Intermediate technology | Wikipedia audio article
Appropriate. Technology as. A movement and its manifestations, encompassing. Technological. Choice and application. That is small-scale. Decentralized. Labor intensive, energy efficient. Environmentally. Sound and locally, autonomous. It. Was originally, articulated, as intermediate, technology, by the economist. Dr. Ernst Friedrich, Fritz. Schumacher. In his work small as beautiful, both, Schumacher. And many modern-day, proponents. Of appropriate, technology also. Emphasize, the technology, as people centered appropriate. Technology. Has been used to address issues, in a wide range of fields. Well-known. Examples, of appropriate technology. Applications. Include, bike in hand powered water pumps, and other self powered equipment the, universal, nutshell er self-contained. Solar lamps, and streetlights and passive, solar building designs. Today. Appropriate. Technology, is often developed, using open source principles, which have led to open source appropriate, technology, OS 80 and, thus many of the plans of the technology, can be freely found on the Internet, o SAT. Has, been proposed as a new model of enabling, innovation for sustainable, development. Appropriate. Technology is. Most commonly, discussed in its relationship. To economic. Development and, as an alternative to technology, transfer, of more capital-intensive. Technology. From industrialized. Nations, to developing, countries, however. Appropriate. Technology, movements, can be found in both developing. And developed countries. In. Developed. Countries, the appropriate, technology movement grew, out of the energy, crisis, of the 1970s, and. Focuses, mainly on environmental. And sustainability, issues. Today. The idea is multifaceted, in some contexts. Appropriate. Technology, can be described, as the simplest, level of technology that can achieve the intended purpose whereas, in others it can refer to engineering, that takes adequate, consideration, of social and environmental ramifications. The. Facets, are connected, through robustness, and sustainable. Living. You. Topic. Background. Topic. History. You. Topic. Predecessor's. Indian. Ideological. Leader Mahatma, Gandhi, is often cited as the father, of the, appropriate, technology, movement though. The concept, had not been given a name Gandhi, advocated for. Small local, and predominantly, village, based technology. To help India's villages, become self-reliant. He. Disagreed, with the idea of technology. That benefited, a minority, of people at the expense of the majority or, that put people out of work to increase profit, in. 1925. Gandhi, founded the All India spinors Association. And in 1935. He retired, from politics, to form the All India village, industries Association. Both. Organizations. Focused, on village based technology. Similar to the future appropriate, technology, movement China. Also implemented. Policies, similar to appropriate, technology. During the reign of Mao Zedong and the following Cultural, Revolution. During. The Cultural, Revolution, development. Policies, based on the idea of walking. On two legs, advocated. The development, of both large-scale. Factories and, small-scale, village, industries. You. Topic. EF. Schumacher. Despite. These early examples, dr., Ernst Friedrich Fritz. Schumacher. Is credited, as the founder, of the appropriate, technology movement a, well, known economist. Schumacher. Worked for the British National, Coal Board for, more than 20 years where, he blamed the size of the industry's, operations. For its uncaring, response, to the harm black lung disease inflicted. On the miners. However. It was his work with developing, countries such. As India and Burma which helped Schumacher, form the underlying, principles, of appropriate, technology. Schumacher. First articulated the idea of, intermediate. Technology. Now. Known as appropriate, technology, in a 1962. Report, to the Indian Planning, Commission, in which he described, India as long in labor and short in capital, calling, for an intermediate. Industrial. Technology. That. Harnessed, India's, labor surplus. Schumacher. Had been developing, the idea of intermediate. Technology, for several years prior to the Planning Commission, report in. 1955. Following, a stint as an economic, adviser to the government of Burma he published the short paper, economics. In a Buddhist, country, his. First known critique, of the effects, of Western economics, on developing, countries in, addition, to Buddhism, Schumacher.
