Green electricity | Wikipedia audio article
Sustainable. Energy as, energy, that is consumed, at insignificant. Rates compared, to its supply and with manageable, collateral, effects, especially, environmental. Effects, another. Common, definition, of sustainable, energy as, an energy system that serves the needs of the present without compromising. The ability of future generations to. Meet their energy needs, not. All renewable, energy, is sustainable, while, renewable, energy, is defined as energy, sources that are naturally, replenished, on a human time scale sustainable. Often referred to as clean energy must, not compromise the system in which it is adopted to the point of being unable to provide for future need the. Organizing. Principle, for sustainability. As sustainable. Development, which includes the four interconnected. Domains, ecology, economics, politics. And culture. Sustainability. Science is the study of sustainable. Development and environmental. Science, technologies. Promote, sustainable, energy, including, renewable, energy, sources such, as hydroelectricity. Solar, energy, wind energy wave, power geothermal, energy, bioenergy. Tidal, power and also technologies. Designed to improve energy efficiency. Costs. Have decreased, immensely, throughout the years and continue, to fall. Increasingly. Effective. Government, policies, support, investor, confidence, and these markets, are expanding. Considerable. Progress is, being made in the energy transition, from fossil fuels to ecologically. Sustainable systems. To the point where many studies, support, 100%. Renewable, energy. You. Topic. History. You. Topic. Definitions. Energy. Efficiency, and renewable, energy are said to be the twin pillars of sustainable, energy in, the. Broader context. Of sustainable development, there, are three pillars ecology. Economy, and society. Some. Ways in which sustainable. Energy has been defined are. Effectively. The provision, of energy, such that it meets the needs of the present without, compromising. The ability of, future generations, to. Meet their own needs. Sustainable. Energy has, two key components, renewable, energy, and energy efficiency. Renewable. Energy. And efficiency partnership. British. Dynamic. Harmony, between equitable. Availability. Of energy intensive, goods and services, to all people, and the preservation. Of the earth for future generations. And, the. Solution. Will lie in finding, sustainable energy. Sources, and more efficient, means of converting, and utilising energy. Sustainable. Energy by JW. Tester, at all from MIT press. Any. Energy, generation. Efficiency. And conservation source. Where resources, are available to, enable massive, scaling, to become a significant. Portion of energy, generation, long term preferably. 100. Years. Invest. A green technology, nonprofit. Organization. Energy. Which is replenishable. Within a human lifetime, and causes, no long-term damage to the environment. Jamaica. Sustainable. Development, network this set sustainable. Energy apart from other renewable, energy terminology. Such as alternative, energy, by focusing, on the ability of an energy source to continue providing energy. Sustainable. Energy can produce some pollution, of the environment as long as it is not sufficient to prohibit, heavy use of the source for an indefinite, amount of time. Sustainable. Energy is also distinct, from low-carbon. Energy which, is sustainable only, in the sense that it does not add to the co2 in, the atmosphere. Green. Energy is energy that can be extracted generated. And/or consumed, without any significant.
Negative Impact to the environment, the. Planet has a natural, cave ability, to recover which means pollution, that does not go beyond that capability, can still be termed green. Green. Power is a subset, of renewable, energy, and represents. Those renewable, energy, resources, and technologies, that provide the highest environmental. Benefit, the. US Environmental Protection, Agency. Defines green power as electricity, produced, from solar wind geothermal, biogas. Biomass and. Low-impact small hydroelectric, sources. Customers. Often buy green power for avoided, environmental. Impacts, and its greenhouse gas reduction, benefits. Topic. Renewable, energy, technologies. Renewable, energy, technologies. Are essential, contributors, to sustainable, energy as, they generally contribute, to world energy, security, reducing, dependence, on fossil fuel, resources and providing, opportunities. For mitigating. Greenhouse gases. The. International. Energy Agency states, that conceptually, one can define three generations. Of renewables, technologies, reaching, back more than 100 years, first. Generation, technologies. Emerged, from the Industrial, Revolution at, the end of the 19th, century and, include hydropower, biomass. Combustion, and geothermal power and heat some. Of these technologies, are still in widespread use. Second-generation. Technologies. Include, solar heating, and cooling wind, power modern, forms of bioenergy and solar photovoltaics. These. Are now entering markets, as a result, of research development and demonstration, RD&D. Investments. Since the 1980s. The. Initial, investment, was prompted, by energy, security, concerns, linked, to the oil crises. 1973. In 1979. Of the 1970s. But the continuing, appeal of these renewables, is due at least in part to environmental, benefits. Many. Of the technologies, reflect, significant, advancements, in materials, third-generation, technologies. Are still under, development and include advanced, biomass, gasification bio. Refinery technologies. Concentrating. Solar thermal power hot dry rock geothermal, energy and ocean energy. Advances. In nanotechnology may. Also play a major role first. And second generation, technologies. Have entered the market and third generation, technologies. Heavily, depend on long term research and development, commitments, where the public sector has a role to play various, cost-benefit, analysis, work by a disparate, array of specialists. And agencies, have been conducted, to determine the cheapest, and quickest paths to decarbonizing, the energy supply of the world with. The topic being one of considerable. Controversy, particularly. On the role of nuclear, energy. You. Topic. First, generation. Technologies. First. Generation, technologies. Are most competitive, in locations, with abundant, resources, their, future, use depends, on the exploration, of the available, resource potential, particularly, in developing countries and, on overcoming, challenges related. To the environment and social acceptance. Among. Sources, of renewable energy, hydroelectric. Plants have the advantages, of being long-lived, many. Existing, plants have operated, for more than 100, years, also. Hydroelectric. Plants are clean and have few emissions. Criticisms. Directed at, large-scale, hydroelectric.
