Information and communications technology | Wikipedia audio article
Information. And communications. Technology. ICT, is. An extensional. Term for information. Technology it. That stresses, the role of unified. Communications, and, the integration, of. Telecommunications. Telephone. Lines and wireless, signals, and computers. As well as necessary, enterprise. Software. Middleware. Storage. And audio-visual. Systems, that enable users, to access, store. Transmit. And manipulate. Information the. Term ICT. Is also, used to refer to the convergence. Of audio-visual, and. Telephone, networks, with computer, networks, through, a single, cabling, or link system. There. Are large, economic, incentives. Huge, cost savings. Due to the elimination of, the telephone, network to merge the telephone, network with, the computer, network, system, using, a single, unified, system, of cabling, signal. Distribution, and, management. ICT. As a broad, subject. And the concepts. Are evolving. It. Covers, any product. That will store retrieve. Manipulate. Transmit. Or receive, information. Electronically. In a digital, form eg, personal. Computers. Digital, television. Email, or robots. For. Clarity, Zappa, provided, an ICT. Hierarchy. Where all levels, of the hierarchy. Contain. Some, degree, of commonality. In, that they are related, to technologies. That facilitate the. Transfer. Of information and. Various, types of, electronically. Mediated. Communications. Theoretical. Differences. Between, interpersonal. Communication. Technologies. And mass communication. Technologies. Have been identified, by the philosopher. Piyush, Mathur. Skills. Framework, for the Information, Age as one of many models, for describing. And managing, competencies. For ICT. Professionals for. The 21st. Century. Topic. Etymology. The, phrase. Information. And, communication. Technologies. Has. Been used by academic. Researchers. Since the 1980s. The. Abbreviation. ICT. Became. Popular. After it was used in a report, to the UK, government, by Dennis Stevenson. In. 1997. And then in the revised national. Curriculum for, England, Wales, and, Northern Ireland, in, 2000. However. In, 2012. The Royal Society. Recommended. That the use of the term. ICT. Should. Be discontinued. In British, schools as, it. Has attracted, too, many negative. Connotations. From. 2014. The, National, Curriculum has. Used the word computing. Which reflects, the addition, of computer. Programming, into, the curriculum. Variations. Of the phrase have spread worldwide. The. United, Nations, has created, a United. Nations. Information. And, communication. Technologies. Taskforce, and, an. Internal. Office. Of information. And communications. Technology. Topic. Monetization. The, money spent on IT worldwide. Has been estimated as, three point eight trillion, dollars. In, 2017. And has been growing at less than five percent per year since, 2009. The. Estimate, 2018. Growth, of the entire, ICT. In as 5%. The. Biggest, growth of 16%. As, expected, in the area of new technologies. IOT. Robotics. Our VR, and, AI the, 2014. IT budget. Of US federal government was. Nearly eighty two billion dollars. IT. Costs. As a percentage.
Of Corporate, revenue, have grown 50 percent since, 2002. Putting, a strain on IT, budgets. When. Looking, at current, companies IT budgets. 75%. Are recurrent, costs. Used to keep. The lights on in the. IT department. And 25%. Our cost of new initiatives for, technology. Development. The average, IT budget. Has the following breakdown. 31%. Personnel. Costs. Internal. 29%. Software. Costs. External. Purchasing. Category. 26%. Hardware, costs. External. Purchasing. Category. 14%. Costs, of external. Service, providers, external. Services. The estimate, of money to be spent in 2022. As just, over six trillion dollars. Topic. Technological. Capacity. The, world's, technological, capacity. To. Store information grew. From 2.6. Optimally. Compressed, exabytes. In, 1986. To, 15.8. In. 1993. Over, 50 4.5, in. 2002. 295. Optimally. Compressed, exabytes. In, 2007. And some 5 zettabytes. In, 2014. This. Is the informational. Equivalent. To 1.25. Stacks. Of cd-rom. From, the earth to the moon in, 2007. And the equivalent, of. 4,500. Stacks of printed, books from the earth to the Sun in 2014. The. World's, technological, capacity. To. Receive, information, through one-way, broadcast, networks. Was. 432. Exabytes. Of optimally. Compressed, information in. 1986. 715. Optimally. Compressed, exabytes. In. 1993. 1.2. Optimally. Compressed, zettabytes. In 2001. Point. 9 zettabytes. In. 2007. The. World's, effective, capacity. To exchange information. Through. Two-way telecommunication. Networks. Was, 281. Petabytes. Of optimally. Compressed, information in. 1986. 471. Petabytes. In. 1993. 2.2. Optimally. Compressed, exabytes. In. 2065. Optimally. Compressed, exabytes. In, 2007. And some, 100. Exabytes, in 2014. The world's, technological, capacity. To. Compute, information with. Humanly, guided, general-purpose. Computers. Grew, from 3.0. Times 10 to the eighth MIPS in. 1986. To six point four times ten to the twelve, MIPS in, 2007. Topic. ICT. Sector, in, the OECD. The, following, is a list of oacd. Countries. By share of ICT. Sector in, total value, added, in 2013. Topic. ICT. Development. Index. The, ICT. Development. Index, ranks. And compares, the level of ICT. Use and access across. The various, countries, around the world, in. 2014. ITU. International. Telecommunications. Union released. The latest rankings of the IDI, with, Denmark attaining. The top spot, followed, by South Korea. The. Top 30 countries in, the rankings, include, most high-income, countries. Where quality, of life has higher than average which includes, countries, from Europe and other regions such, as. Australia. Bahrain, Canada. Japan.
