Game Changer Challenge panel with Mark Scott
Well. Good, morning and welcome, everybody, to. The game-changer, challenge and what. A challenge, it will be but. In many ways you. Have already, won almost. A hundred schools from, across the state applied, to be here, and guess, what, just, 18 schools. Were selected, so. Congratulations. And. Welcome. To those schools who are tuning, in via our live stream, coming, from you here at, Google, HQ. In, a few minutes we're going to hear from some of the brightest, minds in Australia, who are joining us here today to answer your questions. We'll. Spend about an hour taking. Questions from you our game. Changes, and no. Doubt their, answers, will shed some light on, the, topic of this, year's challenge, how. Might, we humanize, technology. Well. Game changers are you ready are. You with me great. So page, 54, of your PlayBook is, a list of our panelists. And some space for you to catch some, great quotes or ideas, that they have make. Sure you're on the lookout because, they have so many insights, I've just been speaking to them and you, are in for a treat. So. Ladies. And gentlemen. Turn. Your mobile phones to silent please and get. Ready because. I'd, like to introduce to you Craig, Menon to, begin an official, welcome, to country Craig. Thank you very much good morning everybody. My, name is Craig Madden and, firstly, I'd like to thank yourself, while Department, of Education, and for, welcoming here today had this beautiful building, at Google HQ, to. Do the welcome to country I'm a proud Bungie long Gallagher men from the urination. Gadigal, land is the land that we're standing on here today, Jr, Gallagher, this, land, this place is Gallagher its, customer for Aboriginal people to invite guests. Or visitors onto our land or country so, as a member and a representative, of the Metropolitan, local Aboriginal Land Council and. A proud gadigal man I'd like to welcome you all here today from the gadigal land Aboriginal. Land I'd. Like to pay my respects, to our elders, past present, and emerging, it's when Aboriginal, brothers and sisters here today and he brothers and sisters from the Torres Strait Islands, welcome. To Gattaca Lynn Toler non-aboriginal brothers and sisters here today a warm, and sincere welcome, to, gadigal land Aboriginal. In the. Gadigal clan is one of 29s clans which make up the urination. A nation, that is bound by three distinct landmarks, so, we have the whole spirit of up to the north the Nepean River out to the west and the Georges River down to the South within, the confines of those mighty rivers like, the eora nation and, the, land that we stand on here at the gadigal people is. One of the 29 clans of that nation if. You have any guests who've travelled from across the seas today welcome. To get a girl in talk to anybody, who's travel from across this great country of ours great. State for this magnificently, beautiful City, on a day like today welcome. To getting the land we, looked outside and we, see this. Beautiful harbor at, a place that our mob called Humber long and. That. Means a place of plenty of seafood a place, where our our people came and we, sat, on the shores and fished, and collected. For, tens. Of thousands of years a very special place for our mob so. As a getting, a manor a member of the Metropolitan, local, Aboriginal Land Council I hope. You all who will traveling is far far today travel. Safely and once again welcome. Welcome. Welcome thank, you very much. Thank. You Craig what a beautiful welcome, and I join Craig in welcoming you all to here today I would now like to introduce the. New South Wales Minister. For Education, the Honorable, Sarah. Mitchell. Thank. You and, with good morning everybody I too want, to begin by acknowledging the, traditional custodians of, the land on which we meet pay my respect to elders. Past present, emerging and thank you for the lovely words of welcome how. Cool is it to be at Google you guys excited I am. Excited to be here as well thank you to Mellon your team for pulling all of this together I have. Two. Girls and my oldest Suzy in kindergarten, and she's going to be six tomorrow and I told her I was coming to Google today I think she was more excited than I was she, thought it was very cool so I'm really, happy that you guys could all be here to be part of the game-changer challenge because it's, so exciting and what, you're going to be doing today is actually really, really important, because one of the things that we know in education, is how much things change and how much we need to adapt to the world that we're all living in I said, before my daughter's in kindergarten, when she finishes school it'll, be twenty thirty one now, what are we going to need then what's technology, going to look like what's our world going to look like and how can we make sure in, your schools and in our education, system we're, doing what we need to do to to, equip you to be ready for that, world that you'll be living in and you, know it's interesting to look back I am probably saying really really old to a lot of you sitting in the audience but 20, years ago I was in you twelve at high school and we, didn't have smartphones and, we didn't stream music, or movies and if we didn't, know the answer to a question I think the phrase just google it was probably in its infancy so things.
Have Changed a lot in 20 years and to think about what it might be like in the future and some of those challenges, that you're going to be part of this week it's. Really exciting, and it's important, to make sure that, what you come up with when you when you talk about things around artificial, intelligence, and how we humanize, technology. I'm really interested to hear what you come up with over the next few days because I think some of the ideas that will come out of this room can, really make a big difference in the years to come so congratulations. To all of you for being chosen to represent your schools here it really, is a privilege for you all to be here so joy it have, a great time I'm going to be here for, about an hour or so I'm looking forward to the panel and some of the questions that I know that you'll be asking, but, congratulations, everyone for, getting this far and I really hope you make the most out of what is an amazing opportunity and thank, you for letting me be here and say a few words thanks. Thank. You so much minister we are very privileged, to have you here today now, ladies and gentlemen there's a few spare seats down here so I'd like to invite anyone, who is, standing over there please come and fill these spare, seats down the front for. Me that'd be lovely please, come on feel free down. To come well, they're all happy standing. Well. We. Are coming to you live. From, a very cool workspace, today and that is Australia's. Google, HQ and, the. Person, in charge, here. Is our vice president, and managing. Director of Google Australia and, New Zealand, Melanie. Silva, please, welcome. Thank. You do. You know we have all of our meetings in this room and I don't think I've ever seen it this packed and this packed with so many what we call noogler hats that we've got on this is the Hat that you all have to wear when you started at, Google for the first week so it's good to see so many of you here. Wearing, those cool. Hats I've still got my one as, well it's really a privilege to have you all here Thank You Minister for joining us and I would also like to acknowledge thank you chicka for the lovely welcome to country it was amazing, we're, very proud to work on. The, eora nation land, at the home of the gadigal people so. It's, a super exciting couple of days we've got in store for you and as the minister mentioned you. Know technology, has evolved, pretty quickly, she, told you a story about how what. What life was like when she was a kid at school when. I started, at Google twelve years ago and then. The internet was a place that you kind of went to you. Had a desktop, computer and it sat in a room in your house and you had to go and sit, there and go on the Internet and, now for all of you it's. In your pocket it's, not a smartphone, it's wherever you want it to be, and did. You know that, Wi-Fi, was. Actually invented by. An Australian. Australian. People so. There's. Nothing stopping you, or any, of you from. Being the inventor of the next big. Breakthrough. That's, going to change the way that people use and access technology. And that's. Why we are so proud to be part of this game-changer, challenge today it really is a wonderful program. The. Questions, that you have all submitted, to. Prove to me that you are some of the smartest people in, Australia. Right now and we. Want to make sure that we give you big chunky. Challenges, to solve and hear, what your great ideas are going to be it really really is an honor to have you all here today. But. It doesn't stop after the next sort of three days you're, gonna come up with some brilliant ideas and then we're, gonna really help and provide some workshops, with, all of your teams to help you really bring these things to life it's. Great, to have the support of all of your teachers and as a mom, of two kids I want to say a big thank you to all the teachers in the room today bigger than let's give them a big round of applause.