Also Credited, his ideas, to Gandhi. Initially. Schumacher's. Ideas, were rejected by both the Indian government, and leading development, economists. Spurt. To action / concern the idea of intermediate, technology, would languish, Schumacher, George, McRobbie, Mansur, Hoda and Julia Porter brought together a group of approximately 20. People to form the intermediate, technology development. Group itd. G in May, 1965. Later. That year a Schumacher, article, published in The Observer garnered. Significant. Attention, and support for the group in. 1967. The group published, the tools for progress. A guide to small-scale. Equipment, for rural development and, sold 7,000. Copies. Itd. G also formed, panels, of experts and practitioners around, specific. Logical, needs such, as building construction. Energy, and water to develop intermediate, technologies. To address those needs at a conference. Hosted by the IT DG, in 1968. The term intermediate. Technology. Was. Discarded, in favor of the term, appropriate. Technology. Used. Today, intermediate. Technology, had been criticized, as suggesting, the technology, was inferior, to advanced, or high technology. And not including, the social, and political factors, included. In the concept, put forth by the proponents. In. 1973. Schumacher. Described, the concept of appropriate, technology to. A mass audience in, his influential, work small, as beautiful, economics. As if people mattered. You. Topic. Growing. Trend. Between. 1966. And 1975. The, number of new appropriate, technology, organizations. Founded, each year was three times greater than the previous nine years, there. Was also an increase in organizations. Focusing, on applying appropriate, technology. To the problems, of industrialized. Nations, particularly. Issues related. To energy in the environment in. 1977. The OECD. Identified. In its appropriate, technology. Directory, 680. Organizations. Involved, in the development and promotion of appropriate, technology. By. 1980. This number had grown to more than 1,000. International. Agencies. And government, departments, were also emerging, as major innovators. In appropriate, technology. Indicating. Its progression, from a small movement, fighting against, the established, norms to a legitimate, technological. Choice supported, by the establishment. For. Example, the inter-american, Development. Bank created, a committee for the application. Of intermediate, technology in. 1976. And the World Health Organization. Established, the appropriate, technology, for health program, in, 1977. Appropriate. Technology, was also increasingly, applied in developed, countries, for, example. The energy crisis. Of the mid-1970s, led, to the creation of the National, Center for appropriate, technology. NCAT. In. 1977. With an initial, appropriation of 3 million dollars from the US Congress, the, center, sponsored, appropriate, technology. Demonstrations. To help, low-income, communities. Find better ways to do things that will improve the quality of, life and that will be doable with the skills and resources at.
Hand. However. By 1981. The NCATS, funding. Agency, Community, Services Administration. Had been abolished, for. Several decades NCAT, worked, with the u.s. departments. Of energy, and agriculture. On contract, to develop appropriate, technology. Programs. Since. 2005. NCATS. Informational. Web site is no longer funded, by the US, government. You. Topic. Decline. In more, recent years the appropriate, technology movement has, continued, to decline in, prominence. Germany's. German appropriate, technology. Exchanged, gate and Holland's Technology, Transfer for development, tool are examples, of organizations no, longer in operation. Recently. A study looked, at the continued, barriers, to at deployment despite, the relatively, low cost of, transferring, information in, the Internet, age the. Barriers, have been identified as, at seen as inferior or poor. Persons. Technology. Technical. Transfer, ability and robustness, Evette insufficient. Funding weak institutional. Support, and the challenges, of distance, and time in tackling, rural poverty, a more free-market, centric, view has also begun to dominate the field for. Example Paul, Pollock founder, of international, development enterprises. An organization. That designs and manufactures, products, that follow the ideals, of appropriate, technology declared. Appropriate, technology, dead in a 2010, blog post Pollock, argues, the design. For the other 90%. Movement. Has replaced, appropriate. Technology. Growing. Out of the appropriate, technology movement designing. For the other 90%, advocates. The creation, of low-cost solutions. For the 5.8. Billion of the world's 6.8. Billion population, who. Have little or no access to, most of the products, and services, many of us take for granted. Many. Of the ideas integral, to appropriate, technology. Can now be found in the increasingly, popular. Sustainable. Development. Movement. Which among many tenets, advocates, technological. Choice that meets human needs while preserving the environment for, future generations, in. 1983. The OECD. Published, the results of an extensive, survey of appropriate, technology, organizations. Titled, the world of appropriate, technology in. Which it defined appropriate, technology. As characterized. By low, investment, cost per workplace, low, capital, investment. Per unit of output. Organizational. Simplicity. High adaptability. To a particular. Social or cultural, environment, sparing. Use of Natural Resources low, cost of final, product, or high potential, for employment. Today. The OECD. Website, redirects. From the glossary. Of statistical.
Terms, Entry. On, appropriate. Technology. To. Environmentally. Sound technologies. The. United, Nations, index. To economic. And social development. Also. Redirects, from the appropriate. Technology. Entry. To sustainable. Development. You. Topic. Potential. Resurgence. Despite. The decline several. Appropriate, technology, organizations. Are still in existence including, the IT DG, which became, practical, action, after a name change in 2005. Scat. Schwarz, are intact, to stealth Ferengi past technology, adapted. By becoming a private consultancy. In 1998. Though some intermediate, technology activities. Are continued, by scat Foundation, through the rural water supply, network our, wsn. Another. Actor, still very active, as the charity, ceas. Center, ecologic, Albert, Schweitzer. Pioneer. In food transformation. And solar heaters, it offers, vocational training. In West Africa, and Madagascar. There. Is also currently, a notable resurgence, as viewed by the number of groups adopting, open-source appropriate. Technology, OS, 80 because, of the enabling, technology. Of the internet, these. OS, 80 groups, include, a kvo Foundation. A pro pedia appropriate. Technology. Collaborative. Catalytic. Communities Center, for alternative, technology. Center, for development, alternatives, engineers. Without Borders, open, source ecology practical. Action, and village, Earth most. Recently, a SME. Engineers, Without Borders, USA. And the I Triple, E have joined together to produce engineering. For change which facilitates. The development of, affordable locally. Appropriate and, sustainable, solutions, to the most pressing humanitarian, challenges. You. Topic. Terminology. Appropriate. Technology frequently. Serves as an umbrella term for a variety names, for this type of technology. Frequently. These terms are used interchangeably, however. The use of one term over another can indicate the specific, focus bias.
