History of Indian science and technology | Wikipedia audio article
The, history of Science and Technology in the Indian subcontinent begins, with prehistoric human, activity, in the Indus Valley Civilisation. Two early states and empires. Following. Independence Science, and Technology in the republic of india has included, automobile, engineering, information, technology. Communications. As well as space polar and nuclear, sciences. Topic. Prehistory. By. 5,500. BCE, a number, of sites similar, to morgue are had appeared forming, the basis of later Chalcolithic, cultures the. Inhabitants, of these sites maintain, trading, relations, with Near East and Central Asia irrigation. Was developed, in the Indus Valley Civilisation. By around, 4500. BCE, the. Size and prosperity, of the Indus civilization. Grew as a result of this innovation which eventually led, to more planned settlements, making use of drainage, and sewerage. Sophisticated. Irrigation, and water storage systems, were developed by the Indus Valley Civilisation. Including, artificial reservoirs. At Gerner dated, to 3000, BCE, and an early canal irrigation system. From C. 2600. BCE, cotton. Was cultivated, in the region by the 5th 4th millennia, BCE. Sugarcane. Was originally, from tropical, South and Southeast, Asia different. Species likely originated. In different locations, with sbar berry originating. In India and s edule in s efficient, Arum coming from New Guinea the inhabitants, of the Indus Valley developed. A system of standardization, using, weights and measures evident, by the excavations. Made at the Indus Valley sites, this. Technical, standardization. Enabled, gauging devices, to be effectively, used in angular, measurement, and measurement, for construction. Calibration. Was also found in measuring, devices along, with multiple subdivisions. In case of some devices, one. Of the earliest known Docs has at Lothal, 2,400. BCE located. Away from the main current, to avoid deposition. Of silt, modern. Oceanographers. Have observed, that the Harappans must, have possessed knowledge relating, to tides in order to build such a dock on the ever-shifting course, of the sabra mattie as well as exemplary, hydrography. And maritime, engineering. Excavations. At Bala cot c2, 500, 1, 900, BCE, present-day. Pakistan have, yielded evidence, of an early furnace the. Furnace was, most likely used for the manufacturing. Of ceramic, objects. Ovens. Dating, back to the civilizations. Mature, phase see 2 500 1, 900. BCE, were, also excavated, at Bala khat. The calla baingan archaeological. Site further yields, evidence of pot shaped hearth which at one site have been found both on ground and underground. Kilns. With fire and kiln chambers, have also been found at the calla baingan site, based. On archaeological and, textual evidence Joseph, II Schwartzberg, 2008. A University. Of Minnesota professor, emeritus, of geography, traces. The origins, of Indian cartography. To the Indus Valley Civilisation. C2 500, 1 900, BCE, the. Use of large-scale constructional. Plans cosmological. Drawings, and cartographic. Material, was known in India with some regularity, since the Vedic period 2nd, 1st millennium BCE.
