Dr. Kyung Shin Kang: How engineering technologies rebuild your body
Thank, you for coming, tonight, this. Is our third lecture, this. Year for, the science and engineering lecture, series here at AU tonight. We have one. Of our new, faculty dr.. Chen Chen King is. From, well. He did, his, undergraduate. And graduate work in Korea but. We found him as a postdoc, at the IU School of Medicine, where, he was doing some biomedical, engineering, so. He's come to us he's. He's. In that first year faculty. Battle. Of trying to keep his head above water but he's doing a really nice job for, us and we're really glad he's here. He, and his lovely, wife have, a young son. Ian. Who just turned 3 and he's starting to talk and get himself into a lot of trouble I imagine a home so, tonight, let's, welcome dr.. Chen Chen Kang. Thank. You, as introduced. My, name is Kong Xin king and. Physical. Sciences, and engineering new. Faculty. Thank. You all for coming, today and listening. My talk. I. Want. To start just warning you since. English, is my not, native speaking language. So, if you don't understand help, each other have. Neighbors, okay and then still. You don't understand don't, hesitate to interrupt me so, so that I can explain, rephrase one more time okay. I started, my, professional career, here, as a, assistant. Professor, last. Year. Yeah. And I. Don't. See it after will destroy, here but I. Realize. I rely, on dr., Troy for. A little bit of everything. The. Other day we. Talked about retirement. Sirree, yes seriously. I just hired and we're. Interested, in retirement, there. Are many reasons for, that and. Not. Only financial, aspect but also we. Know that we are going to live long, than my parents generation. That's, because, I think thanks, to the advance, in engineering. Technology to. Help in here. All. The issues in our body so. I want to talk about how. Engineering, technologies, are, contributing. Medical. Applications. And how, it. Contributing. To. Increasing. Your lifespan. So. Sometimes. Life, is not easy bad, things happen to you right. This. Is an example dislocating. One or more of. Your body. Part or. You. May have job related, injuries. Or owned, or. You. May have serious. Disease so. That you may have to replace one of your organs, or tissues, right. This. Is one, of typical examples, that restore. The, function of. Lower. Limbs and others. This. Is called pressure at the first time an African American, to become US, Navy master diver I don't know how many are. Aware. Of this man but. The. Story was filmed, in, 2000. At the man of honor and. He. Became master diver despite. Having a left MP, jet lag, isn't. It amazing this, is pretty inspiring. To, me and. A. Lot of people are dreaming of having robotic. Arms and robotic, eyes. To. Have. Better. Life right. So. Probably, this is it shows a future. Of our, biomedical. Applications. Of engineering, and. This. Men. Have. Left. By. Only i right. Arm, and both. Legs are replaced. By robotic, legs. So that he can run more than 60.
Miles For an hour. Let's. Take a look at current status, of Technol, each. This. Is a. Few. Hair am. I pronouncing right q hair yeah. Here at biomechatronics. Group. At MIT. He. Was one, of top, rock, climbers at, the age of 17 but, because. Of Syria. Syria severe. First. Bite he lost both legs below. The knee so, he. Had to develop. His own prosthetics. To overcome. The limitation, so, that. So. This is his. Own invent. Invention. So, now. He is able to. Extend. His legs, also. He can crime eyes. Very. Easily, so. Let's take a look at his interview, my. Research group here at MIT has a long history of innovation what we developed, an artificial, knee to be used by people that are amputated above the knee that, has a brain it's able to sense its environment so, it Otto adapts, as a person, moves it figures, out how, to modulate its own resistance to enhance the biomechanics. Of its where we've. Developed, a combining, foot, ankle device this, is the first prosthesis, in, history, that's, power that emulates, lost muscle function with this it, actually injects, energy into. The walking a running gait within. Minutes, often a person can, walk normally, and says to us I have my body back I have my life back here. At MIT were advancing, the fundamental. Interfaces. Between, the human body and. The, built design world. Electrical. Interface is mechanical. Dynamic, you're. Developing the, fundamental. Building blocks, for the elimination of, human, disability, so. I just love. - signing bonus, I love every. Few months upgrading. My own legs so I have better balance, I can move faster, it's interesting because my, biological body as I age gets worse and worse due, to age-related generation. But the artificial part of my body gets, better in time so. I predict, when I'm 80 years old my balance will be better than an 18 year old did. You just hear that his, buyers biological. Body is degenerating. While. His, amputate. Robotic. Legs are updating. Isn't. It amazing. Yeah. By. The way how. Much do you think it cost per leg. 10,000. Actually. Roughly. $50,000. Per leg. Okay. Still. Is this is cheapest, one among leg arm and eyes. So. This is an example of Bionic prosthetic arms, there, are multiple, cases that, received. This. Kind, of robotic arms actually. The. Amputation, sites can, send.
