Emerging technologies | Wikipedia audio article
Emerging. Technologies are. Technologies. That are perceived as capable, of changing, the status quo, these. Technologies. Are generally, new but include, older technologies. That are still controversial. And relatively, undeveloped. In potential, such as pre-implantation, genetic. Diagnosis. And gene therapy which, date to 1989. And 1990. Respectively. Emerging. Technologies, are characterized, by radical, novelty, relatively. Fast growth coherence. Prominent, impact, and uncertainty. And ambiguity. In. Other words an emerging. Technology can, be defined, as a radically. Novel, and relatively, fast, growing. Technology. Characterized. By a certain, degree of coherence. Persisting. Over time and with the potential, to exert, a considerable. Impact on the socio-economic. Domains. Which, is observed, in terms of the composition. Of actors. Institutions. And patterns, of interactions. Among those along, with the associated. Knowledge production, processes. Its. Most prominent impact. However, lies, in the future, and so in the emergence, phase is still somewhat, uncertain, and ambiguous. Emerging. Technologies. Include, a variety of technologies. Such as educational. Technology. Information, technology. Nanotechnology. Biotechnology. Cognitive. Science, psycho, technology. Robotics. And artificial. Intelligence new. Technological, fields. May result from the technological convergence, of, different, systems evolving, towards, similar goals. Convergence. Brings previously. Separate, technologies. Such as voice and telephony, features data. And productivity. Applications and, video together so that they share resources, and, interact, with each other creating. New efficiencies. Emerging. Technologies. Are those technical, innovations. Which represent, progressive, developments. Within a field for competitive, advantage, converging. Technologies, represent.
Previously, Distinct, fields which are in some way moving, toward stronger, interconnection, and similar, goals. However. The opinion, on the degree of the impact, status, and economic, viability of, several, emerging, and converging, technologies. Topic. History. Of emerging, technologies. In. The history of Technology. Emerging, technologies are. Contemporary, advances, and innovation, in various, fields of technology. Over. Centuries innovative. Methods, and new technologies. Are developed, and opened up, some. Of these technologies. Are due to theoretical, research and others, from commercial, research, and development. Technological. Growth, includes, incremental. Developments. And disruptive, technologies. An example. Of the former, was the gradual, roll out of DVD, digital, video disc as a development. Intended, to follow on from the previous optical. Technology. Compact, disc, by. Contrast, disruptive. Technologies. Are those where a new method, replaces, the previous technology. And makes it redundant, for example, the replacement, of horse-drawn, carriages, by automobiles. And other vehicles. Topic. Emerging. Knology debates. Many. Writers including. Computer, scientist, bill joy have identified. Clusters, of technologies. That they consider, critical to humanity's, future. Joy. Warns, that the technology. Could be used by elites for good or evil they could. Use it as good. Shepherds for. The rest of humanity or decide, everyone, else is superfluous. And push for mass extinction. Of those made unnecessary. By technology. Advocates. Of the benefits, of technological. Change typically, see emerging and converging, technologies as. Offering, hope for the betterment of the human condition. Cyber. Philosophers. Alexander. Bard and Jan Soda Kovas argue, in the future, iike trilogy, that while man himself is, basically, constant throughout, human, history genes.
Change Very, slowly all relevant, changes, rather a direct, or indirect, result, of technological. Innovation, memes change, very fast since, new ideas, always emanate, from technology. Use and not the other way around. Man. Should consequently. Be regarded, as history's, main constant, and technology. As its main variable. However. Critics. Of the risks of technological. Change and even some advocates, such as transhumanist. Philosopher. Nick Bostrom, warned that some of these technologies could. Pose dangers, perhaps, even contribute. To the extinction, of humanity itself, ie some, of them could involve existential. Risks, much ethical, debate centers, on issues, of distributive. Justice in, allocating, access, to beneficial, forms, of technology. Some. Thinkers, such as environmental, ethicist, Bill McKibben, oppose the continuing, development of, advanced, technology. Partly, out of fear that its benefits, will be distributed. Unequally in, ways that could worsen the plight of the poor, by. Contrast. Inventor. Records file is among techno, utopians. Who believe that emerging. And converging, technologies could. And will eliminate poverty. And abolish, suffering, some, analysts, such as Martin, Ford author of, the lights in the tunnel autumn. Accelerating. Technology. In the economy, of the future argue. That as information technology. Advances. Robots, and other forms, of automation will ultimately, result in significant. Unemployment, as machines, and software begin, to match and exceed the capability. Of workers, to perform most routine, jobs as. Robotics. And artificial, intelligence, developed. Further even many skilled, jobs may be threatened. Technologies. Such as machine, learning may, ultimately allow. Computers, to do many knowledge-based, jobs that require, significant. Education. This. May result in, substantial, unemployment. At all skill levels stagnant. Or falling wages. For most workers an increased. Concentration of, income, and wealth as the owners of capital capture. And ever large a fraction of the economy. This. In turn could lead to depressed, consumer, spending, and economic, growth as the bulk of the population lacks. Sufficient, discretionary. Income to purchase the products, and services, produced by, the economy. Topic. Examples. Topic. Artificial. Intelligence. Artificial.
