Electric music technology | Wikipedia audio article
Electric. Music technology, refers. To musical. Instruments, and recording, devices that, use electrical, circuits, which are often combined, with mechanical. Technologies. Examples. Of electric, musical, instruments, include the electromechanical. Electric. Piano invented. In 1929. The electric, guitar invented, in 1931. The, electromechanical. Hammond. Organ developed, in 1934. And the electric, bass invented. In 1935. All. Of these electric, instruments, do not produce, a sound that is audible, by the performer. Or audience, in a performance setting, unless they are connected, to instrument, amplifiers, and loudspeakers cabinets. Which may them sound loud enough for performers, in the audience, to hear. Amplifiers. And loudspeakers are. Separate, from the instrument, in the case of the electric, guitar which, uses, a guitar amplifier, electric. Bass which uses a bass amplifier, and some electric, organs which use a Leslie, speaker or, similar, cabinet, and most electric, pianos. Some. Electric, organs and electric, pianos, include, the amplifier, and speaker cabinet, within the main housing for the instrument. Electric. Sound recording, and reproduction, are electrical, or mechanical techniques. And devices for the inscription, and recreation. Of sound waves such, as spoken, voice singing. Instrumental. Music or, sound effects. Acoustic. Analog recording, is achieved, by a small, microphone, diaphragm that, can record sound waves on a phonograph in, which a stylus, senses, grooves on a record or magnetic, tape the. First practical, sound, recording, and reproduction, device, was the mechanical, phonograph, cylinder, invented, by Thomas Edison. In 1877. And patented, in 1878. The. Next, major technical, development, was the invention, of the gramophone disc in 1889. For. Much. Of the twentieth century, records, were the most common way of selling sound recordings. The. Widespread, availability of, records. And the development, of radio broadcasting. Enabled, a much larger, proportion of, people to listen to songs and, is performed, by the top artists, enabling, the development, of national, and even international, musical. Stars, in. The 1970s. The Compact, Cassette became. A major consumer, audio, format. Advances. In electronic. And mechanical, miniaturization. Led, to the development, of the Sony Walkman, a pocket-sized. Cassette, player introduced, in, 1979. Which, allowed consumers, to listen to their favorite albums, outside, of their home.
Topic. Electric. Instruments. Topic. Electric. Piano. An electric. Piano is, an electric, musical, instrument, which produces, sounds, when a performer presses. The keys of the piano style, musical, keyboard. Pressing. Keys causes, mechanical hammers. To strike metal, strings or tines leading, to vibrations. Which are converted, into electrical. Signals, by magnetic, pickups, which are then connected to an instrument amplifier. And loudspeaker. To make a sound loud enough for the performer, and audience to hear. Unlike. A synthesizer. The electric, piano is not an electronic, instrument. Instead. It is an electromechanical. Instrument. Some. Early electric, pianos, used lengths of wire to produce the tone like a traditional. Piano. Smaller. Electric, pianos, used short slivers, of steel metal, tines or short wires to produce the tone, the. Earliest, electric, pianos, were invented, in the late 1920s. The 1929. Neo, Bechstein, electric, grand piano, was among the first. Probably. The earliest stringless, model, was Lloyd Laws VB, tone clavier, a few. Other noteworthy, producers. Of electric, pianos, include, Baldwin, piano and organ company, in the Wurlitzer company. Early. Electric, piano, recordings, include, Duke Ellington's, in 1955. And sunrise, india as well as other tracks from the 1956. Sessions, included, on his second, album supersonic. Jazz AKA supersonic. Sounds, the. Popularity. Of the electric, piano began, to grow in the late 1950s. After, Ray Charles's. 1959. Hit record, what, did I say reaching. Its height during the 1970s. After which they were progressively, displaced, by more lightweight electronic. Pianos, capable, of piano, like sounds, without the disadvantages of, electric, pianos, heavy weight and moving mechanical, parts. Another. Factor, driving their development, and acceptance, was the progressive, electrification, of, popular, music and the need for a portable keyboard, instrument, capable of high volume amplification. Musicians. Adopted, a number of types of domestic electric, pianos, for rock and pop use. This, encouraged, their manufacturers. To modify, them for stage use and then develop, models primarily, intended, for stage use. Digital. Electronic. Stage pianos, have largely