Plants Include dislocation. Of people living where the reservoirs, are planned and release of significant, amounts of carbon dioxide during. Construction and, flooding of the reservoir. However. It has been found that high emissions are associated. Only with shallow reservoirs. In warm tropical locales. And recent, innovations, in hydropower, turbine, technology are enabling, efficient, development of low-impact run-of-the-river, hydroelectricity. Projects. Generally. Speaking. Hydroelectric. Plants produce much lower life cycle emissions than, other types of generation. Hydroelectric. Power which underwent extensive development, during, growth of electrification, in, the 19th, and 20th centuries. Is experiencing. Resurgence of, development, in the 21st, century, the. Areas, of greatest hydroelectric. Growth are the booming economies, of Asia, China. Is the development, leader however, other Asian, nations are installing hydropower. At a rapid, pace this. Growth is driven by much increased, energy costs. Especially. For imported, energy and widespread. Desires, for more domestically, produced clean. Renewable, and economical. Generation. Geothermal. Power plants, can operate, 24, hours per day providing. Base load capacity, and the world potential, capacity for, geothermal power generation, is estimated, at 85 gigawatts, over the next 30 years, however. Geothermal. Power is accessible. Only in limited areas of the world including the United States Central. America, East Africa, Iceland, Indonesia, and the Philippines, the. Costs, of geothermal energy have, dropped substantially. From the systems built in the 1970s. Geothermal. Heat generation, can be competitive, in many countries producing, geothermal. Power or in other regions, where the resources, of a lower temperature. Enhanced. Geothermal system. EGS, technology. Does not require, natural, convective, hydrothermal, resources, so it can be used in areas that were previously unsuitable. For geothermal power, if the resource is very large. EGS. Is currently under research at the US Department, of Energy. Biomass. Briquettes, are increasingly, being used in the developing, world as an alternative, to charcoal, the. Technique, involves, the conversion of almost any plant matter into, compressed, briquettes, that typically, have about 70%, the, calorific, value, of charcoal, there. Are relatively, few examples. Of large-scale briquette. Production, one, exception, is in North Kivu in eastern, Democratic Republic. Of Congo where. Forest clearance, for charcoal production is, considered, to be the biggest threat to mountain, gorilla habitat, the. Staff of Virunga, National Park, have, successfully. Trained and equipped over. 3500. People to produce biomass, briquettes, thereby, replacing charcoal.
Produced, Illegally, inside the National Park and creating, significant. Employment, for people living in extreme poverty, in conflict-affected, areas, in Europe, in the 19th, century there were about 200,000. Windmills slightly, more than the modern wind turbines, of the 21st, century, they. Were mainly used to grind grain and to pump water the, age of coal powered steam engines, replaced, this early use of wind power. You. Topic. Second-generation. Technologies. Markets. For second-generation technologies. Are strong and growing but only in a few countries the. Challenge is to broaden the market base for continued, growth worldwide. Strategic. Deployment in one country not only reduces, technology. Costs, for users there but also for those in other countries contributing. To overall cost reductions, and performance, improvement. Solar. Heating, systems, are a well-known second-generation. Technology. And generally, consist of solar thermal collectors. A fluid, system to move the heat from the collector, to its point of usage and a reservoir or tank for heat storage and subsequent, use the. Systems, may be used to heat domestic, hot water swimming. Pool water or for space heating the. Heat can also be used for industrial applications or. As an energy input for other uses such as cooling equipment, in many. Climates, a solar heating, system, can provide a very high percentage, 20, to 80 percent of domestic hot water energy. Energy. Received from the Sun by the earth is that of electromagnetic, radiation. Light. Ranges, of visible infrared ultraviolet. X-rays. And radio, waves received, by the earth through solar energy, the. Highest power of radiation, comes from visible, light solar. Power is complicated. Due to changes, in seasons, and from day to night, cloud. Cover can also add to complications. Of solar energy and not all radiation, from the Sun reaches, Earth because it is absorbed, and dispersed, due to clouds and gases within the Earth's atmospheres. In the. 1980s. And early 1990s, most. Photovoltaic, modules. Provided, remote area power supply, but from around 1995. Industry. Efforts have focused increasingly. On developing, building integrated photovoltaics. And, power plants, for grid connected applications. See photovoltaic, power, stations article, for details. Currently. The largest photovoltaic, power, plant in North America, as the Nellis solar, power plant 15, megawatts, there. Is a proposal, to build a solar power station, in Victoria, Australia which. Would be the world's largest PV, power station, at 154. Megawatts, other. Large photovoltaic, power, stations, include the, whole solar power plant 62, megawatts, and the Wold pulling solar Park 40 megawatts. Some. Of the second generation renewables. Such as wind power have, high potential, and have already realized, relatively. Low production costs, at the. End of 2008. Worldwide, wind, farm capacity. Was 120. Thousand. 791. Megawatts, MW, representing. An increase of twenty eight point eight percent during, the year and wind power produced, some 1.3, percent of, global electricity consumption. Wind. Power accounts, for approximately 20. Percent of electricity use. In Denmark, nine percent in Spain and seven, percent in Germany, however. It may be difficult to cite wind turbines, in some areas for aesthetic, or environmental. Reasons and it may be difficult to integrate wind power into, electricity grids. In some cases solar, thermal power stations, have been successfully. Operating, in California commercially. Since the late 1980s, including. The largest, solar power plant of any kind the 350. Megawatt solar energy, generating, systems. Nevada. Solar one is another 64, megawatts, plant which has recently opened, other. Parabolic. Trough power plants, being proposed, are 250, megawatts, plants, in Spain and a 100, megawatts, plant in Israel, solar and wind are intermittent, energy sources, that supply, electricity, 10, to 40% of the time to.
Compensate, For this characteristic, it is common to pair their production, with already existing, hydro electricity, or natural gas generation. In regions. Where this isn't available wind, and solar can be paired with significantly. More expensive pumped-storage. Hydroelectricity. Brazil. Has one of the largest renewable energy. Programs, in the world involving. Production, of ethanol fuel from sugarcane and ethanol now provides, 18%. Of the country's automotive. Fuel as a. Result, of this together, with the exploitation, of domestic, deepwater, oil sources, Brazil, which years ago had to import a large share of the petroleum, needed for domestic, consumption, recently. Reached complete, self-sufficiency. In oil most cars on the road today in, the US can run on blends of up to 10% ethanol and motor vehicle, manufacturers, already produce vehicles designed, to run on much higher ethanol blends, Ford. Daimler, Chrysler and, GM are among the automobile, companies that sell flexible. Fuel cars. Trucks, and minivans, that can use gasoline, and ethanol blends, ranging, from pure gasoline up to 85%, ethanol. E85. By. Mid 200, six there were approximately 6, million e85. Compatible. Vehicles, on us roads. Topic. Third generation, technologies, third generation, technologies. Are not yet widely demonstrated. Or commercialized. They. Are on the horizon and may have potential, comparable, to other renewable, energy technologies. But still depend on attracting, sufficient, attention and RD&D funding. These. Newest technologies. Include, advanced, biomass, gasification bio. Refinery, technologies. Solar, thermal power stations, hot dry rock geothermal, energy and ocean energy, biofuels. May, be defined, as renewable, yet may not be sustainable, due to soil degradation as, of. 2012, 40%, of American, corn production goes toward ethanol, ethanol. Takes up a large percentage, of clean energy use, when in fact it is still debatable, whether ethanol. Should be considered, as a clean energy according. To the International. Energy Agency new, bioenergy, biofuel, technologies. Being developed today, notably, cellulosic, ethanol bio, refineries, could allow biofuels, to play a much bigger role in the future than previously, thought. Cellulosic. Ethanol can, be made from plant matter composed, primarily of inedible, cellulose, fibers that form the stems and branches of, most plants, crop.