Intelligence. AI is, the sub intelligence. Exhibited, by machines, or software, and the branch of computer science. That develops, machines, and software, with animal-like, intelligence. Major. AI researchers. And textbooks, define the fielders, the, study, and design of intelligent. Agents. Where. An intelligent. Agent is a system, that perceives, its environment. And takes actions, that maximize, its chances, of success. John. McCarthy, who coined the term in 1942. Defines, it as the study, of making, intelligent, machines. The. Central, problems, or goals, of AI research, include, reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning natural. Language processing. Communication. Perception. And the ability, to move and manipulate, objects. General. Intelligence. Or strong. AI is. Still, among the fields long term goals. Currently. Popular approaches. Include, deep learning, statistical. Methods, computational. Intelligence and, traditional, symbolic, AI, there. Are an enormous number of tools used in AI, including, versions of search and mathematical. Optimization, logic. Methods, based on probability. And economics, and many others. Topic. 3d. Printing. 3d. Printing. Also known as additive manufacturing has. Been posited. By Jeremy, Rifkin and others as part of the third Industrial. Revolution combined. With internet technology. 3d, printing, would allow for digital, blueprints, of virtually, any material. Product to be sent instantly, to another person, to be produced, on the spot making, purchasing, of product online almost. Instantaneous. Although. This technology. Is still too crude to produce most, products, it is rapidly developing. And created, a controversy, in 2013. Around the issue of 3d. Printed, guns. Topic. Gene, therapy. Gene. Therapy, was first successfully, demonstrated. In late 1990. Early, 1991. For, adenosine, demonize, deficiency. Though that treatment was so Matic that is did, not affect the patient's, germline and thus was not heritable. This. Led the way to treatments. For other genetic, diseases, an increased, interest in germline gene, therapy, therapy, affecting. The gametes, and descendants, of patients. Between. September. 1990. And January, 2014. There, were around 2000. Gene therapy, trials conducted or, approved. Topic. Cancer. Vaccines, a. Cancer. Vaccine is a vaccine, that treats existing, cancer or prevents, the development of cancer in certain, high-risk, individuals. Vaccines. That treat existing, cancer are known as therapeutic, cancer vaccines. There. Are currently no vaccines, able, to prevent cancer, in general on. April. 14, 2009. Dendron. Corporation. Announced, that their phase 3 clinical trial, of Provenge. A cancer, vaccine designed. To treat prostate, cancer had. Demonstrated. An increase, in survival, it. Received, US, Food and Drug Administration, FDA approval. For use in the treatment of advanced, prostate cancer patients, on April 29, 2010. The. Approval, of Provenge, has stimulated, interest in this type of therapy. Topic. DRO meet. In. Vitro meet also, called cultured, meat clean meat cruelty, free meat meat, and test tube meat is an animal flesh product, that has never been part of a living animal with exception, of the fetal, calf serum taken. From a slaughtered, car in. The 21st, century several. Research, projects. Have worked on in-vitro meat in the laboratory. The. First in-vitro beef burger, created, by a Dutch team was eaten at a demonstration, for the press in London in August 2013. There. Remain difficulties. To be overcome, before in-vitro. Meat becomes, commercially. Available. Cultured. Meat is prohibitively. Expensive but. It is expected, that the cost could be reduced to compete with that of conventionally. Obtained, meat as technology. Improves. In-vitro. Meat is also an ethical issue some. Argue that it is less objectionable, than, traditionally. Obtained, meat because it doesn't involve killing, and reduces, the risk of animal, cruelty, while others disagree, with eating meat that has not developed naturally.
