Genetically engineered | Wikipedia audio article
Genetic. Engineering also. Called genetic, modification. Or genetic, manipulation. Is the direct, manipulation, of, an organism's, genes using biotechnology. It. Is a set of technologies. Used, to change the genetic makeup, of cells including. The transfer, of genes within and across species, boundaries. To produce improved. Or novel organisms. New. DNA, is obtained, by either isolating and, copying, the genetic, material, of interest using. Recombinant DNA. Methods, or by artificially. Synthesizing. The DNA, a. Construct. Is usually, created and, used to insert this DNA, into, the host organism. The. First recombinant. DNA, molecule. Was made by Paul Berg in, 1972. By combining, DNA, from the monkey virus sv40. With the lambda virus, as well, as inserting, genes the process, can be used to remove or, knock, out, genes. The, new DNA can, be inserted randomly. Or targeted. To a specific part. Of the genome. An organism. That is generated, through genetic, engineering is. Considered, to be genetically modified. GM, and the resulting. Entity, as a genetically. Modified organism. GMO. The. First GMO. Was a bacterium. Generated. By Herbert, Boyer and Stanley Cohen. In. 1973. Rudolf. Jaenisch created. The first GM animal, when he inserted, foreign, DNA into. A mouse in. 1974. The. First company. To focus on genetic, engineering, Genentech. Was founded, in, 1976. And started, the production of human proteins. Genetically. Engineered, human insulin, was produced, in 1978. And insulin, producing, bacteria were, commercialized. In 1982. Genetically. Modified, food, has been sold since, 1994. With the release of the flavor saver tomato. The. Flavor saver, was engineered, to have a longer, shelf life but, most current, GM crops, are modified, to increase, resistance to, insects, and herbicides. Glofish. The first GMO. Designed, as a pet was sold in the United, States in December 2003. In. 2016. Salmon modified, with a growth hormone were, sold. Genetic. Engineering has, been applied, in numerous fields, including, research, medicine. Industrial. Biotechnology. And, agriculture. In. Research, GMOs. Are used to study gene function, and expression, through loss of function, gain of function tracking. And expression, experiments. By. Knocking out genes responsible for. Certain conditions, it is possible, to create animal. Model organisms. Of human diseases, as. Well as producing hormones, vaccines. And other drugs genetic, engineering, has the potential to cure genetic diseases, through, gene therapy, the. Same techniques, that are used to produce drugs, can, also have industrial, applications. Such as producing enzymes for, laundry detergent. Cheese's and other products. The rise of commercialized. Genetically. Modified, crops, has, provided economic benefit. To farmers, in many different countries, but has also been the source of most of the controversy, surrounding, the technology.
This. Has been present, since its early use the first field trials, were destroyed, by anti-gm. Activists. Although. There is a scientific. Consensus. That currently, available food, derived, from GM, crops poses. No greater risk, to human health than, conventional. Food GM, food safety as, a leading concern with, critics. Gene. Flow impact. On non-target. Organisms, control. Of the food supply and intellectual. Property, rights have also been raised as potential, issues, these. Concerns, have led to the development of, a regulatory, framework, which, started, in 1975. It. Has led to an international, treaty the, Cartagena protocol. On biosafety that. Was adopted in 2000. Individual. Countries, have developed their, own regulatory. Systems. Regarding, GMOs. With, the most marked differences, occurring, between the US and Europe. You. Topic. Overview. Genetic. Engineering as, a process, that alters the genetic, structure, of an organism. By either removing, or introducing. DNA. Unlike. Traditional animal. And plant breeding, which, involves, doing multiple, crosses, and then selecting, for the organism, with the desired phenotype. Genetic, engineering, takes, the gene directly, from one organism, and inserts, it in the other this. Is much faster can, be used to insert any genes, from any organism, even, ones from different domains and, prevents, other undesirable. Genes from also being added genetic, engineering, could potentially. Fix severe, genetic disorders. In humans by, replacing the defective, gene with, a functioning, one it. Is an important, tool in research, that allows, the function, of specific genes to be studied. Drugs. Vaccines and, other products. Have been harvested, from organisms, engineered. To produce them. Crops. Have been developed, that aid food security, by increasing, yield nutritional. Value, and tolerance, to environmental, stresses, the, DNA, can be introduced, directly, into the host organism, or into a cell that is then fused, or hybridized, with the host, this. Relies, on recombinant. Nucleic. Acid, techniques, to form new combinations. Of heritable, genetic