Or Agenda of, the technological. Choice in question, though. The original name for the concept, now known as appropriate, technology. Intermediate. Technology. Is now. Often considered, a subset, of appropriate. Technology that. Focuses, on technology, that is more productive, than, inefficient. Traditional. Technologies. But less costly, than the technology of industrialized. Societies. Other. Types, of technology, under the appropriate technology, umbrella, include, a, variety. Of competing, definitions exist. In academic, literature, and organization. And government, policy, papers for each of these terms, however. The, general consensus. As appropriate, technology. Encompasses, the ideas, represented by, the above list. Furthermore. The use of one term over another in referring, to an appropriate technology. Can indicate ideological. Bias or emphasis, on particular, economic, or social variables. Some. Terms inherently, emphasize, the importance, of increased, employment, and labor utilization, such. As labor intensive, or capital, saving technology, while others may emphasize the importance, of human development such. As self-help in people's technology it, is also possible, to distinguish, between hard, and soft technologies. According. To dr., Maurice Albertson, and Audrey Falkner appropriate. Hard technology, as, engineering. Techniques, physical. Structures, and machinery, that need a need defined, by a community and, utilize, the material at, hand are readily available, it. Can be built operated. And maintained, by the local people with very limited outside assistance. EEG. Technical. Material. Or financial. It is usually, related to an economic, goal. Albertson. And Falkner consider, appropriate, soft, technology. As technology that. Deals with the social, structures, human, interactive. Asses and motivation. Techniques, it. Is the structure, and process, for social, participation and. Action, by individuals. And groups in analyzing. Situations making. Choices and engaging, in choice implementing. Behaviors, that bring about change. You. Topic. Practitioners. You. Some. Of the well-known practitioners. Of the appropriate, technology sector. Include. Bv. Doshi. Buckminster. Fuller William, Moyer. 1933. To 2002. Amory, Lovins Sanu C Diakite, a Albert, Bates Victor, papinek, Giorgio, Sara Jolie, 1932. 2008. Fritjof Bergman. Arness. 1912. To 2009. And Mansur Hoda Laurie Baker. You. Topic. Development. Schumacher's, initial, concept, of intermediate, technology was, created as a critique of the currently prevailing, development, strategies, which focused, on maximizing aggregate. Economic growth, through increases, to overall measurements, of a country's, economy such, as gross domestic product. GDP. Developed. Countries, became aware of the situation of, developing, countries, during and in the years following World War two, based. On the continuing, rise in income levels in Western countries since, the Industrial, Revolution developed. Countries embarked, on a campaign of massive, transfers, of capital, and technology, to developing, countries, in order to force a rapid industrialization, intended. To result in an economic, takeoff. In the, developing, countries, however, by, the late 1960s. It, was becoming clear this, development, method had not worked as expected and, a growing number of development, experts, and national, policymakers were, recognizing.
It As a potential, cause of increasing, poverty, and income inequality in, developing, countries, in, many, countries, this influx, of technology had increased, the overall economic. Capacity, of the country, however. It, had created a dual or two-tiered. Economy, with pronounced, division, between the classes, the. Foreign technology imports. Were only benefiting, a small minority of urban elites, this. Was also increasing. Urbanization. With the rural poor moving to urban cities, in hope of more financial. Opportunities. The. Increased, strain on urban infrastructure's. And public services, led to increasing. Squalor, severe. Impacts, on public health and distortions. In the social, structure. Appropriate. Technology, was meant to address four problems, extreme, poverty, starvation. Unemployment. And urban migration. Schumacher, saw the main purpose, for economic. Development programs. Was the eradication. Of extreme, poverty, and he saw a clear connection between mass, unemployment and, extreme, poverty. Schumacher. Sought to shift development, efforts from a bias towards, urban areas, and. Unappealing. To, focusing, on rural areas, where a majority, of the population, still lived and, increasing, employment. You. Topic. In developed. Countries. The, term appropriate, technology. Is also used in developed, nations to, describe, the use of technology, and engineering, that result, in less negative impacts, on the environment and. Society, ie, technology. Should be both environmentally. Sustainable and, socially appropriate. EF. Schumacher asserts. That such technology, described. In the book small as beautiful, tends to promote values, such as health beauty, and permanence, in that order. Often. The type of appropriate. Technology that. Is used in developed, countries, as, appropriate. And sustainable. Technology. Asked. Appropriate. Technology, that besides, being functional, and relatively, cheap though, often more expensive than true it is durable, and employs, renewable, resources, Act does. Not include, this C sustainable. Design. Topic. Applications. Topic. Building. And construction. In order, to increase the efficiency of a great number of city services, efficient, water provisioning. Efficient, electricity, provisioning. Easy traffic. Flow water, drainage, decreased, spread, of disease with epidemics. The, city itself must first be built correctly in, the. Developing, world many cities are expanding, rapidly and, new ones are being built, looking. Into the city's design, in advance as a must for every developing, nation. Adobe. Including, the variation, called super, Adobe. Rammed. Earth. Compressed. Earth block. Animal. Products. Cub. And, or. Other green building materials could, be considered, appropriate earth building, technology, for much of the developing, world as they make use of materials. Which are widely available locally. And are thus relatively, inexpensive. The local context, must be considered as for example mud, brick may not be durable in a high rainfall area although, a large roof overhang, and cement stabilization can. Be used to correct for this and if the materials, are not readily available the, method may be inappropriate. Other. Forms, of natural building may be considered, appropriate, technology, though in many cases, the emphasis, is on sustainability.