Macau. China. New. Zealand, Singapore, and. The United States almost. All countries surveyed. Improved. Their IDI, ranking. This year. In. Developing. Countries, ICT. Development. As constrained. By limited, capabilities. And often, the objectives. Of ICT. Projects. Are not fully met. Topic. The, ws, is, processed. And ICT. Development. Goals. On the, 21st. Of December, 2001. The, United, Nations, General Assembly approved. Resolution. 56. 180. Thirds, endorsing. The holding, of the World Summit on the information society. WSIS, to discuss, the opportunities, and. Challenges facing. Today's information society. According. To this resolution, the General, Assembly, related, the summit, to the United, Nations, Millennium. Declarations. Goal of implementing, ICT. To achieve, Millennium, Development Goals. It. Also, emphasized, a. Multi-stakeholder. Approach to, achieve, these goals using. All stakeholders. Including, civil, society. And the private sector. In addition. To governments. To. Help. Anchor and, expand, ICT. To every habitable. Part of the world. 2015. As the deadline, for achievements. Of the UN Millennium, Development Goals. MDGs. Which. Global, leaders, agreed, upon in, the year 2000. Greater. Than. Topic. In education. The United, Nations. Educational. Scientific, and. Cultural Organization. UNESCO. A. Division. Of the United Nations, has made integrating. ICT. Into education. Part of its efforts, to ensure equity. And access to education. The. Following, taken, directly, from a unesco, publication. On educational. ICT. Explains. The organization's. Position. On the initiative. Information. And communication. Technology. Can contribute, to universal. Access, to education. Equity, in education. The delivery, of quality, learning and teaching teachers. Professional. Development, and more efficient, education. Management. Governance. And administration. UNESCO. Takes a holistic. And comprehensive, approach, to promoting. ICT. In education. Access. Inclusion. And quality. Are among, the main challenges. They can address. The. Organization's. Inter-sectoral. Platform. For ICT, in, education. Focuses. On these issues through, the joint work of three of its sectors. Communication. And information. Education. And science. Despite. The power of computers, to enhance, and reform, teaching. And learning practices, improper. Implementation. As a widespread. Issue beyond, the reach of increased. Funding, and technological. Advances. With little evidence that, teachers, and tutors are properly, integrating. ICT. Into everyday learning. Intrinsic. Barriers, such as a belief, in more traditional, teaching. Practices. And individual. Attitudes, towards. Computers. In education as. Well as the teachers, own comfort, with computers. And their ability, to use them all as result, in varying, effectiveness. In the integration, of ICT, in the classroom. Topic. Developing. Countries. You. Topic. Africa. ICT. Has been employed, as an educational. Enhancement. In sub-saharan. Africa, since the, 1960s. Beginning. With television. And radio it, extended. The reach of education. From the classroom. To the living, room and to geographical. Areas, that had been beyond, the reach of the traditional. Classroom as. Technology. Evolved. And became, more widely used, efforts, in sub-saharan. Africa, were also, expanded.