Climatic. Conditions, were responsible. For the destruction of most of the evidence however, a number of excavated. Surveying, instruments, and measuring rods have yielded convincing, evidence of early cartographic, activity. Schwartzberg. 2008. On the subject. Of surviving, Maps further. Holds, that though not numerous a number of map like graffiti appear. Among the thousands, of stone age Indian cave paintings, and at least one complex Mesolithic. Diagram, is believed to be a representation, of, the cosmos, archaeological. Evidence of an animal drawn cloud dates back to 2500. BCE in the Indus Valley Civilisation. The. Earliest, available swords. Of copper discovered, from the Harappan sites, date back to 2300. BCE. Swords. Have been recovered in archeological. Findings, throughout the Ganges Jamuna, dobe region, of India consisting, of bronze but more commonly copper. Topic. Early, kingdoms. The, religious, texts, of the Vedic period provide, evidence, for the use of large numbers, by. The time of the last Veda the yajurveda samhita, 1,200, to 900, BCE, numbers. As high as. 1012. Display. Style of 10-karat 12. Were. Being included, in the text for. Example the mantra sacrificial. Formula, at the end of the ANA Houma food oblation. Right performed. During the as Vanetta an allegory. For a horse sacrifice. An uttered. Just before, during, and just after sunrise invokes. Powers, of ten from a hundred to a trillion the. Satyr pathi brahmana, 9th century, BCE, contains, rules for ritual geometric, constructions, that are similar to the sulba sutras, body ana see eighth century, BCE, composed, the body on a sulba, sutra, which contains, examples, of simple Pythagorean. Triples such as, three. Four. Five. Display. Style three four five. Five. 12:13. Display. Style 5 12, 13. 8. 15. 17. Display. Style 8 15, 17. 7. 24. 25. This. Place title seven, twenty four twenty five and. Twelve. Thirty. Five, thirty. Seven. Display. Style 12 35, 37. As well as a statement of the Pythagorean, theorem for the sides of a square the, rope which is stretched across the diagonal of a square produces. An area double the size of the original square. It. Also contains, the general statement of the Pythagorean theorem, for the sides of a rectangle the, rope stretched, along the length of the diagonal of a rectangle, makes an area which the vertical, and horizontal sides.
Make Together. Bada. Yonder gives a formula, for the square root of two, Mesopotamian. Influence, at this stage is considered, likely the earliest, Indian astronomical. Texts named vedanga Joe diese attributed. To ligado is considered, one of the oldest astronomical texts. Dating from 1400. To 1200. BCE with the extant form possibly, from 700. To 600. BCE, it details, several, astronomical, attributes. Generally, applied for timing social, and religious, events, it. Also details, astronomical. Calculations. Calendrical, studies, and establishes. Rules for empirical, observation. Since. The vedanga Joe disa is a religious, text it has connections, with Indian astrology and, details several, important, aspects, of the time and seasons, including lunar. Months solar months, and their adjustment, by a lunar leap month of Adi Kumasi, Ritu's. And UGA's are also described, Tripathi. 2008. Holds, that 27, constellations. Eclipses. Seven planets and 12 signs of the zodiac were, also known at that time the Egyptian, papyrus of Cahoon 1900. BCE, and literature, of the Vedic period in India offer early, records of veterinary, medicine, Kearns, and Nash 2008. State that mention of leprosy as described, in the medical treatise Sushruta Samhita 6th, century, BCE, the. Sushruta, Samhita and, Ayurvedic, text contains, 184. Chapters, in description, of 1120, own is's 700. Medicinal, plants, a detailed, study on Anatomy sixty-four, preparations. From mineral sources and 57, preparations. Based on animal, sources, however. The Oxford, illustrated companion. To medicine holds, that the mention of leprosy as well as ritualistic cures, for it were described, in the Hindu religious, book atharvaveda, written, in 1500. To 1200. BCE cataract, surgery, was known to the physician, Sushruta, 6th century, BCE. Traditional. Cataract, surgery, was performed with a special, tool called the hava muki salaka a curved needle used to loosen the lens and push the cataract, out of the field of vision the eye, would later be soaked with warm butter and then bandaged though. This method was successful, Sushruta cautioned, that it should only be used when necessary the. Removal. Of cataract, by surgery, was also introduced, into China from India during, the fifth century BCE, the scholar panini, had made several discoveries, in the fields of phonetics, phonology, and morphology. Paninis. Morphological. Analysis, remained, more advanced, than any equivalent, Western, Theory until the mid 20th century, metal. Currency, was minted in India before the 5th century BCE, with, coinage, 400. BCE to 100. CE II being, made of silver and copper bearing, animal, and plant symbols, on them zinc mines of Zawar, Nehru die poor Rajasthan, were active during 400. BCE. Diverse. Specimens, of swords have been discovered, in fatigue are where there are several varieties of hilt, these. Swords have been variously, dated, to periods, between 1700. To 1400. BCE, but were probably, used more extensively, during the opening centuries, of the 1st millennium BCE.