And Self-sufficiency. Rather, than affordability, or suitability. As such. Many buildings, are also built to function as autonomous, buildings, eg, earth ships. One, example of an organization that applies, appropriate. Earth building, techniques, would be builders, Without Borders. The. Building structure must also be considered. Cost-effectiveness. As an important, issue in projects, based around appropriate. Technology. And one of the most efficient, designs here in as the public housing, approach, this. Approach lets everyone, have their own sleeping, recreation. Space yet, incorporate, communal, spaces eg, mess halls latrines. Public. Showers. In. Addition. To decrease costs of operation, heating, cooling. Techniques. As earth sheltering, trembles. Are often, incorporated. Organizations. As architecture. For Humanity also. Follows principles, consistent, with appropriate, technology, aiming, to serve the needs of poor and disaster, affected, people. Natural. Ventilation can, be created, by providing, vents, in the upper level of a building to allow warm air to rise by convection, and escape to the outside while, cooler, air is drawn in through vents, at the lower level. Electrical. Powered fans eg, ceiling, fans allow, efficient, cooling at a far lower electricity, consumption, as air conditioning systems, a, solar. Chimney often, referred to as thermal chimney improves, this natural, ventilation by. Using convection. Of air heated by passive, solar energy. To. Further maximize the, cooling effect the, incoming, air may be led through underground, ducts, before it is allowed to enter the building a. Wind. Catcher bagger, baggier, as a traditional, Persian architectural. Device used for many centuries to create natural ventilation in, buildings, it. Is not known who first invented the wind catcher but it still can be seen in many countries today. Wind. Catchers, come in various, designs, such, as the unidirectional. Bi-directional. And multi-directional. A. Passive. Downdraft, cool tower may be used in a hot arid, climate, to provide a sustainable, way to provide, air conditioning. Water. Is allowed to evaporate at, the top of a tower either by using evaporative. Cooling pads or by spraying water. Evaporation. Cools the incoming air causing, a downdraft of cool air that will bring down the temperature, inside the building. Topic. Agriculture. Appropriate. Technology has. Been applied extensively. To improve agricultural. Production, in developing, countries, in the. United States the National Center for appropriate technology. Operates, atra at rIDOT, NCAT, org. A national, sustainable. Agriculture. Assistance Program. You. Topic. Water, and sanitation. You. Topic. Water. As of. 2006. Waterborne. Diseases are estimated, to cause 1.8. Million deaths each year while, about 1.1. Billion, people, lack proper, drinking water water, generally, needs treatment before use depending. On the source and the intended, use with high standards required, for drinking, water the. Quality, of water from household, connections, and community, water points, in low-income countries, is not reliably. Safe for direct human consumption. Water. Extracted. Directly, from surface, waters and open, hand dug shallow wells nearly, always requires, treatment. Appropriate. Technology, options in, water treatment include. Both community, scale and household, scale point-of-use pou, designs. The. Most reliable, way to kill microbial, pathogenic, agents as, to heat water to a rolling boil, other. Techniques. Such as varying, forms of filtration chemical. Disinfection, and exposure, to ultraviolet, radiation, including. Solar UV have, been demonstrated, in an array of randomized, control, trials to significantly. Reduce levels, of waterborne, disease among users in low-income countries. Over. The past decade. An increasing. Number of field-based studies, have been undertaken to, determine, the success of pou measures in reducing, waterborne, disease, the. Ability, of pou options, to reduce disease, as a function, of both their ability, to remove microbial. Pathogens if, properly, applied and such social factors, as ease of use and cultural, appropriateness. Technologies. May generate, more or less health benefits, than their lab based microbial. Removal, performance, would suggest. The. Current priority, of the proponents, of pou treatment, is to reach large numbers, of low-income households. On a sustainable, basis. Few. Pou measures have reached significant. Scale thus far but efforts to promote and commercially, distribute, these products, to the world's poor have only been underway, for a few years on the, other.