Some Sort of neural signal to the robotic, arms. So. These. Guys have a lot of sensors on, their. Amputation. Site and then, the. Intention, from the brain can, be transmitted, to the, robotic, arm too so that a robotic arm can. Interpret, it into. A motion. So. Both arms, are I don't, know how many heavy. How. Many of you guys have seen the apex robot in engineering. Center but that, robot. Has a six degrees. Of freedom for. Each arm that means seven. Different joints each arm. Each. Arm, over there has more than 30 degrees, of freedom. Means 30. Different actuators. Mimicking. The, arm motion does, it make sense it's. More complicated. Structure. How. Many how. Much do you think he costs. 35. 40. I. Won't. Hire. Half. A million actually. Each. Arm. So. This, is last one the I, take. A look at the eyeball, here, do. Not take a look at this eyeball the electrode, array. Over there the, eyeball is just support. This. Man has a, McHugh. Neural degeneration, leading. To total loss of his central vision so. From. The classiest he's wearing. There. Is a camera so camera, can capture. Some sort of image II and then. Here's. A transmitter. So, that the. Imagery, from the camera can, be transmitted, wirelessly, to. The electrode, array. That. Was implanted on. His retina. It. Doesn't give a full, vision, like we see, however. Using. This technology, take, he. Now, is available to, see recognize. Just a, blood. Shape. Of the door window, so, that he can walk without any. Assistant. Now. It. Costs, 150. Thousand. Dollars. Whatever. Internal organs. Can. You recognize, this picture. As. A punishment. Yeah, Prometheus, as a, punishment are full, keeping humanity, the, secret of fire he. The. Prometheus, of Greek, mythology, was. Chained to a rock. Where. An eagle would. Eat his liver here. Each. Day and, every. Night is liver. Regenerate. Himself, so. That, starting. The, torturous. Cycle, over and over does, it make sense. So. This. May sound like ancient. Version of a horrible movie but. Actually it, it's interestingly. Consistent. With actual. Human physiology, that means, your, liver can. Regenerate itself. Even. Though you are alcohol, abused or, medicine. Abused you. Liver can, regenerate itself, isn't, it interesting and. Also. That means you can donate, up to sixty percent of your liver to. Other people so. Over, time your, liver will be. Back. To, the original size. So. This, is from statics. Statics. Take. A look at this gap between the, number, of waiting lists and then. Number, of donors see. Over time the gap is growing up gradually. And, now. 116,000, people are waiting in, 20. People dying. Each day waiting. For the organ. Donation and. Only. Three in thousand, people, died. In a way that allows for, organ donation, so. Without. Any other help it's. Going to be more severe than, before. Then. Why, do we have to wait for the organ donation where, is the reason. Any idea. Why. Do we have to wait for organ, donation, if we lose some, sort of function of one, of our organs. Because. Organ. Do. Not grow on trees. So. It's not possible you cannot order your, internal organ whenever you need from Amazon, right. Or. Some. Some people can say that we are different from. XLR. Oh. We're. Who. Wrote, that I. Have, mastered, the, regenerating. Skills, - protection, so. Even though it loses, one. Of its arm, you. Can restore, it back. But. We are not.