Residues, Such as corn stalks wheat straw and rice straw wood waste a municipal, solid waste are potential, sources of cellulosic, biomass. Dedicated. Energy, crops such. As switchgrass are also promising, cellulose, sources, that can be sustainably, produced in many regions, of the United States in, terms. Of ocean energy another, third-generation technology. Portugal, has the world's first commercial wave farm the AG yuca Dora wave park under construction, in 2007. The. Farm will initially use three polymers, P 750. Machines generating. 2.25. Megawatts, and costs, are put at 8.5, million euro. Subject. To successful operation. A further 70, million euro is likely to be invested, before 2009. On two further 28, machines, to generate, 525. Megawatts. Funding. For a wave farm in Scotland, was announced in February, 2007. By the Scottish, executive at, a cost of over 4 million pounds as part of a 13 million pounds, funding packages, for ocean power in Scotland, the. Farm will be the world's largest with a capacity. Of 3 megawatts generated. By four Palamas machines, see also wave farm in. 2007. The world's first turbine, to create commercial, amounts, of energy using, tidal power was installed, in the narrows of Strangford Lough in Ireland the. 1.2. Megawatts, underwater, tidal, electricity. Generator, takes advantage, of the fast tidal flow in the lock which can be up to 4 metres per second although, the generator, is powerful, enough to power up to a thousand, homes the turbine has a minimal, environmental impact, as it is almost entirely, submerged and the rotors turned slowly enough that they pose no danger to wildlife solar, power panels, that use nanotechnology which. Can create circuits, out of individual, silicon, molecules, may cost half as much as traditional, photovoltaic cells, according, to executives. And investors, involved in developing, the products. Nanosolar. Has secured, more than 100, million dollars from investors to build a factory for nanotechnology thin. Film solar panels, the. Company's plant has a planned production capacity, of 430. Megawatts, peak power of solar cells per year commercial. Production, started, and first panels, have been shipped to customers in, late 2007. Large national, and regional research, projects. On artificial, photosynthesis. Are designing, nanotechnology. Based systems, that use solar energy to split water into hydrogen fuel, and a. Proposal has been made for a global artificial. Photosynthesis. Project, in 2011, researchers. At the Massachusetts. Institute of, Technology MIT, developed. What they are calling an artificial. Leaf which. Is capable of splitting water into hydrogen and, oxygen directly, from solar power when dropped into a glass of water one. Side of the artificial. Leaf, produces. Bubbles of hydrogen while, the other side produces, bubbles of oxygen most current solar power plants, are made from an array of similar, units where each unit is continuously, adjusted, eg, with some step motors so that the light converter stays in focus of the sunlight the. Cost of focusing, light on converters. Such as our solar panels, Stirling, engine etc can, be dramatically, decreased, with a simple, and efficient, rope mechanics, in this. Technique many units, are connected with a network of ropes so that pulling two or three ropes is sufficient, to keep all light converters, simultaneously. In focus, as the direction of the Sun changes. Japan. And China have, national, programs aimed at commercial, scale space-based. Solar power s BSP the.
China Academy, of space technology caste, won the 2015, International. Sunset, design, competition. With this video of their multi rotary joint design. Proponents. Of s BSP, claimed that space-based, solar power would be clean constant, and global, and could scale to meet all planetary, energy, demand a recent. Multi-agency, industry, proposal, echoing the 2008. Pentagon, recommendation. Won the SecDef. Sec, sta te, usaid. Director, d3 diplomacy. Development defense. Innovation. Challenge. You. Topic. Enabling. Technologies. For renewable, energy. Heat, pumps and thermal energy storage are, classes, of technologies. That can enable the utilization of renewable energy sources that would otherwise be inaccessible due. To a temperature, that is too low for utilization, or, a time lag between when, the energy, is available and when it is needed while. Enhancing the temperature, of available, renewable thermal. Energy heat pumps have the additional, property of leveraging, electrical, power or in some cases mechanical. Or thermal power, by using it to extract additional energy from a low quality source, such as sea water lake water the ground the air or waste heat from a process. Thermal. Storage technologies. Allow heat or cold to be stored for periods, of time ranging, from hours or overnight to enter seasonal, and can involve storage, of sensible, energy ie by changing, the temperature of a medium or latent, energy ie, through phase changes, of a medium such between water and slush or ice. Short-term. Thermal storages, can be used for peak shaving and district heating or electrical, distribution systems. Kinds. Of renewable, or alternative, energy, sources that can be enabled include, natural energy, eg collected. Via solar thermal collectors, or dry cooling towers, used to collect winters, cold waste energy eg from, HVAC equipment industrial. Processes. Or power plants or surplus, energy eg, is seasonally, from hydropower, projects.
Or Intermittently, from wind farms the. Drake landing solar community, Alberta, Canada is illustrative. Borehole, thermal, energy, storage allows. The community to get 97%. Of its year-round heat, from solar collectors, on the garage roofs which most of the heat collected in summer, types. Of storages, for sensible energy include, insulated, tanks borehole, clusters, in substrates, ranging, from gravel, to bedrock, deep aquifers, or shallow lined pits that are insulated, on top some. Types of storage are capable of storing heat or cold between opposing seasons, particularly. If very large and some storage applications. Require, inclusion, of a heat pump latent. Heat is typically, stored in ice tanks, or what are called phase change materials, PCMs. You. Topic. Energy. Efficiency. Moving. Towards energy sustainability, will require changes, not only in the way energy is supplied but in the way it is used and reducing, the amount of energy required, to deliver various, goods or services, is essential. Opportunities. For improvement, on the demand side of the energy equation are, as rich and diverse as those on the supply side and often offer significant. Economic benefits, renewable. Energy, and energy efficiency are, sometimes, said to be the twin, pillars of, sustainable. Energy policy both. Resources, must, be developed in order to stabilize and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Efficiency. Slows down energy demand, growth so that rising, clean energy, supplies can make deep cuts in fossil, fuel use if, energy. Use grows too fast renewable. Energy development, will chase a receding, target, a recent. Historical, analysis, has demonstrated that. The rate of energy efficiency, improvements. Has generally, been outpaced, by the rate of growth in energy demand which is due to continuing, economic and population growth, as a. Result despite. Energy, efficiency, gains total, energy use and related, carbon emissions have continued, to increase, thus. Given the thermodynamic. And practical, limits of energy efficiency, improvements. Slowing, the growth in energy demand is essential, however. Unless. Clean energy, supplies come online rapidly, slowing, demand growth will only begin to reduce total emissions, reducing, the carbon content, of energy sources is also needed any. Serious. Vision of a sustainable energy, economy, thus requires, commitments, to both renewables, and efficiency renewable. Energy and energy efficiency are, no longer niche sectors, that are promoted, only by governments, and environmentalists. The. Increased, levels, of investment, and the fact that much of the capital is coming from more conventional financial.