Hand, Small-scale. Water treatment, is reaching increasing, fractions, of the population. In low-income countries. Particularly. In South and Southeast, Asia in the form of water treatment, kiosks, also, known as refill, stations, are packaged, water producers. While. Quality, control, and quality assurance in, such locations may, be variable. Sophisticated. Technology, such, as multistage. Particle, filtration UV. Irradiation. Ozonation. And membrane, filtration is, applied, with increasing, frequency. Such. Micro enterprises, are able to vend water at extremely, low prices. With increasing, government regulation. Initial. Assessments, of vended water quality, are encouraging. Whether. Applied, at the household, or community, level some examples, of specific treatment. Processes, include. Porous. Ceramic, filtration using. Either clay or diatomaceous, earth and, oriented. As either cylinder, pot or disc with gravity, fed or siphon driven delivery systems. Silver. Is frequently, added to provide antimicrobial. Enhancement. Intermittently. Operated. Slow sand filtration also. Known as bio sand filtration. Chlorine. Disinfection employing. Calcium. Hypochlorite. Powder sodium. Hypochlorite. Solution or. Sodium, dichlorite cyanurate. Na, DCC, tablets. Chemical. Flocculation, using, either commercially. Produced iron or aluminum salts. Are the crushed seeds of certain plants such, as Moringa, oleifera. Recent. Work has shown even table, salt sodium chlorite, is effective, at removing high-activity, clays, for solar water disinfection. Irradiation. With ultraviolet. Light whether using electric, powered lamps or direct, solar exposure, such, as with the Saudis method mixed, flocculation, disinfection. Using, commercially, produced powdered, mixtures, membrane, filtration employing. Ultra filtration or, reverse osmosis, filter elements. Preceded, by pretreatment. Some appropriate, technology. Water supply, measures include, deep wells with submersible. Pumps in areas, where the groundwater, aquifers. Are located. At depths greater than 10 meters, shallow. Wells with lined walls and covers, rainwater. Harvesting systems. With an appropriate, method of storage, especially, in areas with significant. Dry seasons. Fog. Collection. Which is suitable for areas, which experience, fog even when there is little rain air. Wells a structure, or device designed, to promote the condensation, of atmospheric moisture. Hand. Pumps and treadle pumps are generally only, an option in areas as located, at a relatively, shallow depth eg, 10 meters, the. Flexi pipe pump is a notable exception to, this up to 25, meters, for. Deeper aquifers, condensation. Bags and condensation, pits, can be an appropriate technology. To get water yet, yields, are low and are for the amount of water obtained. Labor-intensive. Still. It may be a good very cheap solution for, certain desperate, communities, the. Hippo water roller and cue drum allow more water to be carried with less effort, and could thus be a good alternative for, ethnic, communities, who do not wish to give up water gathering, from remote locations, assuming, low topographic. Relief, the. Roundabout play pump developed, and used in southern Africa, harnesses, the energy of children, at play to pump water. You. Topic. Sanitation. Poor. Sanitation, is a major issue for a large proportion, of the human population with, about 2.5. Billion people lacking, even the most basic forms, of sanitation. And more than a billion people worldwide practicing. Open defecation in, 2015. According to the joint monitoring, program, for water supply and sanitation of. The United, Nations the ideas, of appropriate, technology influenced. The provision, of sanitation. Systems, for many years. However. Since, about the early 2000s. There has been a departure, from a focus on simplistic. One-size-fits-all. Sanitation. Systems, as, conditions. Vary, sanitation. Systems, also need to vary to meet the needs of the users and other stakeholders. Technologies. For sanitation, provision. Such as toilets, are important, but only one piece of the puzzle. Sanitation. Needs to be regarded, as a system, that includes, technical, and non-technical aspects. Such, as behavior, change in management, as well as political, aspects. The enabling, environment. The. Overall, aim should be to achieve a sustainable, sanitation system. One, option, of achieving, that aim can be the ecological.