We. Don't have that kind of ability right. So. Certainly, scientists. Engineers and medical doctors have. Been trying to close. The gap between the waiting list number of waiting list and the actual transplant. Number. And. World. Of technology, is that making, artificial, organs, this. Is an example about long, artificial. Lung, so. As. Our long does it, this, device mimics. The. Changing. Carbon. Dioxide, from your plot for. The frosh a fresh oxygen, from, the air. The. Problem, is that this. Is huge. This. Is the device so. It's not implantable. It's not ready yet. It's. Too big. But. Someday, in the future it, may be possible because. The. Any of the first computer. Developed. In, 1940s. At. You pain. This. Was room. Sized, now. You carry, a smartphone much faster than this. ENIAC, so. Someday, we. Are going to have really small artificial, long. This. Is. An example of world, only. Fda-approved artificial. Heart device. So. When he first came out. 2002. Maybe. For. The. Driving unit was a 400-pound. So. It's not possible, to. Move around with that driving. Unit right but. Now, the. Second version is. This. Size. So. It's getting better. But. Still there is a gap between. The. The, actual, organ, and then artificial, organ. Maybe. That's why people are, thinking of having their own clone. So. Whenever, they. Warn a certain. Body part or internal, organ taking, harvest, from their own, clone. Right. Does. It sound horrible. Maybe. A few McCullen is not, legal. Or ethical, but. There, are some researches, are going on about the, possibilities. Using. Animal, as a, testbed. Or flatworm or some. Sort of clone, so. This is an example in. 1997. We, call this 20, mouse because, the doctors and brothers patanti, at Harvard University, developed. This, model. So. They. Fabricated. Some. Sort of ear shape mode with, biodegradable. Degradable. Material, and then, they seeded, cow. Derived, country. Sites on top. Of that scaffold, and then, implant. It on. Back of the mouse. So. This, is. The. Most first, trier. Partition. Janee ring and, for. The internal, organ, case, now. We, have technology, to grow. Fatal, kidney, in bread or, Mouse or, those. Animals. So. I want to introduce the. Concept of tissue engineering. By. The definition by the Langer doctors Langer. And Ponte, it. Says. Interdisciplinary. Field that applies the principles, of engineering, and. The, life. Sciences, toward, the development of, biological. Substitutes that. Restore, maintain, or improve function. Or whole organ. And. There. Are many, different definitions but, the, concept, is this. Is an engineering, as the. Name implies tissue, engineering, actually. This is multidisciplinary, field. Combining. All the mechanical, electrical material. Engineering sciences. And then, medical. Field a lot. Of different areas are combined, in this field. So. PES concept, is on, your right. So. To. Avoid, the, email reader senses immune, rejection response, in your body when, it is implanted, it's, critical, to start using. Your own cells and, then. Expanding. Expanded. Until. You have enough number of cells and then. You. May add. Biomolecules. And sales. On, 3d. Structures, we call scaffold, and then. Grow for. Some time to. Mature and then, implant, it in your body that's. A basic concept of tissue engineering. There. Are, four. Different categories to, describe engineering. Complexity. It, starts with flat. Tissue structures, here, such. As cornea, and cubular, structures. Trachea. And hollow, viscus structures, bladder in, solid. Organs like kidney, it. Sounds, like it's. Very hard to engineer. These solid. Organs, and then, the flat tissue structures, but, believe me these. Are all same, our. Organs. Are very difficult to. Regenerate, the, is that. For. Example the Cunha it seems pretty. Simple structure, right just. Sales some, sort of blood passers and simple. Corner, structures, but. Nobody. Ever. Engineered. Perfect. Cunha, ever. So. The, flat tissue structures is not easy. To, my knowledge this is the first. Engineered. Internal. Organ bladder, at. Wake Forest University, so. What, they did was. Fabricating. And Pilatus shape biodegradable. Structures, and then. Patient's. Own cells. They. Seeded them on top of this, brevis, shape scaffold. And after. Growing over, time they. Implanted. Into, seven. Different patients. And the. Result was pretty, good there. Was no mucus production I'm. Sorry because production, was normal, and then, urinary. Calculi. Was. Sort of okay but. Almost. No form no, forming and the. Reader a function, was preserved, and then, PI option shows that the. Structural architecture was, really, good and phenotypes. Was almost. Perfect. To, the original, planner. This. Is another example of trachea. In. Spain 2008. This. Surgeon. Tried. To engineer, patient. Dr trekkers. So. Let's take a look at this movie clip, showing. How they, perform. To. Replace the trachea, so. This lady had. Some. Sort of clogged. Airway. So. The left one was collapsed, so, the. Only way to replace, it is to. Replace the trachea to restore. The lung function, so.