material. Followed, by the incorporation, of, that material. Either indirectly through, a vector, system, or directly, through micro injection macro, injection, or micro, encapsulation. Genetic. Engineering, does not normally include, traditional breeding, in vitro, fertilization. Induction. Of polyploidy. Mutagenesis. And cell fusion techniques. That do not use recombinant, nucleic. Acids, or a genetically. Modified organism. In the process. However. Some, broad definitions. Of genetic, engineering include. Selective, breeding, cloning. And stem cell, research, although not considered genetic, engineering, are closely, related and, genetic, engineering can, be used within them. Synthetic, biology as. An emerging, discipline, that takes genetic, engineering, a step further by introducing, artificially. Synthesized, material. Into an organism, plants. Animals, are micro organisms, that have been changed, through genetic, engineering, are termed genetically. Modified, organisms. Or GMOs. If, genetic. Material. From another species, is, added to the host the resulting, organism, is called transgenic. If. Genetic. Material. From the same species or a species, that can naturally breed. With the host as used the resulting, organism, as called sis genic if. Genetic. Engineering, is used to remove genetic. Material, from the target, organism. The resulting, organism, is termed a knockout organism. In. Europe genetic, modification. As synonymous with genetic, engineering, while within the United, States of America, and Canada genetic, modification can. Also be used to refer to more conventional breeding. Methods. You. Topic. History. You. Humans. Have altered the genomes of species, for thousands, of years, through selective, breeding or, artificial. Selection as, contrasted. With natural, selection, more. Recently, mutation. Breeding has, used exposure, to chemicals, or radiation to, produce a high frequency of random, mutations, for selective, breeding purposes. Genetic. Engineering, as the direct manipulation, of, DNA by, humans, outside breeding. And mutations. Has only existed since, the 1970s. The term. Genetic. Engineering, was. First coined by Jack Williamson, in his science, fiction novel dragons Island published, in 1951.
One, Year before DNA's. Role in heredity, was confirmed, by Alfred, Hershey and Martha Chase and two years before James, Watson, and Francis Crick, showed, that the DNA, molecule. Has a double, helix structure, though, the general concept. Of direct, genetic manipulation. Was explored, in rudimentary, form, in Stanley, G Weinbaum. 1936. Science, fiction, story Proteus, Island. In. 1972. Paul, Berg created, the first recombinant. DNA, molecules, by combining, DNA, from the monkey virus sv40. With that of the lambda virus, in. 1973. Herbert, Boyer and Stanley Cohen. Created. The first transgenic. Organism. By inserting, antibiotic. Resistance, genes into, the plasmid, of an ester akia coli, bacterium. A year. Later Rudolf, II an ich created, a transgenic, Mouse by, introducing, foreign DNA into. Its embryo, making. It the world's, first transgenic. Animal, these achievements led. To concerns, in the scientific. Community about, potential, risks from genetic, engineering, which were first discussed, in depth at the Asilomar, conference in. 1975. One. Of the main recommendations. From this meeting was that government oversight. Of recombinant. DNA, research should. Be established until. The technology was, deemed safe in, 1976. Gen the first genetic, engineering, company, was, founded, by Herbert, Boyer and Robert Swanson, and a year later the company produced, a human protein somatostatin. In, e.coli, Genentech. Announced, the production of genetically, engineered human. Insulin in, 1978. In. 1980. The US Supreme, Court in the diamond V Chakrabarti. Case ruled, that genetically, altered, life could be patented the. Insulin, produced, by bacteria was, approved, for release by, the Food and Drug Administration FDA. In. 1982. In, 1983. A biotech. Company advanced. Genetic, sciences, AGS, applied, for US government authorization. To perform field, tests, with the ice-, strain of Pseudomonas, syringae to, protect crops from frost but, environmental groups. And protesters, delayed, the field tests, for four years with legal challenges, in. 1987. The ice -, strain of P syringae became. The first genetically. Modified organism. GMO. To be released into the environment when. A strawberry, field, and a potato field in California. Were sprayed with it both. Test fields, were attacked by activist, groups the night before the tests occurred the, world's, first trial, site attracted. The world's first field, trasher, the. First field trials, of genetically engineered plants. Occurred, in France and the u.s. in 1986. Tobacco, plants, were engineered, to be resistant, to herbicides. The. People's, Republic of, China was the first country to commercialize. Transgenic. Plants, introducing. A virus, resistant, tobacco, in 1992. In. 1994. Calgene, attained approval, to commercially, release the first genetically.