Because. Without, their, support, and their, fostering, of all your great ideas, it would be difficult for you all to be here I can't believe there was a hundred entries and only 18 of you get the opportunity to be here today so you, must all be pretty pretty special, folks, so. I. Would, like to thank. Everyone on the Google for education team who's worked with us as well as the founders. And the creators of the game changer challenge it's really really a privilege, to work with you and I collaboration, with the Department of Education, is something that we are really really proud of here. At Google so, enjoy, the rest of the day who. Do I need to hand over to yes. Okay well I can't wait to see the ideas you come up with thanks very much for joining us here today. Thank. You Mel well, we are ready are you ready game changers. Okay. Let's, get our Q&A session underway, so, allow me to introduce to, you today our moderator, mr. Mark Scott. Take. A tree of the New South Wales Department of, Education. And. Our panelists, for today once. Again Mel silver, the Google boss please. Make. Santy, a professor. Toby, Walsh from the University, of New South Wales. Toby. Is an AI researcher. And a rock star of australia's digital, revolution. I, know. Write that down in your books please. Distinguished. Professor, mary, ann williams from, the university, of technology sydney. And. She's, also one of the world's top 25, women, in robotics, oh wow. We've got Gillian Kilby, she's. The CEO and founder of the infrastructure, collaboration. She. Is a farmer's, daughter who, is now a positive, force for change welcome. Jillian, we've. Got Lloyd Goodson. Now, Lloyd is a marine studies teacher at Hastings Secondary College. Do. You know he's actually an, adventurer, Aquanaut. And ambassador, as well welcome and. Finally. On our panel today mr.. Lee chicken, the, National technology, officer, at Microsoft Australia.
Well. He has been working in IT for, more than 27. Years basically. Before, it was cool. So. Today over. To you. My. Last panelist, dr. matt, beard, philosopher. At the ethics centre. Because. He's quite famous for, his work and his podcast short, and curly, welcome out. Well. Wonderful to be here good, morning everyone we love those hats toby Walsh really wants one of those hats before he leaves today he's gonna wear that at the University of New South Wales, going. To be here at Google thanks, for your hospitality. Google, and your partnership on this great work wonderful, having the minister with us here this morning too, also, I want to acknowledge to, the educational leaders from PNG you, think you've come a long way today these, guys come across the shore to be with us today welcome them to be part, of it as well. And. A welcome to all those who are watching this live. Stream, today it's a big week in New South Wales Education, Education, Week and the. Three days of the game-changing, challenge one of the absolute, our highlights, and I. Can tell you this is one of the best panels, you could find anywhere, to. Address these important, issues of AI and, technology. And. How they're going to change our lives the way we work the way we live the way we interact with each other and somewhat. Frightening Li for them is the tough questions have been asked, by you and, so. What I have is a list of important, questions that have come from all the schools and what we're going to do in the, next little while is ask. You ask different schools to ask their questions from members of our panel and we'll have quite a good discussion on the, issues that you have raised just to start challenging, your thinking as we enter off this three-day. Journey of the game-changing, challenge, so, I'm only going to ask one question that's the first question just to get us rolling one of the interesting, issues, about technology. Is how. Technology. That, can seem very commonplace. Today. Was, once very, innovative and really changed the world an example that was explained. To me a little while ago was the invention of the washing machine. Before. You know the why I can't think of a more common piece of technology, in your house than, the washing machine but. The washing machine changed the world because. Before the washing, machine was, invented and, people. In families particularly women in families would spend half, the day through. The process of washing and now it's implication. For. Any member of the family to pull it in the machine press the button and the, wash is done and the, washing machine transformed.