In The. 1990s. A massive, effort to push computer. Hardware, and software into. Schools, was, undertaken. With the goal of familiarizing. Both students. And teachers with. Computers. In the classroom. Since. Then multiple. Projects. Have endeavored, to continue. The expansion, of ICTs. Reach, in the region, including, the One Laptop Per, Child. OLPC. Project. Which by, 2015. Had distributed. Over, 2.4. Million laptops, to. Nearly 2 million students. And teachers, the inclusion, of ICT. In the classroom, often, referred to as M learning, has expanded. The reach of educators. And improved, their ability to track, student, progress in, sub-saharan. Africa, in. Particular, the, mobile, phone has been most important. In this effort. Mobile. Phone use is widespread, and mobile, networks, cover, a wider, area than Internet. Networks, in the region, the. Devices, are familiar, to student, teacher, and, parent. And allow increased, communication. And, access to educational. Materials. In, addition. To benefits, for students, M learning, also offers. The opportunity, for, better teacher, training. Which lends to a more consistent, curriculum. Across the educational. Service, area, in. 2011. UNESCO. Started, a yearly, symposium. Called mobile, learning week with the purpose, of gather, during stakeholders. To discuss the, m-learning initiative. Implementation. Is not without its challenges. While. Mobile phone, and internet use are increasing. Much more rapidly, in sub-saharan. Africa, than in other developing. Countries, the progress, is still slow, compared, to the rest of the developed, world with smartphone, penetration, only. Expected. To reach 20% by. 2017. Additionally. There are gender, social. And, geopolitical. Barriers, to educational. Access, and the severity, of these barriers, vary, greatly by, country. Overall. Twenty. Nine point six million children, in sub-saharan. Africa. Were not in school in, the year 2012. Only not just to, the geographical. Divide but also to political. Instability the, importance. Of social origins. Social. Structure, and gender, and equality. Once. In school, students. Also face barriers, to quality, education, such. As teacher, competency. Training. And preparedness. Access. To educational.
Materials. And lack of information, management. Topic. Today. In modern. Society. ICT. As ever-present, with over 3 billion people having. Access to the Internet. With. Approximately, 8, out of 10 Internet, users, owning, a smartphone. Information. And data are increasing. By leaps and bounds. This. Rapid, growth especially, in developing. Countries has led ICT. To become a keystone. Of everyday, life in which life, without some facet, of technology. Renders, most of clerical, work and routine, tasks, dysfunctional. The. Most recent, authoritative. Data released. In 2014. Shows. That. Internet, use continues. To grow steadily, at, 6.6. Percent. Globally. In, 2014. 3.3. Percent in. Developed. Countries. Eight point, seven percent. In the developing. World the number of Internet, users in, developing. Countries. Has doubled, in five years. 2009. To, 2014. With. Two-thirds, of all people, online now, living, in the developing. World. However. Hurdles. Are still large of the. 4.3. Billion people. Not yet using the Internet. 90%. Live in developing, countries. In. The world's, 42. Least, connected. Countries. LCCC's. Which. Are home to 2.5. Billion, people. Access. To ICTs. Remains, largely, out, of reach. Particularly. For these countries large, rural, populations. ICT. Has yet to penetrate, the remote areas, of some countries, with many developing. Countries, dearth of any type of internet. This. Also includes. The availability. Of telephone. Lines, particularly. The availability. Of cellular. Coverage and, other forms, of electronic. Transmission. Of data, the. Latest. Measuring, the information. Society, report. Cautiously. Stated. That the increase, in the aforementioned, cellular. Data coverage, is ostensible. As many. Users, have multiple. Subscriptions, with. Global, growth figures, sometimes. Translating. Into little real improvement. In the level of, connectivity. Of those at the very bottom, of the pyramid an estimated. 450. Million people worldwide. Live, in places, which are still out of reach of mobile, cellular service. Favorably. The gap between the access, to the Internet and mobile coverage. Has decreased, substantially in. The last 15. Years in, which. 2015. Was, the deadline, for achievements. Of the UN Millennium, Development Goals. MDGs. Which. Global. Leaders, agreed, upon in, the year 2000. And the new data show, ICT. Progress. And highlight, remaining, gaps. ICT. Continues. To take on new form with nanotechnology. Set. To usher, in a new wave of ICT. Electronics. And gadgets. ICT. Newest, additions. Into the modern, electronic. World includes. Smartwatches. Such. As the Apple, watch smart. Wristband, such as the Nike, Plus fuel band and Smart, TVs such as Google, TV. With. Desktops. Soon becoming, part, of the bygone, era and laptops. Becoming, the preferred method. Of computing. ICT. Continues. To insinuate, and, alter, itself, in the ever-changing globe. Information. Communication. Technologies. Play a role in facilitating. Accelerated. Pluralism. In new social, movements, today, the. Internet according to Bruce Ben Burris. Accelerating. The process of, issue group, formation. And action, and coined. The term accelerated. Pluralism. To explain, this new phenomena. ICTs. Are tools for, enabling. Social movement. Leaders, and empowering, dictators. In, effect. Promoting. Societal. Change. ICTs. Can be used to garner grassroots. Support, for a cause due, to the internet, allowing for political.
Discourse, And direct, interventions. With state policy as, well as change the way complaints. From the populace, are handled, by governments. Furthermore. I see, T's in a household, are associated. With women, rejecting. Justifications. For intimate, partner, violence. According. To a study published in. 2017. This is likely because a, cc, ESS, to ICTs. Exposes. Women, to different, ways of life and different notions, about women's, role in society and, the household, especially in, culturally. Conservative, regions. Where traditional. Gender expectations. Contrast. Observed, alternatives. Equals. Equals, see also.