Modified Food, the flavor savor a tomato engineered. To have a longer shelf-life in. 1994. The European, Union, approved tobacco. Engineered. To be resistant, to the herbicide bromb, axonal, making, it the first genetically. Engineered, crop comer alized in Europe in. 1995. Bt potato, was approved, safe by the Environmental. Protection Agency. After, having been approved by the FDA, making, it the first pesticide. Producing. Crop to be approved in the u.s., in. 2009. 11 transgenic. Crops were grown commercially. In, 25, countries the, largest, of which by area, grown were the US Brazil, Argentina India. Canada. China, Paraguay. And South Africa, in 2010. Scientists. At the J craig Venter Institute. Created. The first synthetic genome, and inserted, it into an empty bacterial. Cell the. Resulting, bacterium. Named, mycoplasma, laboratorium. Could, replicate and, produce proteins. Four, years later this was taken a step further when the bacterium. Was developed, that replicated, a plasmid, containing a. Unique base, pair creating. The first organism. Engineered, to use an expanded, genetic, alphabet, in. 2012. Jennifer. Doudna and, Emmanuelle, Charpentier. Collaborated. To develop, the CRI, SPR. Cas9. System a technique, which can be used to easily and, specifically. Alter, the genome of almost any organism. You. Topic. Process. Creating. A GMO, as a multi-step. Process. Genetic. Engineers, must first choose what gene they wish to insert into the organism. This. Is driven by what the aim is for the resultant, organism. And is built on earlier, research. Genetic. Screens, can be carried out to determine potential, genes, and further tests, then used to identify the best candidates. The. Development. Of micro arrays, transcriptomics. And, genome sequencing has. Made it much easier to find suitable, genes. Luck. Also plays its part the Roundup, Ready gene, was discovered after, scientists. Noticed a bacterium, thriving, in the presence, of the herbicide. You. Topic. Gene, isolation. And cloning. The, next step is to isolate the candidate, gene the, cell containing, the gene as opened, and the DNA, is purified. The. Gene is separated, by using restriction. Enzymes, to cut the DNA into. Fragments or polymerase, chain reaction PCR. To. Amplify up. The gene segment, these. Segments, can then be extracted, through gel electrophoresis. If, the, chosen gene, are the donor organism's. Genome, has been well studied it, may already be accessible. From a genetic library, if, the, DNA, sequence, is known but, no copies, of the gene are available. It can also be artificially. Synthesized. Once. Isolated, the gene is ligated into, a plasmid, that is then inserted into a bacterium. The. Plasmid, is replicated. When the bacterial, divide, ensuring. Unlimited, copies, of the gene are available, before the gene is inserted, into the target organism, it must be combined, with other genetic, elements.