The World because it particularly freed up people's time particularly woman's time to, go and enter the, paid workforce in a way that may not have been possible up until that time so. Common technology, today but technology that changed the world what, what, technology, can members of our panel see. And think about that it's just on their horizon. Now, that. Really may fundamentally. Change the world away the, washing machine change, the world you. Know I want to dive in and have it Toby you want to have a first crack at this, CRISPR. Is really going to change the world the fact that we've can we, can now read your genetic, information and, now we can write the. Genetic information we can that, you know that's, gonna tell it tell us no doubt about the profound, ethical challenges, that poses but, there you know there are plenty of, really. Terrible genetic, diseases that we can remove, from the from the human, genotype, amazing. Things that we can do amazing, power but with amazing. Responsibilities. So. Diseases, that are common, and widespread, now, yes, will disappear, on the back of the crispity knowledge a potential to remove anything that is hereditary and that, is absolutely amazing just to think of all, of you will know someone in your in your immediate circle whose, life has been touched by by, some hereditary disease, and that even. Even the susceptibility, to cancer that. Is something that we have the potential if we can work out how to use it to change. Intelligence. Is the kind of the elephant in the. Room and, the. Washing machine is a great example, but you know you can't really get, a washing machine to work if you don't have electricity and. AI is much, more like electricity. Than it is like a washing machine and, I. Agree, with Tony with, Toby, that, I dunno Toby we've known each other for 30 years, but. Someone called me Deirdre Elia. Yeah. Yeah. But we could have an a an AI you. Know connected, to our brains that, would stop those sort of silly, mistakes that humans make all, the time and humans. Are very frail. We're very fragile, and we're very very limited. Physically. Centrally. What we can perceive but, also our. Minds and how quickly we can process data, so. I keep AI, just. Like electricity will. Change everything, not in an instant. Electricity. Is more, than a hundred years old. But over the next centuries. And everything. Is gonna get turned upside down and you guys are. Gonna do that turning, upside down anyone. Else on the panel what a dive in on where we ain't go ollie yeah yeah. I'll talk about exploring. The underwater. World and how, that's changed I guess due to technology. Underwater. Robots, in the past to, go to the bottom of the sea and. It was very expensive to, send a human in a manned submersible, to the bottom of the ocean, very. Costly and inefficient, now. We. Can send down robots, and stream, live from, the bottom of the sea in real time on the internet to classrooms, around the world so they can be participating, in research. That's taking place deep. Sea research that, was once a very. Very costly undertaking, we're. Starting to see the, development of AI robots, now. Fairly. It's a fairly new development which. Will enable us to track. Things much quicker, in the future things, like litter to, marine, pollution and then target their response so. Potentially. We'll see underwater robots help us solve some of the big climate issues, that we have today. Not. Going out there I know if you've ever heard of quantum, computing so. Quantum, computing if you want to look something up look up the story, of Schrodinger's cat the, idea that something can be in two states at the same time but the state only changes when you determine, to check the state of that thing I was. Over in the US at a conference recently looking. At quantum computing it's something that we are doing a lot of research into and, quantum. When you think about the big problems in the planet, if you think about the issues of climate change about, feeding a planet at a population, growth that we see today around. The mass movement of humanitarian. Crisis, around the planet these, are problems, that we can think, about solving but the number crunching behind, them the number of different. Pathways we need to think about to determine, the right outcome is something, the quantum brings as quantum gives us the ability to answer, multiple, questions in an instant, as. Simply as you can put it that way and, we're, really at the early stages of quantum because it requires us to physically, build things that don't exist today it requires us to create, bits that don't, exist in the physical world we think of today so it's fascinating, amazing, area and you should know as well by the way that, whilst we're researching this globally, Sydney, University here in Australia is one of our six quantum.
Research Fields, where we're building software. To drive quantum, computing here in Australia last, panel member on this and then we'll go into a Gillian yeah. Hands. Up if you live in the country. Amazing. Hands up if you live in the city. So. The check the transition. That technology, provides us in the next 20 years is, the ability for everyone to live in the regions rather, in big, cities a lot of the time we choose to live in the cities, because we have better access to education. Or health care but. As technology. Transforms, the way we treat patients and even the way the diseases we are exposed, to in the future or hopefully, lack of ailments. And diseases were exposed to in the future the, opportunity, to have really, wonderful careers, and lifestyles. Out of, the major centers, will, become a real possibility for people so. Just want a flag that the. Country, is the future, as. The regional panelists, here. From. Canada this is good news now. We. All asked you to send. In three questions and we've looked at all of those questions and we've we, know them them back there some of them were in similar areas and what we're going to do now is I'm going to we're going to go to the floor and ask, different schools to ask their questions to a panel member we're going to ask the panel member to to, answer in just a minute one, minute to answer and, some other panelists might chime in but we've got to keep moving because, we want to get through as many schools as we can in, the time above. What's just like queuing, none of you are old enough to know what Q&A is. Now. First question is for you and, it's from Lightman, Mora High School where the Pyke's from like man Maura give us a wave there. They are I've got a microphone over there right behind you they knew you were gonna be asked that question okay, on your feet so we can hear the question. Keep. The cap on though that's important, yeah this. One's for you Melina in. Your 12 years ago or has your perspective on AI changed, does the rapid expansion of, AI excite, you scare you and why. Sorry. A very, very good question oh very. Good question I think. Yes. It has changed because it started, out as something that was very unknown and something. That we were all just trying to figure out what the applications, of it would be I. Think what's wonderful about some, of the things that we're seeing now with AI is that they span. Everyday. Useful, things so for me like Google. Telling me what time I need to leave home to get to work on time or, being able to search in my Google photos for pictures of birthday cakes all, the way through to some of the stuff that Jillian and the panel were talking about that you, can create machines, that can see images, on a scan that the human eye can't see which, helps us detect diseases, a lot earlier I. Mean. I've been at Google for a long time so it doesn't scare me it actually really really excites, me and. I think one of the things that is. Is, fascinating, is that you can actually make, these things available to, so many people around the world we. Have a project. Product, called tensorflow, which is kind of a library of all of these little machine, learning, and AI pieces, of technology. That anyone, can just take and apply so. You can really put it in the hands of people to see you. Know what they come up with so any problem, can be solved so I'm very, excited Toby. Are you as excited you've, been writing a lot about this yes. Don't. Believe what you see in Hollywood right, if you don't, watch a bob movie you know it's not real and the, same. Sorry. And. The same I think could be said of art. Of intelligence a lot of the portrayal as you see are, very fantastical. And it's actually, you know a much more useful down-to-earth. Aspect. Of our lives than what, would Hollywood have you believe, excited. Or scared I, agree. With Toby that that's true for today but, you know we're just seeing glimpses of tomorrow, and I think AI. It's a general purpose technology. Just, like electricity and it can be used for a very wide variety of. Applications. By a very, wide variety of different, kinds of people and Google, has made their software, available for everybody and so. It can be used in in many different ways and I think you know al we. Need to pay more attention to. Laws. And the, economic, drivers, that, will shape a I ethics.