Actors Suggest that sustainable, energy, options, are now becoming mainstream an, example. Of this would be the Alliance, to save energy project. With stall consolidated. Manufacturing. Huntsville, Alabama. USA, stall con 7 a patented, generator, shaft designed, to reduce emissions, within existing, power generating. Systems granted, publishing, rights to the Alliance in 2007. Climate. Change concerns coupled with high oil prices. And increasing, government support are driving increasing, rates of investment, in the sustainable, energy industries. According, to a trend analysis, from the United, Nations Environment Programme. According. To unep global, investment, in sustainable energy, in, 2007. Was higher than previous, levels with 148. Billion dollars, of new money raised, in 2007. An increase, of 60 percent over 2006. Total. Financial, transactions. In sustainable, energy including. Acquisition, activity, was 204, billion dollars investment. Flows in 2007. Broadened, and diversified. Making, the overall picture one of greater breadth and depth of sustainable, energy use, the. Mainstream, capital, markets are now, fully, receptive, to sustainable. Energy companies. Supported. By a surge in funds, destined, for clean energy investment. Topic. Smart, grid technology. You. Smart-grid, refers, to a class of technology, people are using to bring utility. Electricity. Delivery, systems, into the 21st, century using. Computer-based, remote, control, and automation, these. Systems, are made possible by two-way, communication. Technology, and computer, processing. That has been used for decades in, other industries, they. Are beginning to be used on electricity, networks, from the power plants, and wind farms all the way to the consumers, of electricity in, homes and businesses they. Offer many benefits to utilities, and consumers, mostly. Seen in big improvements, in energy efficiency. On the electricity, grid and in the energy users homes and offices. You. Topic. Green, energy, and green power. Green, energy includes, natural energetic. Processes, that can be harnessed with little pollution, green. Power is electricity, generated, from renewable energy, sources anaerobic. Digestion, geothermal. Power wind, power small, scale hydropower, solar, energy, biomass power tidal, power wave power and some forms of nuclear power ones which are able to burn. Nuclear. Waste through a process, known as nuclear, transmutation. Such as an integral fast reactor and, therefore belong, in the green, energy. Category. Some, definitions, may also include, power derived, from the incineration, of waste. Some. People including greenpeace, founder, and first member Patrick Moore George Monbiot Bill Gates and James Lovelock have, specifically, classified. Nuclear power, as green energy, others. Including, green pieces Phil Radford disagree. Claiming, that the problems, associated with, radioactive. Waste and the risk of nuclear accidents. Such as the Chernobyl, disaster pose, an unacceptable risk, to the environment into, humanity. However. Newer, nuclear, reactor, designs are capable, of utilizing what is now deemed nuclear. Waste, until. It is no longer or dramatically, less dangerous, and have design features, that greatly minimize the possibility, of a nuclear accident, these.
Designs, Have yet to be commercialized, see, molten, salt reactor. Some. Have argued that, although green energy is a commendable, effort, in solving, the world's increasing. Energy consumption, it must be accompanied, by a cultural, change that encourages, the decrease, of the world's appetite for energy in several, countries with, common carrier arrangements, electricity. Retailing arrangements, make it possible for consumers. To purchase green, electricity, renewable. Electricity, from, either their utility, or a green power provider. When. Energy is purchased, from the electricity, network the power reaching, the consumer will not necessarily be. Generated, from green energy sources the. Local utility, company Electric, Company or state, power pool buys their electricity, from electricity, producers. Who may be generating, from fossil, fuel nuclear, or renewable energy, sources in many. Countries green, energy currently provides a very small, of electricity. Generally, contributing, less than two to five percent to, the overall pool in. Some, US states local, governments, have formed regional, power purchasing, pools using, Community, Choice aggregation. And solar bonds, to achieve a fifty-one percent renewable, mix or higher such as in the city of San Francisco by participating, in a green energy program a consumer, may be having an effect on the energy sources, used, and ultimately might be helping to promote and expand the use of green energy they. Are also making a statement to policy, makers that they are willing to pay a price premium to support renewable, energy, green. Energy, consumers, either obligate, the utility, companies, to increase, the amount of green energy that they purchase from the pool so decreasing, the amount of non green energy, they purchase, or directly, fund the green energy through a green power provider, if. Insufficient. Green energy, sources are available the, utility, must develop new ones our contract, with a third party energy supplier, to provide green energy, causing, more to be built, however. There is no way the consumer can check whether or not the electricity. Bada's green. Or otherwise. In. Some. Countries, such as the Netherlands, electricity. Companies guaranteed, to buy an equal amount of green power as is being used by their green power customers, the. Dutch government exempts. Green power from pollution, taxes, which means green power is hardly any more expensive, than other power. A more, recent concept. For improving our electrical, grid as to be microwaves, from Earth orbiting, satellites, or the moon to directly when and where there is demand the. Power would be generated, from solar energy captured. On the lunar surface in, this system the receivers, would be broad. Translucent. Tent-like, structures, that would receive microwaves. And convert them to electricity. NASA. Said, in 2000. That the technology. Was worth pursuing, but it is still too soon to say if the technology, will be cost-effective the World Wide Fund for Nature and, several, green electricity, labeling, organizations. Created, that now-defunct eugene, green energy, standard, under which the national, green electricity, certification.