Archaeological. Sites in such as Malhar data pierre Rajan, Dalek Attila, and Lara daehwa in present-day, uttar, pradesh show iron implements, from the period between 1800. BCE and 1200. BCE. Early. Iron objects, found in India can be dated to 1400. BCE by employing the method of radiocarbon dating. Some. Scholars, believe that by the early 13th, century, BCE, iron smelting was practiced, on a bigger scale in India suggesting. That the date of the technology's, inception, may be placed earlier in, southern. India present-day, Mysore iron appeared, as early as 11th, to 12th centuries. BCE, these. Developments. Were too early for any significant. Close contact, with the northwest, of the country. Topic. Post, mahajanapadas. High. Middle ages. The, arthashastra of, catelleya mentions, the construction, of dams and, bridges the, use of suspension, bridges using plaited bamboo and iron chain was visible by about the 4th century the, stupa. The precursor, of the pagoda and torii he was constructed, by the 3rd century BCE. Rock-cut. Stepwells, in the region date from 200, to 400, c ii, subsequently. The construction, of wells at donk, 552. 625. C ii and stepped ponds at bimmel 850. To 950. C ii took, place during the first millennium BCE. The, vaisheshika school, of atomism was founded, the. Most important, proponent, of this school was Kannada an Indian philosopher, who lived around 600. BCE, the. School proposed, that atoms are indivisible, and eternal, can neither be created nor, destroyed and, that each one possesses. Its own distinct, visesa individuality. It. Was further elaborated. On by the Buddhist school of atomism of which the philosophers, Dharma Kirti and dig Nagar in the 7th century CE II were the most important, proponents, they. Considered, Adams to be point sized duration, list and made of energy by the beginning of the Common Era glass was being used for ornaments, encasing, in the region, contact. With the greco-roman world added newer techniques, and local artisans, learned methods of glass moulding, decorating. And coloring by the early centuries of the Common Era the, satavahana. Period, further reveals, short cylinders, of composite, glass including, those displaying, a lemon yellow matrix, covered with green glass, roots. Originated. In the region before the beginning of the Common Era wootz. Was exported, and traded throughout Europe China the Arab world and became particularly, famous in the Middle East where it became known as Damascus, steel. Archaeological. Evidence suggests, that manufacturing. Process, for wootz was also in existence, in South India before the Christian era. Evidence. For using bow instruments. For carting comes from India 2nd, century CE II the. Mining of diamonds, and its early use as gemstones, originated. In India, Golconda. Served as an important, early centre for diamond mining and processing. Diamonds, were then exported, to other parts, of the world early. Reference, to diamonds comes from Sanskrit, texts, the, arthashastra also. Mentions, diamond, trade in the region the. Iron pillar of Delhi was erected at the times of chandragupta. Ii, Vikramaditya. 375. To 413. Which stood without rusting, for around 2 millennium, the.