These. Include, a promoter, and terminator, region, which initiate, an end transcription. A, selectable. Marker gene is added which in most cases confers. Antibiotic. Resistance, so researchers, can easily, determine which, cells have been successfully. Transformed. The. Gene can also be modified, at this stage for better expression, or effectiveness. These. Manipulations. Are carried out using recombinant. DNA, techniques, such, as restriction. Digests. Ligations. And molecular cloning. You. Topic. Inserting. DNA. Into, the host genome. There, are a number of techniques, used, to insert genetic, material, into the host genome, some. Bacteria, can naturally take, up foreign, DNA this. Ability can be induced in other bacteria. Via stress, eg, thermal, or electric, shock which increases, the cell membranes, permeability. To DNA, taken, DNA, can either integrate, with the genome, or exist as extra, chromosomal, DNA. DNA. Is generally, inserted, into animal, cells using, micro, injection, where it can be injected through the cell's nuclear, envelope directly. Into the nucleus, or through, the use of viral, vectors, in plants, the DNA, is often, inserted, using agro, bacterium mediated. Recombination. Taking, advantage, of the agro bacterium ste. DNA, sequence. That allows natural insertion. Of genetic, material into plant cells, other. Methods, include viola. Stiix where particles, of gold or tungsten are, coated with DNA. And then shot into young plant cells and electroporation. Which, involves, using an electric, shock to make the cell membrane, permeable. To plasmid, DNA. Due. To the damage caused, to the cells and DNA the, transformation. Efficiency of, bio list excel ectropion. Is lower than Agra bacterial, transformation and, micro injection as only a single cell is transformed. With genetic, material, the organism, must be regenerated. From that single cell in. Plants, this is accomplished. Through the use of tissue, culture in. Animals, it is necessary, to ensure that the inserted, DNA is, present, in the embryonic stem, cells, bacteria. Consist, of a single cell and reproduce, clonally, so regeneration. As, not necessary. Selectable. Markers, are used to easily differentiate. Transformed. From untransformed, cells, these. Markers, are usually. Present, in the transgenic, organism. Although, a number of strategies, have been developed, that can remove the selectable, marker, from the mature transgenic. Plan. Further. Testing, using, PCR, southern. Hybridization. And DNA, sequencing. Is conducted, to confirm, that an organism, contains, the new gene, these. Tests, can also confirm, the chromosomal, location. And copy, number of the inserted, gene, the. Presence, of the gene does not guarantee it, will be expressed at appropriate levels in, the target tissue so, methods, that look for and measure the gene products. RNA. And protein, are also used. These. Include, northern, hybridization. Quantitative. Rt-pcr. Western. Blot. Immunofluorescence. ELISA, and phenotypic. Analysis. The new genetic, material, can be inserted randomly. Within the host genome, or targeted, to a specific location. The. Technique, of gene targeting. Uses, homologous. Recombination. To make desired, changes, to a specific, endogenous, gene, this. Tends to occur at a relatively, low frequency. In plants, and animals and generally, requires, the use of selectable. Markers. The. Frequency. Of gene targeting, can be greatly enhanced, through genome, editing. Genome. Editing uses. Artificially. Engineered, nucleuses. That create specific, double-stranded. Breaks at desired locations. In the genome and, use the cell's endogenous. Mechanisms. To repair the induced break by the natural, processes, of homologous. Recombination. And non-homologous end joining. There. Are four families, of engineered, nucleuses, mega, nucleuses, zinc, finger, nucleases. Transcription. Activator, like effector, nucleuses. Talons. And the cas9. Ghidorah system, adapted. From CRI, SPR. Tal. En and CRI, SPR. Are the two most commonly, used and each has its own advantages. Talons. Have greater target, specificity. While CRI, SPR. Is easier to design and more efficient, in. Addition, to enhancing gene. Targeting. Engineered. Nucleuses, can be used to introduce mutations, at, endogenous, gene, that generate a gene knockout. You. Topic. Applications. Genetic. Engineering, has applications. In medicine research. Industry, and agriculture. And can be used on a wide range of plants, animals, and microorganisms. Bacteria. The, first organisms, to be genetically modified. Can, have plasmid, DNA, inserted. Containing, new genes that code for medicines. Or enzymes, that process, food and other substrates.