replaced, most of the original electromechanical. Instruments. In the 2000s. Due to the small size low, weight and versatility. Of digital, instruments, which can produce a huge range of tones besides, piano, tones eg, emulations. Of hammond organ sounds, synthesizer. Sounds, etc. However. Some, performers, still perform, and record with vintage electric, pianos. In. 2009. Fender, Rhodes produced. A new line of electromechanical. Pianos. Known as the Rhodes mark 7 followed by an offering, from vintage vibe. Topic. Electric. Guitar. An electric. Guitar is a guitar that uses, a pickup to convert the vibration, of its strings into electrical, impulses. The. Most common, guitar pickup, uses the principle, of direct, electromagnetic. Induction. The. Signal, generated, by an electric, guitar is too weak to drive a loudspeaker so, it is amplified before. Being sent to a loudspeaker. The. Output, of an electric, guitar is an electric, signal and the signal can, easily be altered by electronic. Circuits, to add color. To. The sound often, the signal is modified, using electronic. Effects, such as reverb and, distortion. Invented. In 1931. The, electric, guitar became a necessity as, jazz guitarists, sought to amplify, their sound in the big-band format. Early. Proponents. Of the electric, guitar on record, included, Les Paul Lonnie Johnson Sister. Rosetta Tharpe t-bone. Walker and Charlie, Christian. During. The 1950s. And 1960s the. Electric, guitar became the most important, instrument, in pop music, it. Has evolved, into an instrument, that is capable of a multitude of sounds, and styles, it. Served as a major component in the development, of electric, blues rock, and roll rock music and many other genres of music.
Electric. Guitar design, and construction, vary, greatly in, the shape of the body and the configuration. Of the neck bridge and pickups. Guitars. Have a fixed, bridge or a spring-loaded, hinge bridge that lets players Bend notes or chords up or down in pitch or perform a vibrato. The. Sound of a guitar can, be modified by new playing techniques, such as string bending tapping. Hammering, on using, audio feedback or slide, guitar playing, there. Are several types of electric, guitar including. The solid-body guitar various. Types of hollow body guitars, the seven string guitar which, typically, adds a low B string below, the low E and, the 12 string electric guitar, which has six pairs of strings. Popular. Music and rock groups often use the electric, guitar in two roles as a rhythm, guitar, which provides the chord sequence or progression, and sets the beat as part, of a rhythm section and as a lead guitar, which is used to perform melody. Lines melodic. Instrumental. Fill passages, and solos. Topic. Hammond, organ. The. Hammond organ is an electric, organ invented. By Lawrence Hammond, and John M Hannett and first manufactured. In 1935. Various. Models have been produced most, of which use sliding, draw bars to create a variety of sounds. Until. 1975. Hammond, organs generated, sound by creating, an electric, current from rotating, a metal tone wheel near an electromagnetic. Pickup. Around. 2 million hammond, organs have been manufactured. And it has been described, as one of the most successful organs. The. Organ, is commonly, used with and associated. With the Leslie speaker. The. Organ, was originally, marketed and sold by, the Hammond, organ company, to churches, as a lower-cost, alternative to, the wind-driven pipe, organ, or instead, of a piano, it. Quickly became, popular with professional. Jazz musicians, who founded, a cheaper, alternative to. The big-band, Jimmy. Smith's use of the hammond b-3 with. Its additional harmonic. Percussion, feature, inspired, a generation of. Organ players and its use became more widespread in, the 1960s. And 1970s in. Rhythm and blues rock, and reggae as well as being an important, instrument in progressive, rock. The. Hammond organ company, struggled financially during. The 1970s. As they abandoned, tone wheel organs and switched to manufacturing. Instruments. Using integrated. Circuits, these. Instruments, were not as popular with musicians, as the tone wheels had been and the company, went out of business in, 1985. The. Hammond name was purchased, by the Suzuki. Musical, instrument, corporation, which proceeded, to manufacture. Digital, simulations. Of the most popular, tone wheel organs, this. Culminated. In the production of the new, b3. In. 2002. Which provided, an accurate recreation, of the original b3. Organ using, modern digital technology. Hammond. Suzuki continues, to manufacture a variety of, organs, for both professional. Player and churches, other. Companies. Such as Korg Roland, and Claudia, have also achieved success in providing, emulations.