From The cadaver. They, take they took out, the. Whole, trachea. Part and then. They. Removed, all the, dead. Cells because, they can intrigue. The. Immune system in rejection response and. Then. They took out, the. Bone marrow stromal cells, in epithelial. Cells, and contra, sites and seeded, on top of the. Stripped. Out. Trachea. Construct. And then, in a bioreactor they, cultured it and, they. Over time they. Shaped. To. Fit into. The patient. And. Then. Finally, it was implanted. Into. The defect site. Unfortunately. The. Result was not good even, though it was published in a very famous. Professional, journal lancet. The. Result was failed, because. Of the side effect of some. Sort of implanted. Trachea. But. Their surgeon, had, performed, same. Procedure into. 17. Different patients. And. He. This boy is one of them and luckily, he, got, no. Immune, rejection know. Any. Other side effect, so it seems protect, to him so, the. End tissue engineering technology, is not perfect yet, so. It's case-by-case, patient. To patient so. We, should be careful to, using those technologies yet. Let's. Tie it into tissue engineering for more. Details. Actually, the tissue engineering will relies, on three, different. Factors. Cells. Signals. And scaffold. Cells. Our basic. Building unit right sailors. Can secret, extracellular, matrix, s so, eventually, they. Can build new organ, over. Time the. Scaffold, is 3d, structure. Because. Our. Body. Is three-dimensional. Shape not, Sarah. In a petri dish right they. Need some sort of micro environment, so, we have to provide some sort of scaffold. And then. Signors can. Order. Cells do, this do that go, this way go that way something, like that so. This can be chemical, signals, or physical, same signals. So. Let's take a look at cell briefly. So. As, I mentioned, earlier to build your own organ, it's. Critical, to use your own cells so, the, first step starts with. Harvesting. Your own cells. Depending. On the, internal organ what that. You need and. A. Lot of differences can be used precursors, in. Like. A four-point, generation. You, can use a boom forming osteoblasts, or you, can use stem cells. Stem. Cells have a, very, unique property like, self, renewal, which is great in it. Can be differentiated into, so many different lineages, this, is an example of adult. Mech mesenchymal, stem cells it, can be differentiated like. Fat. Tissue cells, and bone, tissue cells cartilage. Cells neuron. Cells and muscle. Cells but. The problem. Is we, don't have full, control on the. Differentiation. Lineage, yet so. It is promising, however. It's still risky to, use. So. Let's take a look at the signal part as I, said the, signals a traditional, signals can be just. Biomolecules. Such as growth factors. However. Nowadays many. People found that micro. Environment, surrounding, the cells and then. Physical. Stimuli. Is also. Important, so. This. Is a found, finding. From. One of Mechanical Engineers at, University. Of Pennsylvania. He, found that. The. Matrix. Stiffness can. Potentially. Regulate, cellular. Activities. Does. It make sense. So. Let's. Take a look at this. So. They, he. Prepared, three, different types of matrix stiffness one, soft, which, is similar, to brain. And. Second. One is in, a mediate soft matrix. Which is similar to our muscle, and third. One is hard. Matrix. Which, is similar to bone and he. Seeded same. Type, of human. Mesenchymal stem cells. And. Then. He. Observed different. Morphology, so. In soft tissue and, in. A millions of, matrix. And hard. Matrix. Without. Any chemical, treatment. The. How rigid it is can, induce. Different. Differentiation. Does it make sense to you so. Take, a look at this picture. So. Tubulin, is a brain. Specific, marker so. When. The step mesenchymal, stem cell turned into neuron. Cells they expressed tubulin. Take. A look at that, so. Only soft matrix. Are only, cells grown in grown. On soft matrix. Expresses. Tubulin. Which means, they turned into neuron, cells but, not from intermediate, in hard, matrixes. My. OD is most, specific marker. That. Is expressed. Only, intermediate. Matrix, stiffness, case. And both. Specific markers, was expressed, only hard. Matrix. So. That, means our, DeSales. Micro. Environment is really critical. To. Their cellular, activities. So. These foundings. Was. Led to a lot of different areas including. Computational. Analysis, so. For. Example our, all. Cells. Are exposed. To different types of. Physical, stimuli for, example you. We have blood. Circulation, all the time right, so, naturally, the. Internal. Surface. Of our blood, vessels, are exposed, to continuous. Shear. Stress. Also. As I, walk like this my. Lower limbs are exposed. To cyclic. Compression, and tension right. That. Means my, bone cells are experiencing. Compression. And tension, continuously.