Plants. Have been modified for, insect, protection, herbicide. Resistance. Virus. Resistance. Enhanced, nutrition, tolerance. To environmental. Pressures, and the production of edible vaccines. Most. Commercialized. GMOs. Are insect, resistant, or herbicide, tolerant, crop plants. Genetically. Modified, animals, have been used for research, model, animals, and the production of agricultural. Or pharmaceutical. Products. The. Genetically. Modified animals. Include, animals, with genes knocked out increased. Susceptibility to. Disease hormones, for, extra growth and the ability, to express, proteins, in, their milk. You. Topic. Medicine. Genetic. Engineering has. Many applications to, medicine, that include, the manufacturing. Of drugs creation. Of model animals, that mimic human conditions, and gene therapy. One. Of the earliest uses of genetic, engineering was. To mass-produce human, insulin in bacteria. This. Application. Has now been applied to human, growth hormones, follicle. Stimulating hormones. For treating infertility, human. Albumin, monoclonal. Antibodies. Anti, hemophilic, factors. Vaccines. And many other drugs. Mouse. Hybridomas. Cells, fused, together to, create monoclonal. Antibodies. Have been adapted, through genetic, engineering to. Create human monoclonal, antibodies. In. 2017. Genetic. Engineering, of chimeric, antigen receptors. On a patient's, own t-cells, was approved, by the US FDA as, a treatment, for the cancer acute, lymphoblastic, leukemia. Genetically. Engineered, viruses. Are being developed, that can still confer immunity but. Lack the infectious. Sequences. Genetic, engineering, is also used to create animal. Models of human diseases. Genetically. Modified, mice are the most common, genetically-engineered. Animal. Model, they, have been used to study and model cancer, the oncomouse, obesity. Heart, disease diabetes. Arthritis. Substance. Abuse anxiety. Aging, and Parkinson, disease. Potential. Cures can be tested against, these mouse models also. Genetically. Modified, pigs, have been bred with the aim of increasing the, success of pig to human organ transplantation. Gene, therapy, as the genetic engineering of humans, generally, by replacing, defective. Genes with effective, ones. Clinical. Research using, somatic, gene therapy, has been conducted. With several, diseases, including. X-linked. Skid chronic, lymphocytic leukemia, Calle, and Parkinson's. Disease, in. 2012, a lappa gene tipper Vivek became, the first gene therapy, treatment, to be approved for clinical use. In 2015. A virus, was used to insert a healthy, gene into, the skin cells of a boy suffering, from a rare skin disease epidermolysis. Bullosa, in, order to grow and then graft healthy, skin on to 80%, of the boy's body which, was affected, by the illness germline, gene, therapy, would result in any change, being inheritable.
Which Has raised concerns, within the scientific community. In. 2015. CRI, SPR. Was, used to edit the DNA, of non viable, human embryos, leading, scientists. Of major world academies. To call for a moratorium on. Inheritable, human, genome, edits, there. Are also concerns, that, the technology. Could be used not just for, treatment, but for enhancement. Modification. Or alteration. Of a human beings appearance, adaptability. Intelligence. Character or behavior, the. Distinction, between cure, and enhancement. Can also be difficult to establish in. November. 2018, hee-jung. Kui announced. That he had edited the genomes, of two human embryos, to attempt to disable the ccr5, gene which. Codes for, a receptor, that HIV, uses, to enter cells, he. Said that twin girls, Lulu, and Nana had, been born a few weeks earlier, he. Said that the girl still, carried, functional, copies, of ccr5. Along, with disabled. Ccr5. Mosaicism. And, were still vulnerable to, HIV. The. Work was widely condemned, as an ethical dangerous. And premature. Researchers. Are altering, the genome of pigs to induce the growth of human organs to be used in transplants. Scientists. Are creating, gene. Drives. Changing. The genomes, of mosquitoes, to make them immune to malaria and then looking to spread the genetically. Altered mosquitoes, throughout, the mosquito, population. In the hopes of eliminating. The disease. You. Topic. Research. Genetic. Engineering, is an important, tool for natural. Scientists. With the creation of transgenic. Organisms. One of the most important, tools for analysis of, gene function. Genes. And other genetic information from, a wide range of, organisms, can, be inserted into bacteria. For storage and modification. Creating. Genetically modified. Bacteria in. The process. Bacteria. Are cheap easy to grow clonal, multiply. Quickly relatively. Easy to transform. And can be stored at minus 80 degrees, Celsius, almost, indefinitely. Once. A gene is isolated. It can be stored inside the bacteria providing. An unlimited supply, for, research. Organisms. Are genetically, engineered, to discover, the functions, of certain genes this. Could be the effect on the phenotype of the organism.