Of The original, tone wheel organs, the. Sound of a tone wheel Hammond can also be emulated, using modern software such, as Native, Instruments b4. Topic. Electric. Bass. The. Electric, bass or bass guitar, is a strength, instrument, played primarily, with the fingers, or thumb by plucking slapping. Popping, strumming. Tapping, thumping, or picking, with a plectrum often, known as a pick the. Bass guitar, is similar, in appearance and, construction, to an electric, guitar but with a longer neck and scale length and four to six strings or courses. The. 4 string bass by far the most common, is usually, tuned the same as the double bass which corresponds. To pitches, one octave, lower than, the four lowest pitched strings of a guitar e, a D, and G, the. Bass guitar, is a transposing. Instrument. As it is notated, in bass clef and octavia, than it sounds, as is the double bass to avoid excessive ledger, lines. Like. The electric, guitar the bass guitar, is plugged into an amplifier, and speaker, for live performances. Since. The 1960s. The bass guitar, has largely replaced the double bass in popular, music as the bass instrument, in the rhythm section. While. Types of bass lines vary, widely from one style of music to another the bassist, usually, fulfils a similar, role anchoring, the harmonic, framework, and establishing. The beat, many. Styles, of music utilize. The bass guitar, including. Rock metal pop, punk rock country reggae, gospel, blues and jazz. It. Is often a solo instrument, in, jazz jazz, fusion Latin. Funk, progressive. Rock and other rock and metal styles. Topic. Electric. Sound recording, and reproduction. Electric. Sound recording, and reproduction, are electrical. Or mechanical techniques. And devices for the inscription, and recreation. Of sound waves such, as spoken, voice singing. Instrumental, music or, sound, effects. Acoustic. Analog recording, is achieved, by a small, microphone, diaphragm, that can detect changes in, atmospheric pressure, acoustic. Sound waves and record, them as a graphic, representation. Of the sound waves on a medium, such as a phonograph, in which a stylus, senses, grooves on a record in magnetic, tape recording the, sound waves vibrate the, microphone, diaphragm and are converted, into a varying, electric, current which is then converted to a varying, magnetic field. By an electromagnet. Which makes a representation. Of the sound as magnetized, areas, on a plastic, tape with a magnetic, coating on it, analogue. Sound reproduction, is the reverse process with, a bigger loudspeaker. Diaphragm, causing changes. To atmospheric, pressure to form acoustic, sound waves. Electrically. Generated, signals, may also be recorded, directly from devices, such as an electric, guitar pickup, without the use of acoustic, sounds, or amplifiers, in the recording, process other, than the need for musicians to hear herself playing, during recording session. Topic. 4 autograph. The. First device that could record actual, sounds, as they passed through the air but could not play them back the. Purpose, was only visual study was the fan autograph, patented. In 1857. By Parisian, inventor, Edwin, Leon scott de martinville, the. Earliest, known recordings. Of the human voice of fern autograph, recordings, called, fern, or de grams made. In, 1857. They, consist, of sheets of paper with Soundwave modulated. White lines created, by a vibrating, stylus, that cut through a coating, of sorters the paper was passed under it. Topic. Phonograph. Topic. Phonograph. Cylinder. The. First practical, sound, recording, and reproduction, device, was the mechanical. Phonograph, cylinder, invented, by Thomas Edison. In, 1877. And patented, in 1878. The, invention. Soon spread across the globe and over the next two decades the, commercial, recording, distribution. And sale of sound, recordings, became a growing, new international. Industry with the most popular, titles selling, millions of units by the early, 1900's. The. Development. Of mass production, techniques enabled. Cylinder, recordings, to become a major new consumer, item in industrial. Countries, and the cylinder, was the main consumer, format, from the late 1880s, until, around 1910. Topic. Disc, phonograph. The. Next major technical, development. Was the invention of the gramophone disc generally, credited to Emile Berliner and commercially, introduced, in the United, States in 1889. Though, others had demonstrated, similar discs apparatus, earlier most notably, Alexander. Graham Bell in 1881. Discs. Were easier to manufacture, transport. And store and they had the additional, benefit, of being louder marginally.