As I walk my. Lumbar spine experiences. Continuous. Compression. Because, of my body weight. So. Using. This computational. Simulation. We can mimic or. We, can, predict. First, how. How. Much magnitude. Our cells are experiencing, those, mechanical, stimuli and then, we can recreate. The. Same environment, in vitro. So. These, are, examples. Of. Imaging. Technologies, so, and thanks to the advancing, imaging, technologies, we. Can have now very, accurate. MRI. And CT data right so, from, those informations. We, can personalize. Those. Simulation. Result and. Also. We can use that. Information, when. We design, three. Structures, I. Don't. Know how many of. You can. Recognize these two companies but, these companies two, companies, are famous. For. Selling. Traditional. Universal. Testing machine means. They. Usually. Sells, testing. Machines but. Nowadays they. Use their, skills. To, into. A different area so that they. They, now sell. Bioreactors. So, that researchers. Can grow. Patient. Specific. Constructs. In. Their bioreactors. Not, only compression, tension ensure, stress and that, does, exist, our party system but, also. Extra. Like. Non biomimetic, stimuli, such, as ultrasound. And electromagnetic. Field can. Be utilized, to manipulate. Sales activity, this, is an example about, electromagnetic. Field so, this. Group uses. Adult. Mesenchymal stem cells and then. Stimulate. With, a electromagnetic. Field time, varying electromagnetic. Field, if. You take a look at these two graphs you. Can notice that and depending, on the frequency and. The, poor specific, markers. Expression. Is different and. This. Wrong too is another bone specific, marker early stage marker, and. Depending. On the frequency they. Have now different, expressions, that, means without, any chemical, treatment. The. Non, bio romantic stimuli, still, can. Regulate. Cellular. Activities, so, that we can, treat. Patients. Even. Outside the. Body. Some. People say, that we. Are not God we. Can create. Exactly. Our particles. So. Some. People try to use, our party, system, as a bioreactor, we, call that in vivo bioreactor. So. So. Instead of using, in, vitro bioreactor. That I just introduced, they, use. Patient's. Own body, to. Regenerate. The. Tissue for, example if. I let's. Say I have defect on my tibia, here and. I need my own bone. And, doctor. Is trying, to grow my power, of tibia into. On. My hip or spine, somewhere, else, does. It make sense. So. This is an example for bone regeneration. They. Try to make. Some space between the periosteum which is a thin layer on, your bone and, the. Tibia bone here. So. They create some sort of. Space. In between them and, then. They injected, hydrogel, to. Maintain, that, space and. Then. Close. That, the. Periosteum here, and then. Let it grow over. Time. They. Have, newborn. Because. Periosteum, is full of fibroblasts, and stem. Cells. So. That those, host body cells can migrate into. The hydrogel, and then, they form, newborn. So. This is histology. So. This was original, bone original, cortical bone of Tibia and this, is bone marrow part and. This. Means inside, this. Is outside. So. If you take a look at that part called. Bioreactor. You can see coracle. Lamellar. Reuven, bones which, is typical type of bones. So. Eventually, they. Were able to take this a new, bone here. Implanted. Into the, defect site and. Observed. A great wizard. So. Last factor. Is scaffold. So. This is an old way to fabricate. 3 3. D poor, scaffold, so, after, mixing salt. And polymer. After. Solidifying. You. Can immerse it into in the water so. That salt, can. Dissolve in the water right, that. Means. The. Place where the salt was. Now. It becomes, empty. Space means, pores. So. This, scanning, electron microscopy.