Where The gene is expressed or. What other genes it interacts, with these. Experiments. Generally, involve loss of function, gain of function tracking. And expression. Loss-of-function. Experiments. Such as in a gene knockout experiment. In which an organism, is engineered, to lack the activity, of one or more genes, in. A simple knockout a copy, of the desired gene, has, been altered to make it non-functional. Embryonic. Stem, cells incorporate. The altered gene which, replaces, the already present functional. Copy, these. Stem cells are, injected into blastocysts. Which are implanted into surrogate, mothers, this. Allows the experimenter. To analyze, the defects, caused by this mutation, and thereby determine, the role of particular. Genes, it. Is used especially frequently. In developmental. Biology, when. This is done by creating a, library of genes with point mutations. At every position in, the area of interest, or even every position, in the whole gene this is called scanning. Mutagenesis. The. Simplest, method, and the first to be used is, alanine. Scanning, where. Every position in turn is mutated, to the unreactive. Amino acid, alanine. Gain-of-function. Experiments. The, logical, counterpart, of knockouts, these. Are sometimes performed. In conjunction with knockout, experiments, to more finely establish, the function, of the desired gene, the. Process, is much the same as that in knockout, engineering, except, that the construct, is designed, to increase the function, of the gene usually, by, providing, extra, copies, of the gene or inducing, synthesis, of the protein, more frequently. Gain-of-function. Is. Used to tell whether or not a protein, is sufficient, for a function, but does not always mean, it's required, especially, when dealing with genetic, or functional, redundancy. Tracking. Experiments. Which seek to gain information about, the localization, and interaction. Of the desired protein. One. Way to do this as to replace the wild-type gene with, a fusion gene, which, is a juxtaposition. Of the wild-type, gene with.
A Reporting, element, such as green, fluorescent. Protein GFP. That, will allow easy visualization. Of, the products, of the genetic modification. While. This is a useful technique the, manipulation. Can destroy, the function, of the gene creating. Secondary effects. And possibly, calling, into question the, results of the experiment. More. Sophisticated. Techniques. Are now in development, that can track protein, products, without mitigating. Their function, such as the addition of small sequences. That will serve as binding motifs, to monoclonal, antibodies. Expression. Studies aim to discover, where, and when specific proteins. Are produced in, these. Experiments. The DNA, sequence. Before the DNA, that codes for a protein known, as a genes promoter, is reintroduced. Into an organism, with the protein, coding region, replaced, by a reporter, gene such as GFP. Or an enzyme that catalyzes, the production, of a dye, thus. The time and place where a particular, protein, is produced, can be observed. Expression. Studies can be taken, a step further by altering, the promoter to find which pieces are crucial, for the proper expression. Of the gene and are actually, bound by transcription. Factor, proteins this process, is known as promoter, bashing. You. Topic. Industrial. Organisms. Can, have their cells transformed. With a gene coding for a useful, protein, such, as an enzyme, so that they will over express the desired protein. Mass. Quantities. Of the protein, can then be manufactured. By growing, the transformed. Organism. In bioreactor. Equipment, using, industrial, fermentation and. Then purifying, the protein. Some. Genes do not work well in bacteria, so yeast insect, cells or mammalian cells, can, also be used, these. Techniques, are used to produce medicines, such, as insulin human, growth hormone, and vaccines. Supplements. Such as tryptophan. Aid in the production of food chymosin. In cheese making and fuels, other. Applications. With genetically, engineered, bacteria could. Involve making, them perform, tasks, outside their natural cycle. Such, as making biofuels. Cleaning, up oil spills carbon. And other toxic, wastes and detecting, arsenic, in drinking water. Certain. Genetically. Modified, microbes. Can also be used in bio mining, and bio remediation, due. To their ability, to extract heavy metals, from their environment, and incorporate. Them into compounds. That are more easily recoverable, in material. Science, a genetically. Modified virus. Has, been used in a research laboratory as. A scaffold, for assembling. A more environmentally-friendly. Lithium-ion. Battery. Bacteria. Have also been engineered to function, as sensors, by expressing, a