Are Important. Obviously they, encapsulate, our values but, it's actually going to be the law how we can import it that, will constrain, AI and the economic, drivers, will help to drive the innovation, that we need and to help humans. Build trust with. AI so, it's a very good question, things. Like mam or for getting us going thanks, very much, now, one of the school's I was really excited, to see. Make. The list and make an entry was our friends at the Sydney Children's, Hospital. School and so the, next question comes from them where, where a way that kids, hospital school there we are welcome. Along today and the, questions for, Jillian Kilby. And. I'm from Campbell. With. An, expanding. National population, and, declining primary. Industry. Like. Mining, why, our national and state governments so invested, in developing and, funding the city in fish city. Infrastructure. Instead, of the bigger picture funding, regional, areas such, as can able to help in growth of population a, potential. Industry, like. Solar wind, and her us tourism. I should, be able to complete. My study, and can able catch, the train to City for. Residential, stay at UNSW. For, my tree and for, my treatment in Sydney Children's Hospital. And be able to return home to, potentially, work in cannabis industry, what. Role can technology, play, in making my vision a reality. Thanks. So much I. Want. To thank you so much for your question, Felicity so I grew up in Campbell, on a farm north of Campbell, and the. First thing I want to say is I'm so sorry that you do have to travel to, get health care I'm so sorry that you have to travel to get education, for, anyone who's ever spent a night alone in a hospital bed it's, even harder when your parents are five hundred kilometres away the. First set of house that I'm so sorry the. Second thing is you know we. Do invest, where the votes are we do invest on in our major cities but. We also are making big investments in, the region right now there's, a fabulous example that will give us the country University, Center, they. Established, a it's. Like a co-working, space for uni students and you can turn up in Broken Hill and you can study at any Australian, University, and your, cohort. Of fellow, students, live in that town with you their. Aspiration. Was a hundred students, on day within, the first year and they have 200, students, studying, in Broken Hill and, my aspiration, for a center like that is you should be able to study anywhere in the world from. Broken Hill and it's all brought together with technology. With, the government and the, good people behind that University, Center, the, second example I'll give is the game-changer so you're here in Sydney at the game-changer, on Friday. This, whole operation bumps, to double and the, reason it bumps to double is because someone's sitting at the table, which, was your Education, Minister said what. About the region's can, we take this over the Blue Mountains so, my aspiration, for you Felicity is that your. Future doesn't just allow you to be a seat at the table in Kanab or that, in your future you have a seat in Macquarie, Street in Parliament you have a seat at the boardroom tables in the cities so, every decision that is made accommodates. People, over the Blue Mountains because until we have feet under the desks, in the, right meeting rooms we won't be represented, we're very good at making sure we have cultural, diversity at the table that we have women at the table let's, make sure we also have the region's at the table so thank you for, bringing it to everyone's attention. I wish. You all the best Thanks. Yeah. Felicity. Makes a really. Excellent point one of the things that is often said is you know we say the future is already here it's just not evenly distributed you, know some people are already enjoying, the most cutting-edge technologies, in their everyday lives and we still have people in our country who don't have access. To those kinds of resources and we have people across the world who still can't access clean, water that, technology, is 70. Years old and yet there are people who still can't access it today so when we think about technology we, can think about the, kind of the cutting-edge and what's the next cool thing that's gonna happen but.
Sometimes, In terms of technologies, that are gonna change the world it's about taking stuff that we've known about for 20 years and making sure every, single person, has access to it so we really need to think about the, people who are being left behind as, well as kind of blazing. A trail forward, into the future I think the your your example really captures that really importantly, thanks. For the great great question, we're, now going to go to students from Oak Hill Drive public school where we're the Oak Hill Drive team there they are and. A question for you Lee. My. Question. How. Do humans, interact, with technology and, the Internet today and what. Advances, in technology, do you see as the most beneficial. To human life cool. It's. A that's a complex question with its two very big questions. And, and I mean, I guess the starting point for me now how do we interact with the with the internet, and with technology today and I think we what. Are we where we're about four-and-a-half billion, Internet. Users around, the world as of today and a population of 8 billion people on, the planet so nearly half the planet uses it uses the Internet in some meaningful, way month, by month and. Google, probably has more accurate stats but I think I know we're now over half of that internet connectivity is, through what we considered to be mobile devices, so as was pointed out in the intro. We have shifted, massively, from, this idea of going to a place to connect to being constantly, connected and constantly engaging on the Internet. What we've seen for, me at least over the last sort. Of five years accelerate. Massively is, that, ability to interact with the Internet in a in, a natural, way so we think about natural language natural gestures. Physical. Communication, and as we sort of communicate, in physical. Ways either through you know using your skype style experiences, or, holographic, and virtual type experiences. You. Know it's interesting I was actually I was presenting, an event last week and I was asked this question about multi-generational. Usage, of the Internet and. There's. Multiple generations you'll hear about the. Mature, generation, the Boomers the Gen Xers that's me and then, onwards into the Millennials and Gen and Internet, generations, and interesting. That the generation, that has the biggest challenge today with, using. Technology and communication, technology, is actually my generation, their Gen Xers because, we grew up with it we thought we had a grasp on it and it shot past us you. Guys just, get it you just the, internet communicating, with the computer commuting with advice is totally natural to you and, for the older generation who never had it before, they have no preconceived ideas, for them it's just another way of communicating so. For me you know to answer the question the first part absolutely. It's, going to be voice and natural and natural gestures, is how we continue, to evolve that that, conversation although we've had keyboards, for 100 plus years and that doesn't seem to be going away but. The second part of your question which is kind of what's going to change that it comes back to a point I think you, made earlier on about AI as being, that influential, massive. Game changer you hear about this thing called the industrial revolutions, the fourth Industrial, Revolution is, what. Was I of T what's the cloud was and for me I believe it's AI and. When we think about industrial, revolutions, they are things that either, depend on your perspective change. The way we exist as human beings or and, I prefer to think of it propel, us forward as, a population. As a race to. Be able to achieve more AI, is the technology it's going to do that an AI is intrinsically. The tool that is going to help us communicate, better, it's AI when you talk to your Google home or your Alexa device that, figures out what you really want and that's, that combination. Of AI making. That far more intuitive so when you talk to a device it truly understands, you stringing. Together multiple, conversations, so you're not just saying to it Google, play me my song you're actually asking you to play your song and then go do this and then make sure that set up for me and then tie a few other pieces together that's. How we're going to communicate in the future we talk to it like it's another person but, I would add I'm.