Rasa Ratna sama kya 800. Explains, the existence of two types of ores for zinc metal one of which is ideal for metal, extraction while, the other is used for medicinal purpose. The. Origins, of the spinning wheel are unclear, but India is one of the probable, places, of its origin, the. Device certainly, reached Europe from India by the 14th, century the, cotton gin was invented in, India as a mechanical. Device known, as charcoal the wooden, worm worked roller, this. Mechanical, device was in some parts of the region driven, by water power the. Ajanta caves yield, evidence of a single roller cotton, gin in use by the 5th century, this. Cotton gin was used until further innovations, were made in form of foot power gins. Chinese. Documents, confirm at least two missions, to India initiated. In, 647. For obtaining technology. For sugar refining, each. Mission returned, with different, results on refining sugar Pingala 300. To 200 BCE. Was, a musical, theorist, who authored a sanskrit treatise on prosody, there. Is evidence that in his work on the enumeration, of syllabic, combinations, Pingala stumbled, upon both, the pascal triangle and, binomial, coefficients. Although he did not have knowledge of the binomial theorem, itself, a description. Of binary, numbers has also found in the works of Pingala the. Indians also developed, the use of the law of sines in multiplication. Negative. Numbers and the subtrahend had been used in East Asia since the 2nd century BCE, and Indian mathematicians. Were aware of negative, numbers by the 7th century CE II and their role in mathematical. Problems, of debt was understood, although. The Indians were not the first to use the subtrahend they were the first to establish that, law, of sines with. Regards, to the multiplication, of positive, and negative numbers, which did not appear in hee Asian texts, until $12.99. Mostly. Consistent, and correct rules for working with negative numbers were formulated. And the diffusion of these rules led the Arab intermediaries. To pass it on to Europe a decimal, number system using. Hieroglyphics. Dates back to 3000, BC in, Egypt and was later in use in ancient India where the modern numeration, system, was developed by. The 9th century CE, II the hindu-arabic numeral. System, was transmitted, from India through the Middle East and to the rest of the world the. Concept of zero is a number and not merely a symbol for separation, as attributed, to India in India. Practical. Calculations were. Carried out using 0 which was treated like any other number by the 9th century see even, in case of division, Brahma. Gupta, 598. 2 668. Was able to find integral, solutions, of Pels equation. Conceptual. Design for a perpetual motion machine by, bhaskara 2 dates to 1150. He. Described, a wheel that he claimed would run forever the trigonometric functions. Of sign and ver sign from which it was trivial to derive the cosine were used by the mathematician, Aryabhata, in the late 5th century, the calculus. Theorem now known as rolle's, theorem was. Stated by mathematician. Bhaskara - in the 12th century. Indigo. Was used as a dye in India which was also a major Centre for its production and processing, the. Indigofera tinctoria, variety. Of indigo, was domesticated, in India indigo. Used as a dye made its way to the Greeks and the Romans via, various trade routes and was valued, as a luxury, product the. Cashmere, wool fiber also, known as passion, or pashmina was used in the handmade shawls of cashmere, the. Woollen shawls from Kashmir, region find, written mentioned, between 3rd century, BCE, and the 11th century CE II crystallized. Sugar was, discovered, by the time of the Gupta dynasty and, the earliest reference, to candied, sugar comes, from India Jude. Was also cultivated, in India muslin. Was named after the city where Europeans, first encountered, it Mosul, in what is now Iraq but, the fabric actually originated. From Dhaka in what is now Bangladesh. In the 9th century an Arab merchant named Suleiman, makes note of the materials, origin, in Bengali, known as ru HML in Arabic European, scholar Francesco. Lorenzo, pull reproduced, a number of Indian maps in his magnum opus like, cartography, a antique Adel India out.
