# FLSmidth Emissions Solutions Presentation

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Calculations, Will show that you're, older less efficient, plant will, be. A little tougher to meet emissions regulations because, being less efficient, requires a lot more airflow so. Bottom, line how does this translate, well. Ethel asses built plants from, you know for a long time we, have plants built into 50 60 70 s and some, new ones too so we can kind of blend all this information, and come up with some, real values, and this is more. Or less where most. Plants will fall we've. Got an emissions, in actual. Air flow of 10 around for normal cubic meter for existing, plan and the. Point oh one translates, to about two point five milligrams for normal cubic meter this. Is tough it's. Hard to visualize but when I came into the industry 20 years ago 60, was a fair, number and why 50 because, it, is said depending, on the weather conditions in the situation. Above. 50 you start to see emission so bottom, line this is way, below visible. Range. But. Let's put it into perspective how, much is two point five milligrams per cubic meter well we can translate the units for those of you that are not using. The metric system it's, about triple. S oh eight grains. For DRI standard cubic foot well. Still doesn't. Work out who for visualization, and, to do that let's, picture the Superdome. Down in New Orleans I won't. Go through the details of the dimensions, of this building but it's huge, well. How much dust is allowed in this large X volume, of air we're, talking less than a jug of of, gallon. Of milk is. This person, right here is holding that, we. Probably wouldn't pick it up in this picture so again. It's very very little amount of stuff but a different perspective since, most of us haven't been in the Superdome this, is something we all see every day there's a semi-truck. Big. Box you can fit several cars into this big box well, how much dust is allowed in this huge box. Population. Show about half a teaspoon and that's peaceful not tablespoon, so again, it is a very very, low amount of dust. Now. It. Doesn't seem fair that Mother Nature it gets to do this this is a tough storm it's not a fire and it, is not meeting Nisha as you can see because we have visible, emissions.

Unfortunately. We can not get away by, doing this so what, do we do what, technology, is available and, that brings us to. Solutions. I know. Many of you may be a little disappointed, I have nothing magical, or new. That. Will solve all problems. This. Solution, is actually very, likely installed, in many of your plants already. But. It's because, it's important, now it's it's. Necessary, to get to know us a little better, what. Is this we're talking about it says PTFE. Membrane on, filter. Back what's, PTFE, is Teflon better, known as Teflon but cut when I guess the registered, trademark what, we're looking at this here is that it. Is a membrane and a. Support, of the, membrane this is the filter and. This. Is the support what, we're looking at in this picture is the little square. Magnified. Greatly. To show you that. This actually, looks like a spider. Web so. Again, it is a, support. Of the filter and the filter and the openings are so small that water does not go through it this is the same fancy, stuff that's used in hiking boots so that people can have breathable. Shoes and still, not get their feet wet when they step into a bubble. Now. Cigarette, smoke represented. Here by this dot, it's. A very small particle but it's still seen as a particle it will get trapped in this web, which. Obviously. Makes it an excellent dust filter this is a simulation. Of a cement particle, at, two-and-a-half microns, it's, way too big to go through the holes and that's what makes this a very very, efficient, filter a continuous. Question or very, often asked. Well will, your filter bags meet Nisha the, answer is yes if everything goes right and, that's. Where this. Discussion takes, a PTFE. Membrane I would like to tell you that it's tough and it's foolproof but. It's not it. Is elegant, and. When. It's laminated to won't go in fiberglass there. Is a possibility, of running into this we. Already said we have the filter and the support for the filter while. This damage, was it's, real damage, on a real, photograph, done. With my, fingernail, which, by the way is real too so. We. Can damage it easily, meaning, it's delicate, so what's going on here why is that, here's, cross-section, of the fabric, this, is a woven material and. This is without any, membrane, which a lot of filter bags are installed, as such this. Is the dust these. Are the niche app violators, here they. Airflow. Coming this way they, can go through the filter. Back so. When. We put two pcs a membrane, on this. PTFE. Membrane is, right here. And. It's laminated, on this fabric what, happens here is that, we, get these bridges and, that. Makes it delicate. You can scratch it off fairly easy why, am I saying all this because it is extremely, important, that we take. Care of this of, this, filter so that it doesn't fail on us because we, said that the membrane is a filter well, practically, no filter, in this middle section articles. Can go through the weaving fairly, easy. Next. Issue is unburned, hydrocarbons we'll, plug it you can, picture with such small openings, a drop, of oil wolf plugging, pretty, quickly and that happened in the plants in Central America where something went wrong during startups and some. Oily, spray went under, ways to the bag and the. 7000. Bags were instantly, closed for, good, that's not a fun thing for it to happen and that's just something that it's. The characteristic, of the of. The PTFE, teflon now. Another, issue is well it's a higher investment what we underlined. The word investment, because it's it's. Actually an investment that will pay back for, itself it cleans very easy and, it. Can increase filter. Back light now. If. It's so fragile or delegate. How can increase how can it increase ultra bag light the. Answer is that it can allow us to clean a lot less every. Pulse every reverse, air cycle will, get rid of dust a lot, easier than without it so, if that happens, that means we can clean a lot less and that, translates. Into longer. Bag life. Now. Let's go into the, theory. Should we run and just put, membrane and forget about the problem in a way yes but we need to check the numbers basically. The theory behind it the, cook is a technical. Evaluation will, first issue so.