Terribly, Terrified, of what they call the uncanny valley and this idea that I think a computer is another person I think it's really important as humans we, maintain that separation between. Communications. With people and how we interact, and express ourselves and, the communication, with that computer which. May offer us completely different and better experiences, but, it's still a computer, not a person just on the back of that lay in maybe mell as well I mean you, said you. Know voice speaking, to the technology, is going to be more important, the technology, understands, us so you said we still have keyboards, and keyboards, will still be around for a while but. Do you anticipate that as the technology, gets better and better and better how, much more of our time we're going to spend talking. To our machines and listening to our machines rather. Than typing into our machines, where does that go, so it's. Funny of Julie and I were just having a conversation about this because or. A similar topic often. Many cultures, don't. Communicate, through words they communicate, through the visual medium, of speech they talk to each other particularly our indigenous languages are are not written languages they are communicated, languages through voice and. Physical, gestures so you, know that's why it's so important, because today that keyboard is a is. An inhibitor, of shared. Knowledge forces. Us to think in my mind. Just. Before I came back to Australia about, six months ago I spent some time in Singapore and. I was traveling all across the asia-pacific region and you really see that concept come to come to life in. Countries, like India or in parts of Southeast Asia where the, literacy, and numeracy right we take it for granted in Australia that everybody can read and write and when. You can't and you see the power of someone picking up a mobile device and being able to get, information that, has been closed off to them, that's. An incredibly, powerful, experience. But, I think to your point, mark. I think there's going to be definitely. An increase and the, ability for you to just get things started using, technology, but hopefully to free up more time so you can actually talk to human, beings. Well. It's time ladies and gentleman we need to have a robot question.
And So, Alston vil public school where our friends from Alston bill, there. We are a question, for Toby, who spends a lot of his time thinking about robots so, we've come to the right place. How. Far is too far in regards, of robots having jobs and are, they human, skills that robots shouldn't be allowed to replicate. Good. Question, this, will test him I. Say. To people when robots, do many jobs today, we should be celebrating, that fact because. They were a dull, repetitive. Dangerous. Difficult job that perhaps we should never have got humans. To do but. Behind, that of course is the question of well what do the people who are now not doing those jobs what. Things, are they going to be doing in. Return. And. I think that's one of the most important, conversations we should be having if. You think if. I think about what what, work was like when I was a child and people going to offices there were typewriters, and landlines. That was it that, was the technology in your offices you go into any, office today and it's been completely transformed by technology and, so, when. When you're an adult and go, you know the work is going to be completely changed, loads. Of new jobs are going to be invented that we have no idea what they are today and so, that's the challenge for mark, and everyone who works in the Department of Education how, can we prepare you for those jobs because, we have we've, yet to invent the technologies so. What at what are the skills we're going to you're. Going to need in, 30, or 40 years time to deal with those new technologies, and. How. Are we going to make sure that everyone, is is, enjoying. Pretty, productive lives those, are the really important conversations. We should now. Also on how technologies, involve evolving, students. From Samuel Gilbert public school, where. Are they. There. We are down the front there that's good a question, for you men. Hi. I'm from I'm Hannah from Samuel Gilbert is there. A danger technology. Such as virtual reality can, make us forget the world around us and what impact, can this have on human traits such as happiness and community. Very. Good place with question samuel gilbert public school, -, it's a really good question, hannah so. There is a before.
There Was virtual, reality, there was a philosopher, who thought about virtual, reality and his name was Robert Nozick, and he, said imagine, if you could today plug. Yourself into, a machine, he called it the experience, machine, and, he said imagine if you could plug yourself into the machine that would give you whatever, you thought was the best possible. Life if, you want to be a rockstar you can do that if you want to be a superhero you can do that if you want to just be, a parent, and have, a life, that you can kind, of have here but make sure that you'll definitely have a job and you know you'll definitely have a home and all of those things we can give you that as well but. It's all actually. In the real world you, are just floating in a vat as this kind of creepy, sort of thing, and your muscles have sort of decayed and you look a bit gross but, in your head you're, having what, you consider, to be your best life now I just want to do a quick experiment here who wants to plug into that machine. Okay. So. Robert Nozick and this is what's really interesting, Nozick, wrote this about 40, years ago and he thought that no one would plug into that machine because, he thought that we cared too much about authenticity, about, real experiences. And knowing that our experiences, were real but, as we use these technologies start, to become more and more possible, we're. Starting to see that people might be more and more interested, in using them. So. I think that those things may, eventually become, possible. Whether they're actually offered or not is. A question that we'll have to talk about as a society, but, might be concerned, with. Those kinds of technologies where you can be guaranteed this, kind of artificial, happiness, is. That it means that we stop bothering, to create a world where everyone can, actually be happy in the real world because. We can create this fake world and then we don't have to worry about it anymore, the people who are most likely to be attracted, to those kinds, of machines that the people whose lives are really hard and, it's. Much easier, to give them an easy way out so we don't have to worry about them any more than it is to do the hard work of rolling up our sleeves and, saying how, can we make it so they don't need to turn to some pretend, world to, live a life that's really happy how can we change the world that we're living now so.