Sanitation Approach. Which focuses, on say free use of excreta. It. Is impossible, to name all possible, sanitation. Technologies. That may fall under the category, of appropriate. Technologies. But. Some common, systems, which might be considered to be appropriate. Include. Dry, toilets, as they save on flushing water and may allow the nutrients. Of the excreta, to be reused in agriculture. Eg, for fertilizing, crops. Two, examples, of dry toilets, are composting, toilets, in urine diverting, dry toilets. Constructed. Wetlands, which can treat wastewater and gray water and require only little electrical, power, the. Sand plat is a simple, plate that can be used to cover the hole in the ground of pit latrines, making, them potentially, more easy to clean and maintain. The. Arbor Lu which is a very simple low-cost type of composting, toilet, suitable, for rural areas. You. Topic. Energy. Generation, and uses. The, term soft energy, technology. Was coined by a Marie Lovins to describe. Appropriate. Renewable. Energy. Appropriate. Energy. Technologies. Are especially, suitable for isolated, and/or small-scale, energy, needs. Electricity. Can be provided, from. Photovoltaic. PV. Solar. Panels, and large, concentrating. Solar power plants. PV. Solar panels, made from low-cost photovoltaic, cells. Or PV cells which have first been concentrated. By a luminescent. Solar concentrator. Panel, are also a good option, especially. Companies. As sole focus make, appropriate, technology. CSP. Plants, which can be made from waste plastics, polluting, the surroundings, see above. Solar. Thermal collector. Wind. Power home, do-it-yourself. Turbines, and larger scale. Micro. Hydro and pico, hydro. Human. Powered hand wheel generators. Other. Zero, emission, generation, methods some intermediate, technologies. Include. Bio. Alcohols, as bio ethanol, biome, ethanol, and biobutanol. The. First to require minor, modifications. To allow them to be used in conventional, gasoline engines. The. Third requires, no modifications. At all. Vegetable. Oils which can be used only in internal, combustion, diesel. Engines. Biofuels. Are locally, available in, many developing, countries, and can be cheaper than fossil fuels. Anaerobic. Digestion, power plants. Biogas. Is another potential, source of energy, particularly. Where there is an abundant, supply of waste organic, matter a, generator. Running, on biofuels, can be run more efficiently if combined with batteries, and an inverter this adds significantly. To capital, cost but reduces, running cost and can potentially make this a much cheaper option, than the solar wind, and micro, hydro options. Dry. Animal, dung fuel can also be used. Biochar. Is another similar, energy source which can be obtained through charring, of certain types of organic, material, eg, hazelnut, shells, bamboo, chicken, manure. In a, pyrolysis, unit a, similar. Energy source as Terra Preta Nova finally, urine, can also be used as a basis, to generate hydrogen, which, is an energy carrier. Using. Urine hydrogen. Production, is, 332. Percent more energy efficient, than using water electricity. Distribution could, be improved so to make use of a more structured electricity. Line arrangement and, universal, AC power, plugs and, sockets, eg, the Cee 7/7. Plug-in, edition, a universal. System of electricity, provisioning. Eg, universal, voltage, frequency. Ampere. Eg, 230. Volts, with 50, Hertz as well as perhaps a better mains power system, eg through, the use of special, systems, as perfected, single wire earth returns, eg. Tunisia's. Mult system, which features low costs, and easy placement, electricity. Storage which, is required, for autonomous. Energy, systems, can be provided through appropriate. Technology, solutions, as deep cycle, and car batteries, intermediate. Technology long. Duration, flywheels. Electrochemical. Capacitors. Compressed, air energy storage CA, es liquid. Nitrogen and pumped hydro, many. Solutions, for the developing, world are sold as a single, package containing, a micro, electricity. Generation, power plant and energy storage.
Such. Packages, are called remote area, power supply. White. LEDs and a source of renewable energy. Such, as solar cells, are used by the light up the world foundation, to provide lighting to poor people in remote areas and provide, significant. Benefits compared. To the kerosene, lamps which they replace. Certain. Other companies, as power plus also, have LED, flashlights, with embedded solar cells. Organic. LEDs made by roll-to-roll, production. Are another source of cheap light that will be commercially, available at, low cost by 2015. Compact. Fluorescent, lamps as well as regular, fluorescent, lamps and LED light, bulbs can also be used as appropriate, technology. Although. They are less environmentally. Friendly than LED, lights they are cheaper, and still feature relative, high efficiency. Compared, to incandescent lamps. The. Safe bottle lamp is a safer, kerosene, lamp designed in Sri Lanka, lamps. As these allow relative, long mobile, lighting, the, safety, comes from a secure screw on metal lid and two flat sides which prevent, it from rolling if knocked over, an, alternative. To fuel or oil based lanterns. As the oude a lantern developed, by philips as part of its lighting Africa project, sponsored. By the world bank group, the. Faraday flashlight, as LED, flashlight, which operates, on a capacitor. Recharging. Can be done by manual, winching, or by shaking here, by avoiding, the need of any supplementary. Electrical. System. HID. Lamps finally, can be used for lighting operations. Where regular, LED, lighting or other lamps, will not suffice. Examples. Are car headlights, due, to their high efficiency they, are quite environmental. Yet costly, and they still require polluting. Materials, in their production, process. You. Topic. Transportation. Human. Powered vehicles, include, the bicycle, and the future bamboo bicycle which, provides general-purpose. Transportation. At lower costs, compared, to motorized vehicles, and many advantages over walking and the whirlwind, wheelchair, which provides, mobility, for disabled, people who cannot afford the expensive, wheelchairs, used in developed, countries. Animal. Powered vehicles, transport. May also be another appropriate, technology. Certain. Zero emissions, vehicles, may be considered, appropriate, transportation. Technology. Including.