Schemes Could be accredited to ensure that the purchase of green energy leads to the provision, of additional new green energy, resources, innovative. Green energy, trends, and solutions, were at the center of discussion at Expo 2017. In Astana Kazakhstan. Specialized. Expo, 2017. Was themed future. Energy and brought. Together representatives of. 115. Countries and 22, international, organizations. You. Topic. Local. Green energy, systems. Those, not satisfied. With the third-party grid approach to green energy via. The power grid can install their own locally, based renewable, energy system. Renewable. Energy electrical, systems, from solar to wind to even local hydropower in some cases are some of the many types of renewable energy, systems available locally. Additionally. For those interested in heating and cooling their dwelling via renewable energy, geothermal heat, pump systems, that tap the constant, temperature of the earth which is around 7, to 15 degrees Celsius a, few feet underground and increases, dramatically, at greater depths are an option over conventional natural gas and petroleum fueled. Heat approaches, also. In, geographic. Locations, where the Earth's crust is especially thin, or near volcanoes as, is the case in Iceland, there exists the potential, to generate even, more electricity, than would be possible, at other sites thanks to a more significant, temperature gradient. At these locales. The. Advantage, of this approach in the United, States is that many states offer incentives, to offset the cost of installation of a renewable energy system in California. Massachusetts. And. Several other US states a new approach to community energy supply called community choice aggregation. Has provided communities. With the means to solicit, a competitive, electricity, supplier, and use municipal, revenue bonds to finance development of, local green energy, resources. Individuals. Are usually, assured that the electricity, they are using is actually produced, from a green energy source, that they control, once. The system is paid for the owner of a renewable energy system, will be producing, their own renewable, electricity, for essentially, no cost and can sell the excess to the local utility, at a profit. You. Topic. Using, green energy. Renewable. Energy, after its generation, needs to be stored in a medium for use with autonomous, devices, as well as vehicles, also. To provide, household, electricity, in remote areas that, is areas which are not connected, to the mains electricity grid. Energy storage is, required for, use with renewable, energy energy. Generation. And consumption, systems, used in the latter case are usually, standalone, power systems. Some. Examples, are, energy. Carriers, as hydrogen, liquid nitrogen. Compressed, air oxy-hydrogen. Batteries. To power vehicles. Flywheel. Energy storage pumped-storage. Hydroelectricity. As more usable, in stationary, applications, eg to, power homes and offices in, household. Power systems, conversion, of energy can also be done to reduce smell, for. Example, organic, matters such as cow dung and spoil Abul organic, matter can be converted to biochar. To. Eliminate, emissions carbon. Capture and storage is then used usually however, renewable. Energy is derived from the mains electricity grid. This. Means that energy storage, is mostly not used as the mains electricity grid. Is organized, to produce the exact amount of energy being consumed, at that particular moment, energy. Production on the mains electricity grid. Is always set up as a combination, of large-scale, renewable energy.
Plants As well as other power plants as fossil, fuel power plants and, nuclear power, this. Combination however. Which is essential, for this type of energy supply as eg, wind turbines, solar, power plants, etc can only produce when, the wind blows in the Sunshine's, this. Is also one of the main drawbacks of the system as fossil, fuel power plants are polluting, and are a main cause of global warming, nuclear, power being an exception, although. Fossil. Fuel power plants too can be made emission, list through carbon capture, and storage as well as renewable if, the plants are converted, to eg biomass, the best solution, is still to phase out the latter power plants, over time, nuclear. Power plants, too can be more or less eliminated. From their problem, of nuclear waste through the use of new clear reprocessing. And newer plants, as fast breeder and nuclear fusion plants. Renewable. Energy power plants, do provide a steady flow of energy for. Example hydropower. Plants, ocean, thermal plants, osmotic, power plants, all provide power at a regulated, pace and are thus available power, sources, at any given moment, even at night wind still moments etc, at. Present, however the number of steady flow renewable. Energy plants alone is still too small to meet energy demands, at the times of the day when the irregular, producing, renewable energy plants cannot produce power. Besides. The greening of fossil, fuel and nuclear power, plants, another option, as the distribution and immediate use of power from solely renewable, sources in this. Setup energy, storage is again not necessary, for, example, TREC. Has proposed to distribute, solar power from the Sahara to Europe, Europe. Can distribute, wind and ocean power to the Sahara and other countries, in this. Way power is produced at any given time as at any point of the planet as the Sun or the wind is up or ocean waves and currents are stirring this. Option, however is probably, not possible in the short term as fossil, fuel and nuclear power, are still the main sources of energy on the mains electricity met, and replacing, them will not be possible overnight. Several. Large scale energy storage, suggestions. For the grid have been done, worldwide. There is over 100 gigawatts. Of pumped-storage, hydroelectricity. This. Improves, efficiency and. Decreases, energy losses but a conversion, to an energy storing mains electricity grid. As a very costly, solution. Some. Costs, could potentially, be reduced by making use of energy storage, equipment the consumer, buys and not the state an, example. As batteries, in electric cars, that would double as an energy buffer for the electricity, grid, however. Besides the cost setting, up such a system, would still be a very complicated, and difficult procedure.