I Think that it's possible but I think that if we go to fight on that part we're, going to distract ourselves from the big problem that needs to be solved. Great, question, thanks for that we're going to go to the Northern Beaches Secondary. College the, manly selective campus. Where. Are they there we are got away wave there we are good there's the mic here's, the question and and we're. Going to ask the question just a quick answer to this one from Toby and Marianne I think. Campus. And, our question is for professor Toby, Walsh how. Has technology, altered. Human evolution, and how will it continue to do so in the future yeah, thank you any technology. Doesn't always change this I mean we are tool users at the end of the day and we've, always used technology, to amplify, what we can do and. You. Know here's, a fantastic example of an. Amazing, piece of technology that means, that I can see because. I can't see you now. And. So AI is one of those technologies, no. One remembers telephone numbers anymore because our, phones remember, telephone numbers I can I can remember one telephone number oh one seven, oh two seven. One two four six nine which was the telephone I had when I was eight well, my parents had when I was a it's not connected I don't think anymore you can try darling, well. That's the only telephone number I remember because we outsourced their two machines and presumably. I'm using my brain to do other more important, things than wastefully. Remember, telephone so, hopefully. We'll continue to use technology, to expand. Our abilities, to to. Do things Mary. Ann yeah and I mean at the same time we need to develop new. Skills because, our attention is being for example our, attention is being hijacked by technology. Essentially you know the human mind is, an attention machine, and. Humans. Operate best when the most important, thing for you, know them or society. Has their attention if it you know you feel distracted, then. From, the job at hand or from, something that's really important. Then. You, suffer, and people, around you suffer so, we, are going to need, to develop and evolve, new. Skills, that help us control, our own attention better. And if we don't then really, that will undermine, many. Things including the pursuit of happiness, but, everything. Else as well the. Challenge I think is that technology. Of all was much more, much more quickly than humanity, does than our, genetics, evolve evolution. Is a very slow process happens, over the course, of millions of years yeah. In a in a in, a heartbeat in in in just tens, of years we're going to completely change the world in which we live, enormous. Hope because the, human mind, is, so flexible, and and plastic, I mean even at a physical level, so. I, I don't share, the. Worry that we can't keep up with technology, I mean we're designing it we're actually in the driver's, seat we're, creating, it so we. And we do need to stay out of it.
Because. You say we're creating, it, at. Some point actually the technology is creating us and we are being driven by I was there was reading some research for something about the the way in which young children's. And people's brains are, quickly being adapted, to that endorphin driven, model of. Response. Request response request need to get that and, in many ways we're, not we're. Not really looking at that problem deeply enough to realize that actually the more we create devices that feed us and we put those devices, ubiquity. Into the hands of everybody at every point largely, speaking we're. Actually driving. Driving, that generational, acceleration, without, even realizing that we're not in control anymore now the devices, that. We. Know everything. About the way that the human brain works and the way that human evolution works, so that we can predict the effects that technology, has but we're, still learning so much about the. Way that our brains work I was just learning, about some research about what happens in your brain when you make eye contact, with another person and how, important, that actual, eye contact, is to spark neurons, and all those mirror neurons, and things like that there's a really powerful bonding. Process, that happens I have a little three-month-old, baby and, one, of the things that we've been evolved, to do is what women when they're breastfeeding is they're evolved. So that a baby can see the eggs more or less the exact distance between the, baby's eyes and, the, mothers face while they're breastfeeding. But now so. Many people when, they're breastfeeding because they have these phones are, kind of watching Netflix and sort of they're over here so what the baby is trying to receive from them is, changing so, some of this is not saying technology. Very very bad we must not have it but it's about understanding for. The people using the technology, and the ways we're building the technology, not, just informing, about the technology, but letting us know about, these amazing brains that we have and the things that they can do and the things that we need to work, with them to do so that we can actually engage meaningfully with technology, yeah I mean, just one thing just to close the circle on that one that that's why I was talking about attention. Hacking. So, when you're breastfeeding watching, a movie your, attention, has been hijacked, and hacked by technology. Such. Big issues, and, so. Many core questions. We have to cover in a short period of time so. We're going to go due south, coaching public school where are our friends at South Guji there. We are down the front here microphone, coming to you because, you have a question for the Lloyd. Hi. I'm Sarah, Drummond from South could you public school and we have a question for Lloyd since. 71%, of the earth's surface is covered by water and there is an ever increasing, human population which. Might require new, areas to live are there, any ideas in technology that could support life under water for a long period, of time and supply. Essentials. Like food and water without, creating pollution, and jeopardizing. The marine. It's. A very big question that you'll be answering one minute Lloyd one minute. Thank. You Sarah that's actually something I've been asking for about the last 30, years when. I was about your age my dream, was to be an Aquanaut which is someone who lives under the sea I wanted to study the ocean I wanted to spend long. Periods of time beneath, the surface of the ocean, I was, fascinated by it although I came from a very smaller regional town called how long the Aubrey I. Was, just fascinated by the idea of living. Under the ocean and so I've spent a lot of time asking, that exact question because, I didn't have any interest in colonizing, the sea I wanted to visit. Self-sufficiently. With the focus, on studying the ocean and so when. I finished school I actually want a competition to do just that to answer my question, it was called leave.
Your Dream wildest, adventure competition. And I've got some money from, Australian, Geographic, to go about answering this and so I spent a lot of years. Researching. All the technology, that would enable me to do, that I, had. A pretty small budget, and I, involved. Schools I was actually involving schools from the, middle of Australia, school, of the air and using radio they were. Starting. To experiment with software. Online. Software, so we was doing chats from underwater, but. It was a it's. A journey that continues and so some of the technology, that, I used on my bio cyber cordon my biological submarine. It was like a living living, submersible. I used. The machine cord. Air. To water to extract my humidity, from the air to provide me with drinking water under, the sea, this. Is one of the challenges with doing, anything under the water you've got pressure, if you're in a saltwater environment, salt which is very corrosive. You've. Got the density of water so there's a whole range of issues, you've gotta overcome. Then. There's the waste. In. Order to find. A solution to that when I got my funding from Australian Geographic I went over to NASA to, a habitation, conference, they ran it which is all, about living in extreme environments, to, try and talk to some of the researchers, around the world who were working on this exact topic how. They're going to grow plants. And yet nutrition, for astronauts. In. Deep space how. Are they going to deal with their waste products when they're beneath the sea. So. I did my best within the limitations, I had to, provide a self-sufficient, underwater habitat, I lasted for 12 days underwater, with, my technology I've, since, repeated that the second time and germ unique but still not a bad achievement well there's nothing we won't acknowledge that so. I had a bunch of gas sensors, I was growing microalgae, which was going to be my potential.