Different. For pressure gauges, and, maybe new controllers, or, flow distribution plates, etc all these falls under, the upgrade. Category. Now, if the numbers don't match and we need to do something a little more drastic, we. May look at a conversion this. Is a very. You. Know an example, of, situation. Where there is no room to make this back house bigger yes it was a little, too small so the. Original unit, had the inlet down the middle and the outlets down the middle what, we've done here is we. Are extending, the bag length and using. Some of the middle area for, bag, installation. With. The outlets, coming out at the end I mean this, is one example of some, creative solutions that we have been faced, with to. Solve a capacity, problem bring down those aircrafts. Numbers. To more reasonable, levels and be able to meet nisha. Another. Example is a bag. House with. Societal. Needs a little more cloth aria it is a restrictive. Application. This is a walk-in plenum, there. Is a maintenance, man in, here changing. Bags so. You guys can put back, well. We, analyzed the situation it, came up with a solution to make this longer, and put. Into these cages I know some people don't like to be caged ins but it's it's, still an option to, explore to, bring down that air to cooperation, number and these are only, two examples of, options. That we can look at now, there's some bad houses that have no hope either. There are almost a too old to say or, they're way too small for what's required and then, we may look at replacing, the whole unit in some of these cases though we have built new units, reusing. Just, the structure, of, the old unit, which, may, be in good shape but that's where this. Analysis, comes in. Now. We're not done yet let's that takes care of the equipment part of it let's. Look at the plant level particular. Installation. Issues. Bag. Handling, and cage fit are very important. Here, we're seeing that the folds. On a bag that can cause leaks if, you've seen this pattern it, may be that the bag is too loose or. Even if it fits okay we have, gone with its star design, on the cage to avoid this double fold which. Kills filter, bags. Now. As far as membrane, let's, look at installation. Always. Use the protection skirt, that's, a wire, with. A with, a skirt. Going. Down here. Basically. To avoid contact. Between the membranes, and the tube sheet so, we recommend, using the protection, skirt. Every. Time you use you install. Membrane. Filter bag as. Well. As feeding, the bag through the hole it's, not clear here but this man is feeding. The bag through the hole gently. It's, quite common to see in the field that people come in with a folded, up bag straight from the box feed. The hole folded, up bags through the hole and then release that, flaps, the bag around and, causes contact with the, the wall or with, adjacent bags and can damage, the membrane as we already saw that it is very delicate. Now. Third. Thing we really, need to watch for we've. Got the cold. Snap band because, of the noise it makes when you put it in it should snap and. If it snaps I can't. Do it loud another, that. If you get that sound it means that it's done correctly what we want to avoid and. That's what we want to hear this now this. Is you get a bag Pink's, up or sideways, you'll. Very likely have. A leak, through there worse. Yet the, facts in Fault smoochie which have happened on importantly. Installed, bag so we, need to pay attention to these details and, really train our people a little more, diligently. Than we've. Done historically especially. Those guys that come in as contractors, they want to get the job done and get out as fast as they can we, need to slow them down and emphasize, that this is important, especially, with, Nisha now. Not to leave reverse airbag houses behind because there's still a few out there filter. Bank handling is very important, we emphasize that but. As far as the insulation basics, we. Need to bring the facts, in at, the two chief level and raise, it to the hanging assembly, carefully, there's been cases where bags are brought in at the upper level and then dropped down again. That bangs up the membrane and can cause leakage. You know when you lose the membrane you lose your filter, now.

Another Issue you see this picture this, is exactly, how you shouldn't, do it we've. Got the clamp here we've. Got a beat we've. Got a cord and, we've got a double cuffs here all, those, things are get there for a purpose and the purpose is that this. Cord. Locks. Mechanically. With the clamp and the, feed. So. Even. If the clamp is loose this, bag has nowhere to go in this. Case the. Clasp is, it loosens up the bag will move you'll lose tension and will, cause accelerated. Wear so. Those are things that that we need to watch out for and, as. Far as installation now. Let's look at. Operation. The, most important, thing is in the operation, of baghouses at the plant level is, differential, pressure differential. Pressure is your steps. Of scope into the, SAG house operation, it tells you how the back house is doing how, does it do that here. You have a very simple illustration of a bank house we're missing the inlet duct so here you, got air flow going through here got. It going through the bags going on to the fact, it's. Quite obvious that you've got more of a negative pressure here, than. Here because. Of the restriction, on the. Bags and the thumps builds up on the back and. That's. Exactly, a measurement of differential, pressure because this negative is bigger than this one and. You're monitoring both you. Get from this water, u-tube, manometer you, get it different that's called differential. Pressure. Now. That's a water, manometer which, is a little, old water. It evaporates, and it gets dirty etc, so highly. Recommend, using Magna helix that will give you an accurate reading long term without reliability. Problems. Now. There's no excuse not to have this at every bag house and that goes for a jewelry units also yes. A lot of them simply, don't have it and that's. Again, no excuse, we highly recommend the, habit, now, let's go all the way to. The other side. Of the discussion. Modern. Plants. There. Are modern plants that have all kinds of monitoring. Devices. And, sensors, that, give us a lot, of information. This. Is good it's. Good information. We. Can check compartments. And etc and go, down the list the. Problem, is that this may be overwhelming. This. Amount of information which, we see in new plants. Does. Not replace. Good. People and knowledge. On people which, brings us to the next. Next. Slide which is a. Personal. Training and nisha back. In the old days 20 years ago I. Used. To go to plants, and I would always run into mr. bag house mr.. Bag houses this, guy here that knew. How the bank house were and how. They operated, and what was happening in, etc well, he, was downsized sometime in the 90s and it. Has been replaced in large. Part with. Information. With, his high-tech screens, in the control room but as we saw in the previous screen there's, a lot going on in the control room and some. Of the guys if. They see for instance this.