Seven nine to. Retrieve. The 16th, of October, 2011.

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