Also. Energy. Storage apparatus, as car batteries, are also built with materials, that pose a threat to the environment, eg. Lithium. The combined production of batteries, for such a large part of the population would, still have environmental, concern. Besides. Car batteries, however other grid energy storage, projects, make use of less polluting, energy carriers, eg, compressed, air tanks, and flywheel energy storage. You. Topic. Green-energy and, labeling, by region. You. Topic. European. Union. Directive. 2004. Eighths EC, of the european, parliament and of the council of, the 11th, of february, 2004. On the promotion, of cogeneration based. On a useful heat demand in the internal, energy market, includes the article 5 guarantee, of origin of electricity, from high-efficiency. Cogeneration. European. Environmental. Ngos have launched an Ecolabel, for green power the. Equal level is called eco energy, it sets criteria, for sustainability, additionality. Consumer. Information and tracking, only. Part, of electricity, produced by renewables, fulfills, the eco energy criteria. A green energy supply certification. Scheme was launched in the United Kingdom in February 2010. This. Implements, guidelines, from the energy regulator, Ofcom and sets requirements. On transparency. The matching of sales by renewable, energy supplies, and additionality. You. Topic. United. States. The, United States Department of Energy Doh the Environmental. Protection Agency. EPA, and the Center for resource, solutions, CRS. Recognizes. The voluntary, purchase, of electricity, from renewable, energy sources also, called renewable electricity, or green electricity, as green power the most popular, way to purchase renewable energy. As revealed by NREL. Data is through purchasing, renewable energy, certificates, recs. According. To a natural, marketing, institute nmi, survey. 55%. Of American, consumers want, companies, to increase their use of renewable, energy those selected six companies for its 2007. Green, power supplier, Awards including, constellation. New energy 3°, Stirling, Planet SunEdison, Pacific. Power and Rocky Mountain Power and Silicon, Valley power the. Combined, green power provided, by those six winners equals, more than five billion kilowatt. Hours per year which is enough to power nearly 400, 65,000, average US households. In. 2014. Arcadia, power made recs available, to homes and businesses, in all 50 states allowing, consumers to use 100%. Green. Power as, defined. By the EPA's, green Power Partnership the, US Environmental. Protection Agency. US EPA, Green Power Partnership as, a voluntary, program that supports the organizational. Procurement, of renewable, electricity by. Offering, expert, advice technical, support tools and resources, this. Can help organizations, lower. The transaction. Costs, of buying renewable, power reduce, carbon footprint, and communicate, its leadership to key stakeholders throughout. The country more than half of all US electricity. Customers, now, have an option to purchase some type of green power product, from a retail electricity, provider. Roughly. One quarter of the nation's utilities, offer green, power programs, to customers, and voluntary. Retail, sales of renewable, energy, in the United States totaled, more than twelve billion kilowatt, hours in 2006. A 40 percent increase over the previous year in the. United States one of the main problems, with purchasing, green energy, through the electrical, grid as the current centralized, infrastructure. That supply, the consumers, electricity, this. Infrastructure. Has led to increasingly, frequent brownouts. And blackouts high, co2 emissions. Higher energy costs and, power quality issues an, additional. 450. Billion dollars, will be invested to expand this fledgling, system, over the next 20, years to meet increasing demand in, addition. This centralized, system, is now being further overtaxed. With the incorporation, of renewable, energies, such as wind solar and geothermal Energy's. Renewable. Resources, due to the amount of space they require are often, located in remote areas where, there is a lower energy demand, the. Current infrastructure, would make transporting. This energy, to high demand areas, such, as urban centers highly inefficient, and in some cases impossible. In addition. Despite the amount of renewable energy. Produced, or the economic, viability of such technologies. Only about 20 percent will, be able to be incorporated, into the grid to. Have a more sustainable, energy profile. The United States must move towards implementing, changes, to the electrical, grid that will accommodate a mixed fuel economy several. Initiatives are being proposed, to mitigate distribution.
Problems, First. And foremost the most effective, way to reduce USA's. Co2, emissions, and slow global warming is through conservation, efforts. Opponents. Of the current US electrical, grid have also advocated, for decentralizing. The grid this. System, would increase efficiency. By reducing, the amount of energy lost in transmission, it. Would also be economically, viable as it would reduce the amount of power lines that will need to be constructed, in the future to keep up with demand, merging. Heat and power in this system would create added benefits, and help to increase its efficiency by up to 80 to 90 percent this. Is a significant. Increase from the current fossil. Fuel plants, which only have an efficiency, of 34%. Companies, such as leaf. Wwe.com. Have. Started, reporting ESG. Metrics, on behalf of companies, and investment, funds in an effort to increase transparency in, the space which to date has increased in importance, but has not found a unified, measurement, tool. You. Topic. Sustainable. Energy, research. There, are numerous organizations, within, the academic, federal, and commercial, sectors conducting, large-scale, advanced, research in the field of sustainable, energy, this. Research spans several areas, of focus across, the sustainable, energy spectrum. Most. Of the research is targeted, at improving efficiency. And increasing, overall energy, yields. Multiple. Federally, supported research. Organizations. Have focused on sustainable, energy in, recent years two. Of the most prominent, of these labs are Sandia, National, Laboratories. And the National, Renewable Energy, Laboratory, and, Arielle, both of which are funded by the United States Department of Energy and, supported, by various corporate, partners. Sandia. Has a total, budget of 2.4. Billion dollars, while NREL. Has a budget of. 375. Million dollars, scientific. Production towards sustainable. Energy systems, is rising exponentially, growing, from about 500. English journal papers, only about renewable, energy in 1992. To almost 9,000, papers in 2011. You. Topic. Biomass. By amasses biological. Material, derived from living or recently living. Organisms, it. Most often refers to plants, or plant derived materials. Which are specifically, called lignocellulosic. Biomass as, an. Energy source biomass. Can either be used directly, via combustion. To produce heat or indirectly, after converting it to various forms of biofuel. Conversion. Of biomass to, biofuel can. Be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into. Thermal chemical and biochemical methods. Wood. Remains the largest biomass. Energy source, today, examples, include forest. Residues such, as dead trees branches and tree stumps yard clippings wood chips and even municipal, solid waste in the. Second sense biomass, includes, plant, or animal matter that can be converted into fibers, or other industrial chemicals. Including, biofuels. Industrial. Biomass, can be grown from numerous types of plants including Miscanthus, switchgrass hemp. Corn, poplar, willow sorghum. Sugarcane bamboo. And a variety of tree species ranging. From eucalyptus, to oil palm palm oil. Biomass. Biogas, and biofuels, are burned to produce heat, power and in doing so harm, the environment. Pollutants. Such as sulfur, oxides, Sox nitrous, oxides, NOx and particulate, matter PM, are produced, from this combustion, the World Health Organization. Estimates that seven million premature deaths, are caused each year by air pollution. Biomass. Combustion, as a major contributor. You. Topic. Ethanol. Biofuels. As the. Primary source of biofuel, in North America, many organizations. Are conducting, research in the area of ethanol, production on the. Federal level the USDA, conducts, a large amount of research regarding, ethanol, production in the United States, much. Of this research is targeted, towards the effect of ethanol production on domestic, food markets. The. National, Renewable Energy, Laboratory, has. Conducted various, ethanol, research projects. Mainly in the area of cellulosic, ethanol. Cellulosic. Ethanol has, many benefits over traditional corn. Based ethanol it. Does not take away or directly conflict, with the food supply because, it is produced from wood grasses, or non edible parts of plants, moreover. Some, studies have shown cellulosic, ethanol to, be more cost-effective and economically, sustainable than, corn based ethanol, even. If we used all the corn crop that we have in the United States and converted, it into ethanol it, would only produce enough fuel to serve 13%. Of the United, States total, gasoline, consumption. Sandia. National Laboratories. Conducts, in-house, cellulosic. Ethanol research. And is also a member of the joint bioenergy Institute, J. Bei a Research Institute founded. By the United, States Department of Energy with, the goal of developing cellulosic. Biofuels. You. Topic. Other biofuels.