Food Source and providing oxygen, it. Got, pretty nasty down there after 12 days and, so and. Eventually. I had to. And, eventually I had to abandon the the, mission but I repeated it a second time and I've actually got a, third. Project in mind which is it's a really cool idea it was there's, a German architect, who met with a Puerto, Rican marine, biologist, though both, working on the. Architect, was. Interested. In this technology where you could use. Mineral accretion, taking the minerals out of seawater to grow structures. He. Started to grows structures, which became airtight, the, marine biologist noticed that when he was doing this in his lab that organisms. Started to attach, to that, substrate. About eight times faster than they would in the natural environment so now it's actually being used as a coral restoration. Project. All around the world so potentially. You could create an underwater habitat that grows itself using the minerals in the sea water attracts, corals. And other marine organisms to, grow over, the habitats, so it becomes, a. Restoration. Project as, well it's self repairing so if anything happens to that concrete. On the outside, that. It actually just patches, itself up naturally as long, as it's got a low current supply from the surface so you need like a low current whether. It's a solar panel or some other, electricity. Generator on the surface to supply your frame. The. Electricity, so yes, it can be done and it's something I'm fascinated by there's a cool documentary called cities under the sea if, you're interested, I can see, if you are all getting ideas here the minister's already written down a note under water schools we never thought this is a possibility, thanks, Lloyd for that now we, have students from NIMH Byrd Central School and kögel high school who've come. Together as part of this there they are at the back there a question, for you Mel yep fasten. Your seat belt this is a good one and. Here's. The mic. Hey. Melanie so. Technology. Has had, a long history of aggregating. Power and resources, to the few and privileged how. Can we democratize. Tech for the future I mean. Look what an amazing, question. Yeah, because look you're right. And I think that over the last 20, years in particular you're, starting, to see the sort of technology and, capability. For it to become increasingly, democratized. Right, so, if I think again about Google. Part of our mission is universally. Accessible and useful and, we, need to do that for everyone right. So no matter where you are what, language you speak we, think we're about 5% of the way through delivering. That that, mission so we've got a long way to go on that but. If you start to think about the ability to provide these services for, free that's. Super, important, we. Start to think about we've got a big, project that we run called. The next billion users because. You know we talked a little bit earlier about the first billion, people who came onto the internet and you're, right they're the pretty much the rich and privileged people who live in westernized. Countries that. Next, billion people are. Coming onto the Internet in a completely, different way they. Don't have a desktop computer they're, coming on with a mobile phone getting. Connectivity. From that last, point to the last, mile is one of the biggest challenges, that we face. So. One of the things that we've done recently and, the first person. To use this was actually a farmer, in New Zealand in Canterbury, was, flying, balloons, up in the sky called full project loon that. Delivers, Wi-Fi, to really, remote areas. Now, those sorts, of experiments help to get everybody, connected, and then, when you start to think about putting all of these AI tools, out into the ecosystem, as well it really is becoming something, for everyone. That's, one reason why we and, you study history this, isn't the first time we've had a technological, revolution that's, changing. Our lives and we can look back at, the last you know the last big one the Industrial Revolution and. We, did share the benefits. But. We know if you look back at what we did during that period we introduced, the welfare state we, introduced universal, education we, introduced unions. We did a lot of things to ensure, that everyone shared the benefits not just the owners of the factories. As people, like Marx were forecasting. At the time so we we, we got to improve. The quality of our lives dramatic. But. We. Did that by by, actually making some really significant, structural changes to the way we ran, society, the way the nature of our work and all those things that so we should learn, from history. History. A lot, of things have to change I mean just, I mean, a lot of the things that you were talking about about were built by white.
Males Yes, okay. And really our only and that's okay I mean but. You know we can't just keep doing that so, game. Changes. Your. Your the the team that, is, you. Know ready to. Ensure. That these future, technologies, that we can craft you know we're, in control. Cater. To, everyone. Include, everyone, and if we don't have everyone on the design team then we won't be designing for them we won't be designing for country. Australia I'm a country girl I grew up in Glenn Ennis not, on a farm in, a pub. So. You know that inclusion. And we have to work together to. Ensure that that happens but it won't happen by itself history. Tells us that we, have to take steps, and we have to accelerate, and, make, that happen sooner, rather than later, because AI is really developing. And being crafted, and designed and, we need to ensure that everybody. Is involved, in. That process they can take away as people, make the final decision, not, technology so. Who's at the table dictates, what decisions are made and I like to think of everything in a Robin Hood model, so, take, from the big and give to the small and. We. In dubbo set up a co-working space that, essentially. Leverages. The, corporate sector to, provide free, co-working, spaces so anyone, can access that but we can only do it in our geographical. Location, right now so, so, let's let's go to a, question, where the folks from Elizabeth, MacArthur, High, School. Rio. Yeah what do you want to go to your question now because it goes I think to the issue about. Decisions. That we need to make in engaging, with the technology, and. Matt. Will we'll go to you with this question, hi, my name's hailey I'm from Elizabeth MacArthur high school and we have a question, from that our, question, is would, it be ethical to program, robots to suffer, in a, physical, emotional or, existential sense, and feel empathy. So. Raise. Your hand in this room if you feel like you've ever suffered. Raise. Your hand in this room if you feel like it was wrong that you were ever created. So. Right so this is a sleepy really simple thought experiment there's nothing wrong with, suffering. And creating. The potential for suffering what's wrong is, inflicting. Suffering on someone or being careless. About the fact that someone else is suffering so, I think the big question when, it comes to do we want machines or. Robots who, are able to experience, something, like the. Emotions, and states that we feel with regard to suffering, is why, why. Do we want them to feel that you. Might for example there's a lot of work going on in terms of, robotic. Care partners for people who are lonely, you, might actually want, a, Care, Partner to, experience, some kind of empathy, and empathetic suffering.