Than Cylinders, which by necessity was. Single sided. Sales. Of the gramophone record, overtook, the cylinder, ca. 1910. And by the end of World War one the discs had become the dominant commercial. Recording, format, in. Various, permutations the. Audio disc format, became the primary medium, for consumer, sound recordings, until the end of the 20th, century, and the double-sided, 78. Revolutions per, minute shellac. Disc was the standard, consumer music, format, from the early 1910s. To the late 1950s. The. Long. Playing 33, one third of a revolution, per minute microgroove. Vinyl, record, or LP. Was. Developed, at columbia records and introduced, in 1948. The. Short playing but convenient, 7-inch, 45, revolutions per, minute microgroove. Vinyl, single, was introduced, by RCA, Victor, in 1949. In. The US and most developed countries, the two new vinyl formats, completely, replaced, 78. Revolutions per, minute shellac. Discs by the end of the 1950s, but in some corners of the world though, 78. Lingered. On far into the 1960s. Vinyl. Was much more expensive than shellac, one of several factors that made its use for 78, revolutions per, minute records. Very unusual, but with a long playing disc the added cost was acceptable, in the compact, 45. Format. Required, very little material, vinyl. Offered improved performance, both in stamping, and in playback, if, played with a good diamond stylus. Mounted, in a light wait pick up on a well-adjusted tone arm it was long lasting, if. Protected from, dust scuffs, and scratches there, was very little noise. Vinyl. Records, were over, optimistically. Advertised. As. Unbreakable. They. Were not but they were much less fragile than shellac, which had itself once been touted, as, unbreakable. Compared. To wax cylinders. Topic. Electrical. Recording. Between. The invention, of the phonograph in, 1877, and. The advent, of digital media arguably. The most important. Milestone in the history of sound, recording, was the introduction, of what was then called electrical. Recording, in which a microphone, was used to convert the sound into an electrical, signal that was amplified and used to actuate the recording, stylus. This. Innovation. Eliminated. The horn. Sound. Resonances. Characteristic. Of the acoustical, process, produced, clearer and more full-bodied, recordings, by greatly extending. The useful range of audio frequencies. And allowed, previously. Unrecorded or distant, and feeble sounds, to be captured. Sound. Recording, began as a purely mechanical process. Except. For a few crude telephone, based recording. Devices with, no means of amplification, such. As the Telegraph phone it remained so until the 1920s, when. Several recent radio related. Developments, in electronics, converged, to revolutionize. The recording, process. These. Included, improved, microphones. And auxiliary devices. Such, as electronic filters. All dependent, on electronic. Amplification, to, be of practical, use in recording. In. 1906. Lee de Forest, invented, the Audion, triode, vacuum tube. An electronic. Valve that could amplify weak, electrical, signals. By. 1915. It was in use in long-distance telephone, circuits. That made conversations. Between New York and San Francisco practical. Refined. Versions, of this tube with the basis, of all electronic. Sound systems, until the commercial, introduction, of the first transistor, based audio devices, in the 1950s. Topic. Magnetic. Tape. An important. Field of invention during, this period was the tape recorder. Magnetic. Tape recording uses. An amplified, electrical. Audio signal, to generate, analogous, variations. Of the magnetic, field produced by a tape head which impresses, corresponding. Variations. Of magnetization, on, the moving tape in. Playback, mode the, signal, path is reversed the tape head acting as a miniature electric generator, as the varyingly magnetized. Tape passes, over it magnetic, tape brought, about sweeping, changes, in both radio and the recording, industry. Sound. Could be recorded, erased, and re-recorded. On the same tape many times sounds, could be duplicated, from tape to tape with only minor loss of quality and recordings, could now be very precisely, edited, by physically, cutting the tape and rejoining it, within. A few years of the introduction. Of the first commercial, tape recorder, the. Ampex 200, model launched, in 1948. American. Musician, inventor, Les Paul had invented the first multitrack. Tape recorder. Assuring, in another technical, revolution, in the recording, industry, tape. Made possible, the first sound recordings, totally, created, by electronic. Means opening, the way for the bold sonic, experiments. Of the music, concrete, school and avant-garde, composers. Like Carl, Ames Stockhausen.