From. 1978. To 1996. The National, Renewable Energy, Laboratory. Experimented. With producing, algae fuel in the aquatic. Species, program. A, self-published. Article, by Michael Briggs at the University. Of New Hampshire biofuels. Group offers, estimates, for the realistic replacement. Of all motor vehicle, fuel with biofuels, by utilizing, algae, that have a natural, oil content, greater than 50% which, briggs suggests, can be grown on algae, ponds at wastewater, treatment plants, this. Oil-rich, algae, can then be extracted, from the system and processed, into biofuels, with the dried remainder, further reprocessed. To create ethanol. The. Production, of algae to harvest oil for biofuels, has not yet been undertaken. On a commercial scale but, feasibility. Studies have been conducted to arrive at the above yield estimate, during. The biofuel, production process. Algae, actually consumes. The carbon dioxide in the air and, turns. It into oxygen through photosynthesis. In addition. To its projected, high yield alga culture unlike. Food crop based biofuels. Does, not entail a decrease, in food production since it requires neither farmland, nor freshwater. Many. Companies, are pursuing, algae, bioreactors. For various purposes, including scaling. Up biofuels. Production to commercial, levels several, groups in various sectors are conducting, research on jatropha, curcas a poisonous, shrub like tree that produces seeds, considered, by many to be a viable source of biofuels, feedstock, oil much. Of this research focuses. On improving the overall per. Acre oil yield of jatropha through advancements, in genetics, soil science, and horticultural. Practices. SG. Biofuels, a SAN diego-based jatropha. Developer. Has used molecular, breeding and biotechnology. To produce elite hybrid, seeds of jatropha that shows significant, yield improvements, over first-generation, varieties. The. Center for sustainable. Energy farming. CFS, EF is a los angeles-based, nonprofit. Research organization dedicated. To, jatropha, research, in the areas of plant, science, agronomy. And horticulture. Successful. Exploration of these disciplines, is projected, to increase jatropha. Farm, production, yields by 200, to 300, percent in the next 10 years. You. Topic. Thorium. There, are potentially, two sources of nuclear, power fission. Is used in all current nuclear power plants, fusion, is the reaction, that exists, in stars including. The Sun and remains impractical. For use on earth as fusion, reactors, are not yet available, however. Nuclear, power is controversial, politically. And scientifically. Due to concerns, about radioactive. Waste disposal. Safety, the risks of a severe accident and technical, and economical, problems, in dismantling of old power plants, thorium as efficient, Abul material, used in thorium-based, nuclear power. The. Thorium fuel cycle claims. Several, potential, advantages.
Over A uranium fuel cycle including. Greater abundance superior. Physical and nuclear properties better, resistance, to nuclear weapons proliferation and. Reduced plutonium. And actinide, production, therefore. It is sometimes, referred to sustainable. You. Topic. Solar. The, primary, obstacle that is preventing, the large-scale, implementation. Of solar-powered. Energy generation, is the inefficiency, of current solar technology. Currently. Photovoltaic. PV, panels, only have the ability to convert around 24 percent of the sunlight that hits them into electricity, at. This rate, solar energy still. Holds many challenges. For widespread implementation but, steady progress has, been made in reducing manufacturing cost. And increasing photovoltaic, efficiency. Both. Sandia, National Laboratories. And the National, Renewable Energy, Laboratory. NREL, have heavily funded solar, research, programs, the. NREL. Solar program, has a budget of around 75. Million dollars and, develops, research projects. In the areas of photovoltaic, PV. Technology. Solar, thermal energy and solar radiation, the. Budget for Sandhya's, solar division, is unknown however it accounts for a significant, percentage of the laboratories, 2.4. Billion dollars, budget. Several. Academic, programs, have focused on solar research, in recent years the, Solar Energy Research, Center, a CRC at University. Of North Carolina UNC. Has, the sole purpose of developing, cost-effective. Solar technology. In. 2008. Researchers. At Massachusetts Institute. Of, Technology MIT developed. A method to store solar energy, by using it to produce hydrogen fuel, from water such. Research is targeted, at addressing the obstacle, that solar development faces. Of storing energy for use during nighttime hours when the Sun is not shining in. February. 2012, North, carolina-based. SEM Prius Inc a solar development, company, backed by German corporation, Siemens announced, that they had developed the world's most efficient, solar panel, the. Company, claims that the prototype, converts. 33.9%. Of, the sunlight that hits it to electricity more, than double the previous high-end, conversion, rate major. Projects. On artificial, photosynthesis. Or solar fuels are also underway. In many developed, nations. You. Topic. Space-based. Solar, power. Space-based. Solar power satellites. Seek to overcome the problems, of storage, and provide civilization. Scale power that is clean constant. And global. Japan. And China have, active national, programs aimed at commercial, scale space-based, solar power SB SP and both nations hope to orbit demonstrations. In the 2030s, the. China Academy, of space technology cast, won the 2015. International. Sun set design competition. With this video of their multi rotary joint design, proponents. Of SB SP claimed that space-based, solar power would be clean constant. And global, and could scale to meet all planetary, energy, demand a recent. Multi agency industry, proposal, echoing, the 2008. Pentagon, recommendation. When the SecDef. SEC. Sta, te, USAID. Director, d3, diplomacy. Development defense. Innovation. Challenge with, the following pitch and vision video. Northrop. Grumman is funding Caltech with seventeen, point five million dollars, for an ultra lightweight design, Keith. Henson posted, a video of a bootstrapping. Approach. You. Topic. Wind. Wind, energy research, dates back several decades to the 1970s. When NASA developed, an analytical, model to predict wind turbine, power generation, during high winds, today. Both Sandia, National Laboratories. And National, Renewable Energy, Laboratory, have, programs, dedicated to, wind research. Sandhya's. Laboratory, focuses on the advancement, of materials, aerodynamics. And sensors, the. NREL. Wind projects, are centered on improving, wind plant power production, reducing. Their capital, costs, and making wind energy more, cost-effective. Overall, the. Field laboratory, for optimized, wind energy flow, at Caltech was established, to research renewable, approaches, to wind energy farming, technology, practices, that have the potential to reduce the cost size an environmental. Impact of wind energy production.