Images. Shows that. Where. The sort was and now, it became. The. Poor the the, problem is that. These. Pores, pore, sizes pore. Size is not that, much controllable. And also. Lara. Pores are not we're. Interconnected, each other so. Sailors, cannot, grow, into, very well. And. Thanks. To the advantage. Advanced. In three, 3d. Printing, now. We. Are able to fabricate, a patient specific and we're, in a connected and 3d structures. So. That movie, shows. Basic. Layer. By layer process, of 3d printing so, as you know that, becomes. Line line. Becomes, area, and area, becomes, finally, volume, right. So. Eventually we are able. To fabricate, 3d, structures, like that the, beauty is that from. The Imaging's. Like, MRI, and CT we. Can have patient, specific, structures. Like this. So. This is an example about. 3d. Printing. Based. Scaffold. And. Good. One. Of our the bandages, is that we can now incorporate. Cross. Factors this. PN P stands. For poorer for genetic, protein to which is critical, for bone regeneration and. This. Can be incorporated, into 3d. Structures, in. Microspheres. Here. So that it can the scaffold can release, a. Sustainability. They. Can. Release. On PMB to overtime as the. Graph shows. And. This. Is typical example, of how we test. Bone. Regeneration using. Red or mouse, models. So. We create a hole here, on the cranial side and. If the defect. Site is greater than in certain limit for example red, if. Fred, has. Defect. Eight millimeter, in diameter then. The pool and regeneration, cannot. Be observed over time. So. If. We don't, put. Anything then, of course there is no bone, regeneration, this. Is salt, reaching. Scaffold. And just. 3d printed scaffold, in bmp-2. Religion. 3d. Printed scaffold, of course the, last one shows the the, faster, point of regeneration, the. Reason, we have bones when, the parameter is that. They. Didn't see the stairs on the scaffold, so, that, means the host cells are. Migrated. Into the defect, site from. The neighboring pond and, formed. New. Ponds. So. Thanks to the. 3d printing, technology. Now, people. Can fabricate all. Parts. Of human. Body so. Ears nose, and, skull. And. Limbs. But. Don't, be fooled this. Is not fully, functional yet, this. Is just structures. Here's. Another example of, a skin printer, at Wake Forest University.
I'll. Say this is more like moving. Spray and on. The inside they. Use. Biomolecules. And. Biomaterials. And cells, all, together, and then, spray, over the defect site after. Scanning the defect, depth and size, over, overall size, and. They claim that this is this method is 2 times faster, than, traditional. Skin. Skin. Graft. And this, was funded by a. Department. Of Defense, so. It was pretty big project, but as, he said it's a very, very early stage of, prototype. This. Man is Anthony, Atala the. Director of Wake. Forest Institute for, regenerative. Region. Regenerative. Medicine and. In. 2011. He, showed 3d. Printed, platter in TED, talk. But. This, was not fully functional this, this. Was this. Is the guy who made, the first player in the world and he. Engineered. More than 15 different organs, at Wake. Forest University, but. As. I mentioned this, is really. Really early stage of, tissue. Engineering so. Even though you see. Pleather. Like. Structures. Don't. Believe that it's fully functional. So. Another people, claim, that no. Matter how many, how. Good quality, we have for the biomaterials. And growth factors and cells we, are not able to mimic. The. Nature of our organ, structures, so, some people have. Been trying to use, the. Own, tissues. So. This is an example of red heart. They. -. In, order to transplant. One. Red. Heart, into, another red. They. T, cellular. Eyes all, the. Cells from. The donors heart. So. As you can see over time the. Color is changing. To white, because. There's no blood no, cells the. Histology shows, is. Almost nothing, and. This is. The. Heart. Specific, marker. Expressing. In cell, as you, can see, these. Two, are before. The cellular ization. And these two are showing. The after the cellular ization so. The, blue dots are tapi. That. You can stain. On. Your own, cells nuclei. If. There is no therapy, means that there's no cells nuclei means. The sails are stripped off and. They. Seeded the. Patient's, own cells, can. You see that it's speeding. That's. That building is of just nature, of heart, cells, so. Even. Though it's peeling it looks like peeling is, not fully functional yet, so. The cellular, ideation, is more, like this to. Stripping of all, cells from. The donors the. Organ. The reason. We do this is that. Liver. Or liver, has. Its own structure heart, has its own structure and bone, has, its own structure right. So. So, since it is very hard to mimic those structural. Architecture, we. Just want, to use. Donors. Own, structures. This, is our main source to induce. Immune. Rejection in, your, host body, so. If, we get rid of all the cells then, there must be. Ideally. No. Immune. Rejection, so. This work has been done in Wake Forest University the, this, is. Liver. And this, is before the cellular