Compressed, Air cars liquid. Nitrogen and hydrogen powered. Vehicles, also. Vehicles. With internal, combustion, engines may be converted, to hydrogen or, oxy hydrogen, combustion. Bicycles. Can also be applied to commercial, transport, of goods to and from remote areas, an, example. Of this as Carrabba a free trade coffee co-op in Rwanda, which uses 400, modified, bicycles, to carry hundreds, of pounds of coffee beans for processing, other. Projects. For developing, countries include. The redesign, of cycle, rickshaws, to convert them to electric, power, however. Recent, reports, suggest that these rickshaws are not plying on the roads. You. Topic. Healthcare. According. To the Global Health Council rather than the use of professionally. Schooled doctors, the training of villagers to remedy most maladies, in towns in the developing, world as most appropriate. Trained. Villagers, are able to eliminate 80%. Of the health problems. Small. Low-cost, hospitals. Based on the model of the jam ket hospital, can remedy another 15%, while, only 5% will need to go to a larger, more expensive hospital. Before. Being able to determine the cause of the disease or malady, accurate, diagnosis. Is required, this. May be done manually, through observation. Inquiries, and by specialized, tools a. Phase. Change incubator. Developed. In the late 1990s. Is a low-cost, way for health workers to incubate microbial. Samples. Birth. Control, is also seen as an appropriate technology. Especially, now, because, of increasing, population, numbers over populating certain, areas increasing. Food prices and poverty it. Has been proposed, to a certain, degree by-paths, program, for appropriate, technology. In health. Jaipur. Leg was developed, by dr. PK. Sadie and master G ram chander, in 1968. As an inexpensive, prosthetic. Leg for victims of landmine, explosions. The. Leveraged, freedom chair as a low-cost wheelchair, designed specifically. For rough terrain. Natural. Cleaning products, can be used for personal hygiene and cleaning of clothing and eating utensils, in order, to decrease illnesses, maladies, as they eliminate, a great amount of pathogens, note that many appropriate. Technologies. Benefit, Public Health in particular. By providing, sanitation. And safe drinking water. Refrigeration. May also provide, a health benefit, these are discussed, in the following paragraphs, this, was - found at the comprehensive rural, health project, and women health volunteers, projects. In countries, as Iran Iraq, and Nepal. You. Topic. Food, preparation. And storage. Some, proven intensive. Low effort food, production, systems, include, urban gardening, indoors, and outdoors. Indoor. Cultivation. May be set up using hydroponics, with, grow lights while, outdoor cultivation. May be done using permaculture, forest. Gardening, no-till, farming, do-nothing. Farming, etc. In, order, to better control the irrigation, outdoors, special. Irrigation, systems, may be created, as well although this increases, costs, and may again open the door to cultivating, non-indigenous, plants.
Something, Which is best avoided. One. Such system for the developing, world as discussed, here crop production, tools are best kept simple reduces. Operating, difficulty. Cost, replacement. Difficulties, and pollution, when compared, to motorized, equipment. Tools. Can include sites animal. Pulled plows although, no-till, farming should be preferred dippers, wheeled augers, for planting large trees, purpose. Hoes. Greenhouses. Are also sometimes, included, see Earthship, bio tincture, sometimes. They are also fitted with irrigation systems. And/or, heat sink systems, which can respectively. Irrigate, the plants or, help to store energy from the Sun and redistribute. It at night when the greenhouse starts, to cool down. According. To proponents, appropriate. Technologies. Can greatly reduce the labor required, to prepare food compared, to traditional methods, while being much simpler, and cheaper than the processing, used in Western countries, this. Reflects, EF Schumacher's, concept, of intermediate. Technology, ie. Technology. Which is significantly. More effective, and expensive, than traditional methods, but still in order of magnitude 10, times cheaper than developed, world technology. Key. Examples, are, the. Malian peanut shell er the. Fonio husking, machine. The. Screen 'less hammer mill, the. ISF, corn mill. The ISF, rice color all. Other, types of electrical, or hand operated, kitchen, equipment, grinders, cutters. Special. Multifunctional. Kitchen, robots that are able to perform several functions eg. Grinding, cutting, and even vacuum, cleaning and polishing are, able to reduce costs, even more. Examples. Of these devices, were eg, that now-discontinued. Piccolo, household, appliance, from Hamill man work previously. Based in bad kissing, and it was equipped with a flexible, axis allowing, a variety, of aides to be screwed on. Solar. Cookers, are appropriate, to some settings, depending on climate and cooking style, they. Are emission, less and very low cost, hybrid. Variants, also exist that incorporate, a second, heating source such as electrical. Heating or wood based. Hot. Plates are 100, percent electrical, fairly low cost around, 20 euros and are mobile they do, however require, an electrical, system to be present, in the area of operation. Rocket. Stoves and certain other wood stoves eg, Philips wood stove improve, fuel efficiency and, reduce, harmful indoor, air pollution, the. Stoves however, still make use of wood however. Briquette, makers, can now turn organic. Waste into fuel saving. Money and/or, collection, time and