If There's a if there's someone who has just lost a. Loved, one and the, robot is unable to experience, that suffering alongside them, that might lead that person to feel even lonelier than. The otherwise dear there's nothing lonelier than being alone in suffering so, there might be reasons, why you'd want a machine to, suffer, alongside someone, else there, are definitely reasons one of the ways that we all learn how, to be good people is. Because we. Start to learn to feel bad when we do bad stuff we. Witness, other people's responses, and that gives us a sense of guilt or a sense of shame or a sense of regret and we learn from that so. If we're talking about machines who are taking on moral. Decision-making, which, we're starting to there, is an argument to say well we might want them to, experience, some, kind of guilt. Or they might have something that's a kind of machine version, of guilt, that, allows them to receive feedback on the kind of experiences, they've had so. That they can build that into the decision-making. Always. There's. A there's a difference between I, mean machines. And in all the contexts you give it's absolutely important, you know we've been caregiving, for that machine to understand that but, there's a difference between inflicting. The suffering on the unit, the robot such that they feel the pain of suffering versus. Teaching a machine to, understand, the mechanics of, suffering, the emotion of suffering, the impact on a human psyche to suffering but they don't actually have to suffer themselves and that's the beauty of robotics is they. Don't have to necessarily do. It to be able to empathize with it at least that's by not my layman's view, there's. An interesting conversation. To be had here and again if we think about human examples, you know we could learn the scripts, really, well of like knowing, what it's like for a friend to be being bullied and, kind of say all the right things that, make them feel like we care but. What we're actually looking for is someone who genuinely cares, that we're in a bad situation and, wants us to feel better so, I don't actually think that that's the space where robots should be I think that's a space where people should be that, kind of side by side such a good question thanks, to the folks from Elizabeth Makar for the great question. Kaja, Gong Valley public school where do we find you today there, we are right down the front that's great a, question, for Mary, Ann yeah. Hi. I'm, Jeff from cut, you go Valley public school and mudgy and I, have a question for Mary Ann Williams, as. Is being used more often to make more important, decisions, is business, and etc could. It ever make decisions, in more important, areas like politics, and war isn't. A, i politician. Possible. Wow. That's really. Quite, Renea. Yeah. Speak. Freely Mary Ann you guide us on this one, so. I, think the answer is absolutely, and I. Think that AI not, today cuz you, know we're not there yet by. A long way we'll, actually be better because. Humans. Are very limited in the, amount of data they can process, in the, feelings, that they can feel and. And. In the predictions, they can make in fact we're terrible, at predictions. Because we rely on very small samples, and we, think we know so. That's the kind of a dangerous, combination. Whereas AI is sort, of non-judgmental. It doesn't need to take a position, or have an agenda and so. If you guys get involved, in the design of these AI systems. Absolutely. They can take those decisions, and absolutely. They will be better in the same way that an AI can. Detect melanoma, in a sample far, better than, you know an expert, human. Who's been trained for more than 10 years so. I think you, know we're not there yet but. The. Crucial part is in the design I mean we would only want to hand over that decision if it was going to make. A better decision. There's. A Twitter bot called deep drum office. The German name for Trump and they trained in all of, all, of trumps tweets and now it tweets. Identically. To Trump, okay. Yeah. But, that's why we need all the people around the table then Toby, who, thinks that people, grab the table Huns and Trump, know, he needs to be there literally, everyone, needs to be there and I think that's what we've learnt through, Trump that he is actually. Representing. A very large group, of people who, have you know the right to their own opinions, and and and imagine. The future as well so. We can't just have our friends all the people we like around, the table. There. Between using, AI to inform.
A Politician, who then makes well, informed and predicted decisions and the idea of an AI politician. Itself there's. No human, involved, in that decision like that terrifies, me no but it shouldn't because it's the the people are the problems when the plane crashes, it's it's almost always pilot. Error so. People. And you know unless we can somehow, when. You're doing politics you're making you're not just making predictive, judgments, about how to allocate resources it's, part of it for you're making value, judgments you're, making yes you're making claims about what kind, of a community, do we want to have and that's work that we, as people who are members at the Yuni we're the ones who have to do that what so if I'm at just holiday because there's a good question from kingscliff, public school where the folks from kingscliff here, we are which, also goes to decisions. That we're making about what we're going to empower technology. To do so who's got the question Fermat. There's, the market hi my name is Bradley from kings of the public school and this is feat Matt, do. You believe that robot, soldiers, could make more ethical, than its decisions, than human soldiers. So. Toby's, gonna stare really hard at me as I answer this question, oh say. The right back I think. When. We think about robot, soldiers, we have a particular view, of a robot soldier in mind that looks like something. From Star Wars or something from Terminator or something along those lines um that's. Not really what we're talking about here we're talking about things that like, drones and. Potentially. Even munitions, and mines and, things like that they're, not really actually making decisions, and, that's part of the problem they're responding to a program, they've been told with data what they're targeting, the argument. Is that they there will be less casualties. Because, they will be able to identify really. Clearly who, is who. Is an opponent, who is someone on the other side a combatant, and who, is not and not target, those people the, problem, is that. Because, there are no human, lives that are being risk it's so much easier to ship off robots into combat situations, and so we see more and more combat, and even now and we have an increasingly, technological warfare. Now about 80%, of the casualties in war are civilians. So, when, you think about that in a more technological. Age it. Becomes really unlikely, that, we're actually going to see an overall, benefit. There might be some situations and, there are some situations where, humans. Have been overwhelmed. By the situation they've, been in and they've gone on to do awful. Awful things, and I've studied, some of the war crimes that have occurred and they they're, awful to read about there. Might be a case for saying that emotions, in that area are a problem and a robot would do differently but, overall, when, you look at the big picture and you don't try to just fix that particular problem, you see the whole story. It seems really, unlikely, that we're going to see more ethical, mode. Of combat, when, it's fought by robots instead of paper well. We're almost coming to the end I think we need to find a little more upbeat pathway. Yeah to. Get us through this conversation, so I want to hear, from the students from armadale Secondary. College, where. Are they down the front here yeah question for Lloyd. Questions. Lloyd, and it's how can a ID be used to help build a sustainable future. Thank. You for that to answer this question I'll use an example of a young, Dutch. Inventor, because, he went through a very similar process, to solve a global issue that you guys are going to be doing as part of your game-changer. Program. Here so he, visited Greece when he was a teenager I went for a scuba dive and, notic