The. President, of sky wind Power Corporation thinks, that wind turbines, will be able to produce electricity, at a cent per kilowatt hour, at, an average which, in comparison to coal generated, electricity, as a fractional, of the cost a, wind. Farm as a group of wind turbines, in the same location, used to produce electric. Power a large. Wind farm may consist, of several hundred individual, wind turbines, and cover an extended, area of hundreds of square miles but the land between the turbines, may be used for agricultural. Or other purposes, a wind. Farm may also be located offshore. Many. Of the largest operational. Onshore, wind farms, are located in the USA, in China the. Gansu wind, farm in China has over 5,000. Megawatts installed, with, a goal of 20,000. Megawatts by, 2020. China. Has several other wind, power bases, of similar. Size the, Alta Wind Energy Center, in California as, the largest onshore wind, farm outside of China with a capacity, of 1020. Megawatts, of power, Europe. Leads in the use of wind power with almost 66, gigawatts, about 66. Percent of the total globally, with Denmark in the lead according to the country's installed, per capita capacity, as. Of February, 2012, the wall new wind farm in United, Kingdom as the largest offshore, wind farm in the world at, 367. Megawatts, followed, by Thanet wind farm 300. Megawatts, also, in the UK, there. Are many large wind farms under, construction. And these include, barred offshore, one 400, megawatts, Clyde wind farm, 350. Megawatts, Greater, Gabbard wind, farm 500. Megawatts, links, wind farm, 270. Megawatts, London, Array 1000, megawatts, lower Snake River wind project. 343. Megawatts, MacArthur. Wind farm 420. Megawatts, Shepherds, flat wind farm, 845. Megawatts, and Sheringham, shoal, 317. Megawatts. Wind. Power has expanded. Quickly its share of worldwide electricity. Usage at the end of 2014. Was 3.1, percent. You. Topic. Geothermal. Geothermal. Energy is produced by tapping into the thermal energy created. And stored within the earth it. Arises from the radioactive, decay of an isotope, of potassium and, other elements found in the Earth's crust. Geothermal. Energy can, be obtained by drilling into the ground very similar, to oil exploration and, then it is carried by a heat transfer fluid eg. Water brine, or steam. Geothermal. Systems, that are mainly dominated, by water have the potential to provide greater benefits to, the system and will generate more power, within. These liquid dominated, systems, there are possible, concerns, of subsidence, and contamination, of groundwater resources. There. For protection, of groundwater, resources as, necessary, in these systems, this. Means that careful, reservoir, production, and engineering is necessary, in liquid dominated, geothermal, reservoir, systems. Geothermal. Energy is considered, sustainable because, that thermal energy is constantly, replenished. However. The science of geothermal energy generation. Is still young and developing economic viability. Several. Entities such, as the National, Renewable Energy, Laboratory, and, Sandia National Laboratories. Are conducting, research toward. The goal of establishing a proven science around geothermal. Energy, the. International. Center for geothermal research. Igc, a german geosciences. Research organization. Is largely, focused, on geothermal, energy development. Research. You. Topic. Hydrogen. Over. 1 billion dollars of federal money has been spent on the research and development of, hydrogen, and a medium for energy storage in the United States both.
The National, Renewable Energy, Laboratory, and, Sandia, National Laboratories. Have departments, dedicated to hydrogen research. Hydrogen. Is useful, for energy storage and for use in airplanes, and ships but, is not practical, for automobile, use as it is not very efficient, compared to using a battery for. The same cost a person can travel three times as far using a battery electric, vehicle. You. Topic. Clean, energy, investments. 2010. Was a record, year for green energy investments. According. To a report from Bloomberg, New Energy Finance, nearly, us, 243. Billion, dollars, was invested, in wind farms, solar power electric. Cars and other alternative, technologies, worldwide, representing. A 30 percent increase from 2009. And nearly, five times the, money invested, in 2004. China. Had 50 1.1 billion dollars, investment, in clean energy projects. In 2010, by far the largest figure for any country within emerging, economies, Brazil comes, second, to China in terms of clean energy investments. Supported. By strong energy, policies, Brazil, has one of the world's highest biomass. And small hydropower, capacities. And is poised for significant, growth in wind energy investment. The. Cumulative, investment. Potential in Brazil from 2010, to 2020, is projected, as 67, billion dollars, India, is another rising, clean energy, leader while. India ranked the tenth in private, clean energy, investments. Among g20, members, in 2009. Over the next 10 years it, is expected to rise to the third position with annual clean energy, investment, under current policies, forecast, to grow by 369. Percent between 2010, and 2020. It is clear that the center of growth has started to shift to the developing, economies and, they may lead the world in the new wave of clean energy investments. Around the world many sub-national, governments. Regions, states and provinces have, aggressively, pursued, sustainable. Energy investments. In the. United States, California's. Leadership in renewable, energy, was recognized, by the climate, group when it awarded, former Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger its, inaugural, award for international climate, leadership, in Copenhagen, in 2009, in. Australia. The state of South Australia, under the leadership of former premier Mike Rann has led the way with wind power comprising. 26%, of its electricity generation. By the end of 2011 edging, out coal-fired, generation, for the first time South. Australia. Also has had the highest take-up per capita, of household, solar panels, in Australia, following the ran government's, introduction, of solar feed-in, laws in educative, campaign, involving, the installation, of solar photovoltaic. Installations. On the roofs of prominent, public buildings, including, the Parliament, Museum, Airport, and Adelaide show grounds pavilion in schools, ran. Australia's. First climate, change Minister passed legislation in. 2006. Setting targets for renewable, energy and emissions, cuts the first legislation. In Australia to do so also in the European, Union there is a clear trend of promoting policies, encouraging, investments. And financing, for sustainable, energy in, terms of energy efficiency innovation. In, energy exploitation. And development, of renewable, resources with. Increased, consideration. Of environmental, aspects, and sustainability, in October, 2018, the American, Council, for an energy-efficient. Economy AC EEE, released, its annual state. Energy, efficiency. Scorecard, the scorecard. Concluded, that states and electric, utility, companies, are continuing, to expand, energy, efficiency, measures in order to meet clean energy, goals in. 2017. The u.s. spent six point six billion dollars, in electricity efficiency. Programs. 1.3. Billion dollars, was spent on natural, gas efficiency, these, programs, resulted, in twenty seven point three million megawatt, hours MWh. Of electricity Save. You. Topic. Related. Journals. Among. Scientific. Journals related to the interdisciplinary study. Of sustainable, energy our. Energy. And environmental, science. Energy. For sustainable, development, energy. Policy. Journal, of renewable, and sustainable energy. Renewable. And, sustainable energy. Reviews. Topic. See also. Gah Mansoori, NN a yachty lb, agar, co 2016. Energy, sources. Utilization. Legislation. Sustainability. Illinois, as model state world sigh pub. Co. ISBN. Nine seven, eight nine eight one four seven oh four oh oh seven.