preserving, forests. Solar. Special. Einstein, refrigerators. And thermal mass refrigerators. Reduce, the amount of electricity, required. Also. Solar, and special, Einstein refrigerators. Do not use halo alkanes, which play a key role in ozone, depletion but use heat pumps, or mirrors instead. Solar. Refrigerators. Have been built for developing, nations bicep, ology. The. Pot in pot refrigerator. Is an african, invention, which keeps things cool without electricity. It. Provides, a way to keep food and produce fresh, for much longer than would otherwise be possible, this. Can be a great benefit, to the families, who use the device, for. Example it is claimed that girls who had to regularly, sell fresh produce in the market can now go to school instead as there is less urgency, to sell the produce before, it loses freshness. You. Topic. Information. And communication. Technologies. The, OLPC, xo1. A sous, ete pc, and other low-cost computers, are computers, aimed at developing, countries, besides. The low price other characteristics. Include, resistance, to dust, reliability. And use of the target language. L. DS on disk and the appropriate, technology library, are projects, that use CDs and DVDs to. Give access to development, information in areas, without reliable, and affordable internet access. The. Wind-up radio and the computer, and communications, system, planned by the Jay foundation, are independent, from power supply. There. Is also Grameenphone, which fused mobile, telephony with, Grameen banks microfinance. Program, to give Bangladeshi, villagers, access, to communication. Mobile. Telephony is, appropriate, technology. For many developing countries. As it greatly reduces, the infrastructure. Required, to achieve widespread, coverage. However. Mobile. Phone network, may not always be available it depends, on the location and, may not always provide both voice and data services. Lobe. And a website developed.
By Activate, strips, all the photographic, and other bandwidth, intensive content. From web pages and renders them as simple text while otherwise allowing, one to browse them normally, the. Site greatly, increasing, the speed of browsing and is appropriate, for use on low bandwidth, connections, as generally, available in much of the developing, world an. Increasing. Number of activists. Provide free or very inexpensive web. And email services. Using cooperative, computer, networks, that run wireless. Ad-hoc networks. Network. Service, is provided, by a cooperative, of neighbors each operating, a router as a household, appliance. These. Minimize, wired infrastructure. And its costs, and vulnerabilities. Private. Internet Protocol, networks set, up in this way can operate, without the use of a commercial provider. Rural. Electrical, grids can be wired with optical. Phase cable, in, which one or more of the steel armor wires are replaced with steel tubes containing, fiber optics. Satellite. Internet, access, can provide high-speed, connectivity to, remote locations, however, these are significantly. More expensive than, wire based or terrestrial wireless. Systems. WiMAX. And forms of packet radio can also be used, depending. On the speed and latency of these networks they, may be capable of relaying VoIP traffic negating. The need for separate, telephony, services. Finally. The internet, radio linking, project, provides potential, for blending older cheap local radio broadcasting. With the increased range of the internet. Satellite. Based telephone, systems, can also be used as either fixed, installations, or portable, handsets, and can be integrated into a PA BX, or local IP based network. You. Topic. Finance. Through, financial, systems, envisioned, especially, for the port developed, world many companies, have been able to get started with only limited capital. Often. Banks lend the money to people wishing to start a business such, as with microfinance. In other. Systems, people, for a rotating, savings, and credit Association. Or rasca to purchase costly, material, together such, as Thanh teens and Sousou accounts. Organizations. Communities. Cities, or individuals. Can provide loans to other communities. Cities such, as with the approach followed by Kiva world vision micro loans micro, place and let's. Finally. In certain, communities usually. Isolated. Communities, such as small islands, or Oasis everything. A value is shared, this. Is called gift economy. You. Topic. Determining. A sustainable. Approach. Features. Such as low cost low, usage of fossil, fuels and use of locally available resources. Can give some advantages, in terms of sustainability. For. That reason these technologies.
Are Sometimes, used and promoted, by advocates, of sustainability. And alternative, technology. Besides. Using natural, locally, available resources, eg wood, or Adobe waste, materials. Imported from cities using conventional, and, inefficient, waste management, may be gathered, and reused to build a sustainable living. Environment. Use. Of these cities waste material. Allows the gathering, of a huge amount of building material, at a low cost. When. Obtained, the materials, may be recycled. Over and over in the own city community, using, the cradle to cradle design method. Locations. Where waste can be found include, landfills, junkyards. On water surfaces. And anywhere around towns, or near highways. Organic. Waste that can be reused to fertilize, plants can, be found in sewages. Also. Town districts, and other places. Eg, cemeteries. That are subject, of undergoing renovation. Or removal, can be used for gathering materials. As stone concrete. Or potassium. You. Topic. Related. Social movements. Equals. Equals see also.