Topic. Nanotech. Nology. Nanotechnology. Sometimes. Shortened, to nanotech, is the manipulation. Of matter on an atomic molecular, and, super molecular, scale, the. Earliest, widespread. Description, of nanotechnology. Referred, to the particular technological. Goal. Of precisely, manipulating. Atoms and molecules for. Fabrication. Of macroscale. Products, also now referred, to as molecular, nanotechnology a. More. Generalized, description, of, nanotechnology. Was subsequently. Established by, the National nanotechnology, initiative. Which, defines. Nanotechnology. Is the manipulation. Of matter with, at least one dimension sized, from 1 to 100, nanometers. This. Definition, reflects. The fact that quantum, mechanical, effects, are important, at this quantum, realm scale, and so the definition, shifted, from a particular technological. Goal. To a research, category inclusive. Of all types of research, and technologies. That deal with the special properties, of matter that occur below the given size threshold. Topic. Robotics. Robotics. Is the branch of technology. That deals with the design construction. Operation. And application. Of robots, as well as computer, systems, for their control, sensory. Feedback and, information. Processing, these. Technologies. Deal with automated, machines, that can take the place of humans, in dangerous, environments or, manufacturing. Processes. Or resemble. Humans, in appearance, behavior and, or cognition a good. Example of robots, which resembles, humans, is Sofia a social, humanoid, robot, developed by Hong Kong based company, Hanson robotics which, was activated, on April, 19 2015. Many. Of today's robots, are inspired, by nature contributing. To the field of bio-inspired, robotics. Topic. Stem, cell therapy. Stem. Cell therapy, is an intervention, strategy that, introduces. New adult stem cells into damaged, tissue in order to treat disease or injury. Many. Medical, researchers, believe that stem, cell treatments, have the potential, to change the face of human, disease, and alleviate, suffering, the. Ability, of stem cells to self renew and give rise to subsequent. Generations, with variable, degrees of differentiation. Capacities. Offers, significant. Potential for generation. Of tissues, that can potentially replace, diseased, and damaged areas, in the body with minimal, risk of rejection and side effects. Topic. Distributed. Ledger technology. Distributed. Ledger or blockchain. Technology. Is a technology which, provides transparent. And immutable lists, of transactions. Block. Chains can enable, autonomous, transactions. Through the use of smart contracts. Smart. Contracts. Are self executing, transactions. Which occur when predefined. Conditions, are met the. Original, idea of a smart contract was conceived, by Nick Szabo in, 1994. But these original, theories, about how these smart, contracts. Could work remained, unrealized, because, there was no technology, to support programmable. Agreements, and transactions. Between parties. His. Example, of a smart contract was, the vending machine, that holds goods until money, has been received, and then the goods are released to the buyer, the. Machine holds, the property, and is able to enforce, the contract, there. Were two main issues that needed to be addressed before smart, contracts. Could be used in the real world. Firstly. The control, of physical, assets by smart, contracts, to be able to enforce, agreements. Secondly. The last of trustworthy. Computers, that are reliable, and trusted, to execute, the contract between, two or more parties. It. Is only with the advent of cryptocurrency, and encryption. That the technology. For smart contracts. Has come to fruition. Many. Potential. Applications, of smart contracts.