Which In turn led to the innovative, pop music, recordings, of artists such as Frank, Zappa, The Beatles and The Beach Boys. The. Ease and accuracy, of tape editing, as compared, to the cumbersome, disk to disk editing, procedures, previously, in some limited use together, with tapes consistently. Higher audio quality finally. Convinced, radio networks, to routinely pre record their entertainment. Programming, most of which had formerly, been broadcast. Live, also. For, the first time, broadcasters. Regulators. And other interested, parties, were able to undertake comprehensive, audio. Logging, of each day's radio, broadcasts. Innovations. Like multi-tracking, and tape echo allowed, radio, programs, and advertisements. To be produced, to a high level of complexity, and sophistication. The combined, impact with innovations, such as the endless loop broadcast, cartridge, led to significant. Changes in the pacing, and production, style of radio program, content, and advertising. Topic. Stereo. And high-five. Magnetic. Tape enabled. The development, of the first practical, commercial. Sound systems, that could record and reproduce, high fidelity, stereophonic. Sound, the. Experiments. With stereo, during, the 1930s. And 1940s, were, hampered by problems, with synchronization, a, major. Breakthrough, in practical. Stereo, sound was made by Bell Laboratories who. In 1937. Demonstrated. A practical, system of two-channel, stereo using. Dual optical, soundtracks, on film. Major. Movie, studios, quickly, developed, three track and four track sound systems, and the first stereo sound recording, for a commercial, film was made by Judy, Garland for, the MGM, movie listen, darling, in 1938. The. First commercially. Released movie, with a stereo, soundtrack, was Walt Disney's, Fantasia released. In 1940. The. 1941. Release of Fantasia, used the fan. To sound sound. System, this, system used, a separate film for the sound synchronized. With the film carrying, the picture, the. Sound film had four double-width optical, soundtracks, three for left center, and right audio and, a. Fourth as a control. Track. With three recorded, tones that controlled the playback volume of the three audio channels. Because. Of the complex, equipment this system, required, Disney, exhibited, the movie as a roadshow, and only in the United, States. Regular. Releases, of the movie used standard, mono optical, 35, millimetres, stock until, 1956. When Disney released the film with a stereo, soundtrack, that used the cinema. Scope for. Track magnetic. Sound system. Emmy. UK. Was the first company, to release commercial. Stereophonic. Tapes, they. Issued their first stereo. Sonic, tape in 1954. Others. Quickly followed, under the his master's, voice in, columbia, labels. 161. Stereo, sonic tapes were released mostly. Classical, music, or lyric recordings. RCA. Imported. These tapes into the you, to, track stereophonic. Tapes were, more successful, in America, during the second, half of the 1950s. They were duplicated. At real-time one-to-one. Or at twice the normal speed two-to-one, when later for track tapes were often duplicated at, up to 16, times the normal speed providing. A lower sound quality, in many cases. Early. American, two-track stereophonic. Tapes were, very expensive, a typical. Example is, the price list of the sanno tape westminster. Reels. $6.95. $11.95. And. $17.95. For the seven thousand nine thousand, and eight thousand, series respectively. Some. HMV, tapes released in the USA, also, cost up to fifteen dollars. Record. Company's mixed most popular, music, singles, into monophonic, sound, until, the mid 1960s. Then. Commonly, released major recordings. In both mono and stereo until, the early 1970s. Many. Sixties, pop albums, now available. Only in stereo, were originally, released only in mono and record, companies produced. The stereo. Versions. Of these albums, by simply, separating. The two tracks of the master, tape. Magnetic. Tape, transformed. The recording, industry by. The early, 1950s. Most, commercial, recordings, were mastered, on tape instead of recorded, directly to disc, tape. Facilitated. A degree of manipulation. In the recording, process that, was impractical. With mixers and multiple, generations, of directly, recorded, discs, an, early.