Of These maps to have been reproduced, using a manuscript of loca Picasa originally. Compiled, by the polymath, Qasim Andhra Kashmir, 11th, century, CE II as a source, the. Other manuscript, used as a source by Francesco, the first is titled, Sam Gras. Sumerian. Ganna sutured, Hara a Sanskrit treatise by Bhoja, 11th, century includes, a chapter about the construction, of mechanical, contrivances, automata. Including, mechanical bees and birds fountains, shaped like humans, and animals and male and female dolls that refilled, oil lamps, danced, played instruments, and re-enacted. Scenes from Hindu mythology. Topic. Late, Middle Ages. Madhava. Of sangoma gramma c13. 42, 14 25 and his careless, school of astronomy, and mathematics developed. And founded mathematical. Analysis, the. Infinite, series for pi was stated by him and he made use of the series expansion, of, arctan. X. Display. Style arctan, x, to. Obtain an infinite, series expression, now known as the Madhava gregory series, for, pi. Display. Style pi. Approximation. Of the error for the finite sum of their series are of particular interest. They. Manipulated, the error term to derive a faster, converging, series for pi. Display. Style pi, they. Used the improved series, to derive a rational, expression. One. Hundred four thousand, three hundred forty eight thirty. Three thousand, two hundred fifteen. Display. Style one hundred four thousand, three hundred forty eight thirty, three thousand, two hundred fifteen. For. Pi. Display. Style pi. Correct. Up to nine decimal places, ie. 3.14159265. Three. Display. Style. 3.14159265. Three. Of. 3.14159265. Three. Five eight nine seven. The development, of the series expansions. For trigonometric, functions, sine cosine, and, arctangent, was carried out by mathematicians. Of the careless school in the 15th century CE II their. Work completed, two centuries, before the invention of calculus in, Europe provided what is now considered, the first example, of a power series, apart, from geometric, series Sher Shah of northern, India issued silver. Currency bearing, Islamic, motifs, later imitated, by the Mughal Empire the. Chinese merchant ma Huan 1413. 251. Noted that gold coins known as phenom were issued in Cochin and weighed a total, of one fen in one li according, to the Chinese standards, they. Were of fine quality and, could be exchanged, in China for fifteen silver, coins of Forli, weight each in 1500. Neelakanta, so miyagi of the kerala school of astronomy, and mathematics in, his tantra sank raha revised, aryabhata's, elliptical, model for the planets Mercury and Venus his. Equation, of the center for these planets, remained the most accurate until, the time of johannes, kepler in the 17th, century. The. Seamless, celestial, globe was invented, in kashmir by ali cashmere yebin Luckman in 998. Ah fifteen, eighty nine to nine DCE and twenty other such globes were later produced in lahore and kashmir, during the mughal empire before. They were rediscovered. In the 1980s. It was believed by modern metallurgists. To be technically, impossible to produce metal, globes without any seams even with modern technology, these. Mughal metallurgists. Pioneered, the method of lost wax casting in, order to produce these globes. Gunpowder. And gunpowder weapons, were transmitted, to India through the Mongol invasions, of India, the, Mongols were defeated by a lot in call ji of the Delhi Sultanate, and some of the Mongol soldiers, remained, in northern India after their conversion, to Islam it. Was written in the tariqa Farishta. 1606. To 1607. That the envoy of the mongol ruler hulagu, khan was, presented, with a pyrotechnics. Display upon. His arrival in delhi in 1258. C ii as a. Part, of an embassy to India by Timur ad leader Shah Rukh 1405. To 1447. Abba dal Razak mentioned, NAFTA, mounted, on elephants, and a variety of pyrotechnics. Put on display. Firearms. Known as topo to fact also existed, in the Vijayanagara Empire by, as early as, 1366. C II from. Then on the employment of gunpowder warfare, in the region was prevalent with events such as the siege of Belgium in 1473. C II by the Sultan Muhammad Shah bomani in a. History of Greek fire and gunpowder, James Riddick Partington describes, the Gunpowder warfare, of 16th, and 17th, century, Mughal India and writes that Indian. War rockets, were formidable, weapons, before such rockets, were used in Europe, they. Had bamboo, rods a rocket, body lashed, to the rod and iron points, they. Were directed, at the target, and fired by lighting the fuse but the trajectory was rather erratic. The, use of minds, and counter minds with explosive. Charges, of gunpowder as mentioned, for the times of Akbar, and Jahangir. By. The 16th, century Indians.