Have Been suggested. That go beyond the transfer, of value from, one party, to another such, as supply, chain management, electronic. Voting law, and the Internet, of Things. Topic. Development, of, emerging, technologies. As. Innovation. Drives economic, growth and large, economic rewards. Come from new inventions, a great deal of resources, funding, and effort go into the development, of emerging, technologies. Some. Of the sources of these resources are described, below. Topic. Research. And development. Research. And development, is directed, towards, the advancement of, technology. In general and, therefore includes, development, of emerging technologies. See. Also list, of countries by research, and development, spending. Applied. Research, is a form of systematic. Inquiry, involving. The practical, application. Of science, it. Accesses. And uses some part of the research, communities. The academia's accumulated. Theories, knowledge, methods, and techniques, for, a specific often. State business, or client, driven purpose. Science. Policy, is the area of Public Policy which, is concerned, with the policies, that affect the conduct of the science, and research Enterprise, including. The funding of science often in pursuance, of other national, policy, goals such, as technological. Innovation, to promote commercial, product, development, weapons, development, healthcare, and environmental. Monitoring. Topic. D ARPA. The. Defense, Advanced, Research Projects. Agency dar. PA is an agency, of the US Department of, Defense responsible. For the development of, emerging technologies. For use by the military. D, ARPA. Was created. In 1958. As the Advanced, Research Projects. Agency ARPA. By President, Dwight D Eisenhower. Its. Purpose, was to formulate. And execute research. And development, projects, to expand, the frontiers of technology. And science with, the aim to reach beyond immediate military, requirements. Projects. Funded, by D ARPA. Have, provided, significant. Technologies. That influenced, many non-military. Fields, such, as the internet, and Global Positioning System. Technology. Topic. Technology. Competitions. And awards. There. Are awards that, provide incentive, to push the limits of technology, generally, synonymous with, emerging, technologies, note that while some of these awards, reward achievement after, the fact V analysis. Of the merits of technological.
Breakthroughs Others, provide, incentive, via competitions. For awards offered for goals yet to be achieved. The. Or tagged prize was a. $25,000. Award offered, in 1919. By French hotelier. Raymond, or tech for the first nonstop flight, between New, York City and Paris, in. 1927. Underdog. Charles, Lindbergh, won the prize in a modified, single-engine. Ryan aircraft, called the spirit of st. Louis in. Total, nine teams, spent. $400,000. In pursuit, of the or tech prize. The. XP, rrz series. Of awards public. Competitions. Designed, and managed by the nonprofit. Organization. Called the XPrize, Foundation. Are intended, to encourage, technological. Development, that could benefit, and kind, the. Most high-profile. Xpr, ize to date was the $10,000,000. Ansari, xpr, ize, relating. To spacecraft development. Which was awarded in, 2004. For the development, of spaceship, on, the. Turing award is an annual prize given, by the Association. For Computing, Machinery, ACM. To an, individual. Selected, for contributions. Of a technical, nature made. To the computing, community. It. Is stipulated that the, contributions. Should be of lasting, and major technical. Importance. To the computer, field. The. Turing, award is generally, recognized, as the highest distinction, in computer, science and in 2014, grew, to $1,000,000. The. Millennium, technology. Prize is awarded once, every two years by, Technology. Academy Finland. An independent. Fund established by, Finnish industry, and the Finnish state in partnership. The. First recipient, was Tim berners-lee, inventor. Of the world wide web. In. 2003. David, Goebbels, seat funded, the Methuselah Mouse, prize and prize to encourage, the development of, new life, extension, therapies. In mice which, are genetically similar to humans. So. Far three Mouse prizes, have been awarded. One for breaking longevity, records, two dr. Andre Barker, of Southern Illinois University one. For late onset rejuvenation. Strategies, - dr. Stephen, Spindler, of the University, of California. And one - dr. Z Dave sharp for his work with the pharmaceutical, rapamycin. Topic role of science, fiction. Science. Fiction has, criticized developing. And future, technologies, but also inspires, innovation and, new technology. This. Topic, has been more often discussed, in literary and, sociological. Than in scientific. Forums. Cinema. And media theorist, Vivian Sobchak examines. The dialogue, between science. Fiction, films and technological. Imagination. Technology. Impacts, artists, and how they portray, their fictionalized. Subjects. But the fictional, world gives, back to science by broadening, imagination. How. William Shatner, changed, the world is a documentary. That gave a number of real-world examples. Of actualized, technological. Imaginations. While. More prevalent, in the early years of science, fiction with writers, like arthur c clarke new.
Authors, Still find ways to make currently, impossible technologies. Seem closer to being realized. Topic. See, also. List. Of emerging, technologies. Foresight. Futures. Studies. Institute. For ethics and emerging technologies. Institute. On biotechnology. In the human future. Technological. Change. Accelerating. Change. Moore's. Law. Innovation. Technological. Revolution. Transhumanism. Technological. Singularity. Upcoming. Software.