Example Is Les Paul's, 1951. Recording, of how high the moon on which Paul played eight overdubbed, guitar, tracks, in. The 1960s. Brian Wilson, of the Beach Boys, Frank, Zappa and the Beatles with producer, George Martin were, among the first popular, artists, to explore, the possibilities. Of multitrack. Recording, techniques, and effects on their landmark albums, Pet Sounds freaked-out and sergeant. Pepper's. Lonely, Hearts Club, Band. The. Compact, Cassette became. A major consumer. Audio format, and advances, in electronic. And mechanical, miniaturization. Led, to the development of the Sony Walkman, a pocket-sized. Cassette, player introduced, in 1979. The. Walkman, was the first personal, music, player and it gave a major boost to sales of pre-recorded cassettes, which, became the first widely successful release, format, that used a recordable. Medium, the vinyl record was a playback, only medium, and commercially, pre-recorded. Tapes for reel-to-reel tape, decks which many consumers. Found difficult, to operate were, never more than an uncommon, niche market, item. Topic. Timeline. 1874. Alicia Grey's musical. Telegraph. 1876. Alexander Graham. Bell completed, his designs, for the telephone. 1877. Thomas Edison, and Emile Berliner. Simultaneously. Invented, the first prototypes. Of the phonograph. 1888. Thomas, Edison, introduces, the electric, motor-driven phonograph. 1896. Edwin, s Votey completes, the first pianola. 1898. Valdemar Poulsen patents. The Telegraph own. 1906. Thaddeus, Cahill, introduces. The telharmonium to. The public. 1906. Lee deforest invented. The triode the first vacuum tube. 1910. Vladimir, Baranof, Rossing constructed, the piano, opto phonic. 1912. Major Edwin, F Armstrong, is issued a patent, for a regenerative, circuit making, radio reception, practical. 1915. Lee deforest created. The Audion, piano. 1917. Leon theremin invented. The prototype, of the turian. 1921. First commercial, AM radio broadcast. Made by KDKA, Pittsburgh. PA. 1926. Jorge maker presented. His electronic, instruments, in the Seraph online. 1927. Pierre Toulon, and Krug based invent, the cellular, phone. 1928. Rene bertrand, invents, the dinah phone. 1928. Fritz Fleur mer patents, a system, for recording on paper coated, with a magnetizable. Powdered, steel layer a, precursor. To tape. 1929, Nikolai, obukhov, commissioned, Mitchell Beloit and Pierre du Valley to design the sonorous cross. 1929. Pete Alerts and Bruno Helberg developed, the hellish in. 1930. Robert Hitchcock completes, the westinghouse organ. 1931. George, beauchamp the general, manager, of the national, guitar corporation, develops. The first electric, guitar. 1934. Lorenz Hammond created, the first Hammond, organ. 1935. Yamaha. Releases, magna organ, an early, electrostatic. Reed organ. 1935. Paul, taught mark invents, the electric, bass but the instrument, does not attract buyers until, Leo fender developed, the precision, bass in the 1950s. Topic. See, also. EBU. Fripp. Atronics. Gizmo. Tron. Move. Swinger. Prepared. Guitar. Tape. Loop. Third. Bridge.