Were Manufacturing. A diverse variety of firearms large, guns in particular, became, visible, in Tanjore Dhaka Bijapur, and Murshidabad, guns. Made of bronze were recovered, from Calicut, 1504. And Diu, 1533. Gujarat. Supplied, Europe saltpeter, for use in gunpowder warfare. During the 17th, century. Bengali, and malwa participated. In saltpeter, production, the, Dutch French, Portuguese. And English used, Chapra as a center of saltpeter refining. The construction, of water works and aspects, of water technology. In India as described, in Arabic and Persian works, during. Medieval times the diffusion of Indian and Persian irrigation. Technologies, gave rise to an, advanced, irrigation, system, which brought about economic. Growth and also helped, in the growth of material, culture the. Founder, of the cashmere, wool industry has traditionally. Held to be the 15th, century ruler, of Kashmir, Zainul, Abidin, who introduced, weavers from Central Asia the scholar Sadiq, Esfahani, of John pour compiled, an atlas of the parts of the world which he held to be suitable, for human life the. 32, sheet atlas with, maps oriented, towards the south as was the case with Islamic, works of the era as part. Of a larger scholarly, work compiled, by Isfahan II during. 1647. C II, according. To Joseph II Schwartzberg, 2008. The largest, known Indian, map depicting, the former Rajput, capital, at amber in remarkable, house-by-house. Detail, measures. 661. X, 645. Centimetres. 260. Times 254. In, or approximately. 22, x 21. Feet. Topic. Colonial, era early volumes of the Encyclopedia Britannica. Described. Cartographic. Charts made by the seafaring, Dravidian people in. Encyclopedia. Britannica, 2008. Stephen, oliver fought and john f Gilmartin, jr described, the gunpowder technology, in 18th century Mysore, Hyder Ali Prince, of Mysore developed, war rockets with an and change the use of metal cylinders, to contain the combustion powder although. The hammered soft iron he used was crude the bursting strength of the container of black powder was much higher than the earlier paper construction. Thus. A greater, internal, pressure was possible, with a resultant, greater thrust of the propulsive jet, the. Rocket body was lashed with leather thongs to a long bamboo stick range. Was perhaps up to 3/4, of a mile more than a kilometre although. Individually. These Rockets, were not accurate dispersion. Error became, less important, when large numbers were, fired rapidly in mass attacks, they. Were particularly, effective, against cavalry, and were hurled into the air after lighting or skimmed, along the hard dry ground, Hyder. Ali's, son Tipu Sultan, continued, to develop and expand, the use of rocket weapons reportedly, increasing, the number of rocket, troops from, 1,200. To a core of 5,000, in battles. At Seringapatam, in 1792. In 1799. These, Rockets were used with considerable, effect against, the British by.
The End of the 18th, century the, postal system in the region had reached high levels of efficiency. According. To Thomas broaden, the Maharaja, of Jodhpur sent, daily offerings, of fresh flowers from his capital tuna that vara 320. Kilometers, and they arrived in time for the first religious, darshan at sunrise, later. This system, underwent modernization. With the establishment. Of the British Raj the. Post office act 17, of 1837. Enabled, the governor-general of, India to convey messages by post within the territories, of the East India Company mail, was available to some officials, without charge, which became a controversial, privilege, as the years passed the Indian, post office service was established on October, 1st, 1837. The, British also constructed. A vast railway, network in the region for both strategic. And commercial reasons. The British education, system, aimed at producing able, Civil and Administrative Services. Candidates, exposed, a number of Indians to foreign institutions. Sir. Jagadish Chandra, Bose. 1858. To 1937. Prafulla, Chandra, Rea 1861. To 1944. State Nath Bose, 1894. To 1974. Meghna, shahe 1893. To 1956. PC, Milano Bea's 1893. To 1972. Sir, CV, Raman 1888. To 1970. Subrahmanyan, Chandrasekhar. 1910. To 1995. Homi, Bhabha 1909. To 1966. Srinivasa. Ramanujan, 1887. To 1920. Vikram sarabhai, 1919. To 1971. Har Gobind Khorana. 1922. To 2011. Harish Chandra. 1923. To 1983. And abdus salam 1926. To 1996. Were among the notable scholars of this period extensive. Interaction between colonial, and native sciences, was seen during most of the colonial era, Western. Science came to be associated with the requirements. Of nation-building rather, than being viewed entirely, as a colonial entity, especially. As it continued, to fuel necessities, from agriculture, to commerce. Scientists. From India also appeared, throughout Europe by, the time of India's independence colonial. Science, had assumed importance, within the westernized, intelligentsia, and establishment. French. Astronomer Pierre, Janssen, observed the solar eclipse of the 18th, of August 1868. And discovered, helium from Gunter in Madras State British India. Topic. See, also. Equals. Equals notes.