fluorescent, protein under, certain environmental, conditions. You. Topic. Agriculture. One, of the best known and controversial. Applications. Of genetic engineering is, the creation and use of genetically. Modified crops. Are genetically modified. Livestock. To produce genetically, modified. Food. Crops. Have been developed, to increase production, increased. Tolerance to abiotic stresses, alter, the composition, of the food or to produce novel products, the first crops to be released commercially on. A large scale provided. Protection from, insect, pests, or tolerance, to herbicides. Fungal. And virus, resistant, crops have also been developed, or are in development. This. Makes the insect, and weed management of, crops easier, and can indirectly increase crop, yield. GM. Crops, that directly, improve, yield by accelerating, growth, are making the plant more Hardy by improving, salt cold, or drought tolerance, are also under, development. In. 2016. Salmon have been genetically modified with. Growth hormones, to reach normal, adult size much, faster, GMOs. Have been, developed, that modify, the quality, of produce by increasing, the nutritional, value, or providing. More industrially. Useful qualities. Or quantities. The. M flora potato, produces. A more industrial II useful, blend of starches. Soybeans. And canola have been genetically modified. To produce more, healthy, oils, the. First commercialized. GM, food was a tomato that had delayed ripening, increasing. Its shelf life plants, and animals have been engineered to produce materials. They do not normally make, farming. Uses, crops and animals as, bioreactors. To produce vaccines drug. Intermediates. Or the drugs themselves the, useful, product, is purified, from the harvest, and then used in the standard, pharmaceutical. Production process. Cows.
And Goats have been engineered to express drugs. And other proteins, in their milk and in 2009. The FDA approved. A drug produced, in goat milk. You. Topic. Other, applications. Genetic. Engineering has. Potential, applications in. Conservation, and, natural area, management, gene. Transfer, through viral vectors, has been proposed, as a means of controlling, invasive species, as, well as vaccinating. Threatened, fauna from disease. Transgenic. Trees have been suggested. As a way to confer, resistance to. Pathogens in. Wild populations. With. The increasing. Risks of maladapted. In organisms, as a result, of climate change and other perturbations. Facilitated. Adaptation. Through gene tweaking, could be one solution, to reducing, extinction, risks. Applications. Of genetic engineering, and conservation. Are thus far mostly, theoretical and. Have yet to be put into practice. Genetic. Engineering is, also being used to create microbial. Art some. Bacteria. Have been genetically, engineered. To create black, and white photographs. Novelty. Items such as lavender colored, carnations. Blue roses and glowing, fish have also been produced through genetic engineering. Topic. Regulation. The, regulation. Of genetic, engineering concerns. The approaches, taken by governments. To assess and manage the risks associated, with, the development and release of GMOs. The. Development. Of a regulatory, framework, began. In 1975. At Asilomar. California. The. Asilomar, meeting, recommended. A set of voluntary, guidelines regarding. The, use of recombinant. Technology as. The. Technology. Improved, the u.s. established. A committee at the Office of Science and Technology, which assigned, regulatory. Approval, of GM, food to the USDA. FDA, and. EPA. The. Cartagena protocol. On biosafety an. International. Treaty that governs the transfer, handling. And use of GMOs, was, adopted, on the 29th, of January, 2000. 157. Countries are, members of the protocol, and many use it as a reference, point for their own regulations. The legal and regulatory status. Of GM, foods varies, by country with, some nations, banning, or restricting, them and others permitting, them with widely differing, degrees of regulation. Some. Countries, allow the import, of GM food with authorization. But either do not allow its cultivation, Russia. Norway, Israel. Or have provisions, for cultivation, even, though no GM products. Are yet produced Japan, South, Korea. Most. Countries, that do not allow GMO. Cultivation. Do permit research. Some. Of the most marked differences, occurring, between the US and Europe. The. U.s. policy, focuses. On the product, not the process only. Looks at verifiable. Scientific risks. And uses the concept, of substantial. Equivalence. The. European, Union, by contrast. Has possibly, the most stringent, GMO. Regulations. In the world all. GMOs. Along, with irradiated. Food are considered, new, food, and subject. To extensive, case-by-case. Science-based. Food, evaluation. By the European. Food Safety Authority. The. Criteria, for authorization fall. In four broad categories. Safety. Freedom. Of choice. Labeling. And. Traceability. The. Level of regulation in, other countries, that cultivate, GMOs. Lie, in between Europe, and the United States. One, of the key issues concerning. Regulators. As whether GM products. Should be labeled, the, European. Commission, says that mandatory. Labeling and, traceability, are, needed to allow for informed, choice avoid, potential, false advertising. And facilitate. The withdrawal of products. If adverse, effects, on health or the environment are. Discovered, the. American, Medical Association, and. The American Association. For, the Advancement of. Science say. That absent, scientific. Evidence, of harm even voluntary. Labeling is, misleading, and will falsely, alarm, consumers. Labeling. Of GMO, products. In the marketplace, as required, in 64. Countries. Labeling. Can be mandatory, up to a threshold GM. Content, level which varies, between countries or, voluntary. In. Canada, and the u.s. labeling, of GM food as voluntary, while, in Europe all food including. Processed, food or feed which contains, greater, than, 0.9%. Of approved GMOs. Must, be labeled. You. Topic. Controversy. Critics. Have objected to, the use of genetic, engineering on. Several, grounds including. Ethical, ecological. And economic, concerns. Many. Of these concerns, involve, GM, crops, and whether food produced, from them as safe and what impact, growing, them will have on the environment, these. Controversies. Have led to litigation, international. Trade disputes, and protests. And to restrictive, regulation. Of commercial products. In some countries, accusations. That scientists. Are playing, God, and other.
Religious, Issues, have been ascribed, to the technology. From the beginning, other. Ethical, issues, raised, include, the patenting, of life the use of intellectual, property rights, the level of labeling, on products. Control, of the food supply and the objectivity, of the regulatory, process. Although. Doubts. Have been raised, economically. Most studies, have found growing GM, crops, to be beneficial, to farmers, gene, flow between GM. Crops, and compatible, plants, along with increased, use of selective herbicides. Can increase, the risk of super. Weeds. Developing. Other, environmental. Concerns, involve, potential, impacts. On non-target. Organisms, including. Soil microbes. And an increase, in secondary. And resistant, insect, pests. Many. Of the environmental. Impacts, regarding, GM, crops, may, take many years to be understood, and are also evident in conventional agriculture. Practices. With. The commercialization. Of genetically. Modified fish, there are concerns, over what the environmental. Consequences. Will be if they escape there are three main concerns, over the safety of, genetically modified food. Weather they may provoke an allergic reaction whether. The genes could transfer, from the food into, human cells and whether the genes not approved, for human consumption, could, outcross to other crops. There. Is a scientific. Consensus. That currently, available, food derived, from GM, crops poses. No greater risk. To human health than, conventional. Food but that each GM. Food needs to be tested on a case-by-case, basis. Before introduction. Nonetheless. Members. Of the public are, much less likely than, scientists. To perceive GM, foods as safe. Topic. In popular. Culture. Genetic. Engineering features. In many science, fiction stories, Frank. Herbert's, novel, the white plague described. The deliberate, use of genetic, engineering to create a pathogen. Which specifically. Killed, women. Another. Of Herbert's, creations. The dune series, of novels uses, genetic engineering, to create the powerful, but despised, to lilac su films. Such as the island and Blade Runner bring the engineered, creature to confront, the person who created it or the being it was cloned from, few. Films, have informed, audiences. About genetic, engineering, with the exception, of the 1978. The boys from Brazil and, the 1993. Jurassic, Park both of which made use of a lesson a demonstration. And a clip of scientific. Film. Genetic. Engineering, methods, are weakly represented. In film Michael, Clarke writing, for the Wellcome Trust calls. The portrayal of genetic, engineering and biotechnology. Seriously. Distorted. In, films, such as the sixth day in, Clarke's, view the biotechnology. As, typically, given. Fantastic. But visually arresting, forms. While. The science, as either relegated. To the background or fictionalized. To suit a young audience. You. Topic. See, also. Biological. Engineering.