ization you can see it's red in. Moderate. Treatment, and, after. Getting rid of all the plot it, looks less red, after. All the entire process it. Looks right now and. You. Can see through. The fluorescence microscope. All. The vascularized, networks. Are intact. And. They. Seeded. The, patient's, own cells on the structure, and, then. They saw. The, hepatic. Unique structures the, Libra must be, hexagonal. Structures and they. The. Patient drivers. Started. Forming, the, subunit structures like that. And. Now. Those. Decellularized. Motors. Are printable. So. From. Cartilage. Kish hard, tissue and poor tissue and, we. Can delete, or. Get, rid of all the cells, as. You can see there is no DNA at all meaning. There's. No cells. And. You. Can make it as, a hydrogel, material. And, then. You can print it as a structure. The, reason, people use this. Kind of poly polymer. Base frame, is that, this. Type of hydrogel. Material, is not rigid enough so. That they cannot maintain their, own 3d, structures. So. Still. We need. We. Have a lot of things to overcome. Technically. And. A. Company, in, Japan is trying to make. Scaffold. Free structures. Only. From the extracellular matrix from. The surface so starting. From obtaining. Sphere. Like I'm cell, aggregates like, this. The. Robot arm. Can. Manipulate those. Aggregates. Into. The, needle, array here. So. That eventually they, form 3d structures, and, since. They are individual. Aggregates, they are not corrected. Each other yet so, over time they. The, two cells secrete, their own extracellular. Matrix, and eventually. They will combine, together, so. Eventually. They. Were, able to get these, 3d, structures, without. Using, any foreign. Materials. The tissue engineer plays and plays a significant. Role, however. It is a very small role in patient.
Treatment So. Far. The. Player and skin. Graft and some. Of college trachea. Have, been implanted in, patient. And, some of us some. Of worst, successful. Some of Nod and. More. Complex tissues, like heart long. Kidney. Were. Recreated. In the lab setting, successfully. However. We. Are away, from being more fully. Reproducible. Those, complex, tissues. However. These. Kind of tissue. Structures, can be quite useful in research. Especially. A drug, development. And drug, screening. So. Well. Carnival is one of pioneering, 3d bioprinting, company, now. They. Are offering. Testing. Solution platform. Like. Giving, some. Sort of tissue a small, tissue construct. So. That researchers. Can test. Their, own drugs. Or, toxicity from the food, I. Have. Another example. Organ. On a chip the, lung-on-a-chip. Is a micro device that has the potential to replace animals. For the testing of drugs and toxins, the. Device which, is lined by human cells mimics. The mechanical, and chemical functions. Of a living breathing lung. With. Every breath air enters the lungs filling, and expanding, microscopic, air sacs, oxygen. Is transferred, across lung, and capillary, cells and into the bloodstream this. Is also where aerosol, drugs are absorbed, and where infections, and tumors form, in the lung, the. Lung on a chip is crystal clear flexible. And about the size of a small computer, memory stick. But. It contains tiny hollow channels, created, using microchip, fabrication, techniques. A porous. Flexible, membrane, separates, the two channels, at the center of the device. The. Opposite sides of the membrane are lined by human lung and capillary, blood vessel cells this. Mimics, the arrangement, of lung and blood vessel cells in the air sac of the lung. Application. Of cyclic suction and side channels, makes the entire flexible. Sheet and cells stretch, and relax rhythmically. Just, like our lung cells do when we breathe in, the. Lung-on-a-chip device, air flows over the top of the human lung cells, and a liquid medium containing human white blood cells flows below, the capillary, cell layer to.
Test How well the lung-on-a-chip, device, replicates, the natural responses, of living lungs we introduced bacteria, into the air channel, to mimic an infection, and. We introduced, white blood cells to the blood channel we, then saw the white blood cells migrate. Across the capillary cell layer through. The pores of the central membrane and into, the airspace where they engulfed the bacteria. Here's. A video that shows this response, in real-time viewed. Through the device the. Tissue cells are not visible here but we can see white blood cells flowing freely, in the capillary, channel of the device just, as they do in blood vessels of, a healthy person but. When. We infect the air channel by adding bacteria the, immune cells have broadly stick to the surfaces, of the capillary, cells on the opposite, side of the membrane located. Directly below, the infection, site. Here's. A magnified, view showing a migrating, white blood cell making, its way through the first capillary, cell layer wriggling. Through the pentagonal hole, and the flexible, membrane and then moving out of focus to the other side. When. Viewed from the air channel, with all cells, visible, you can see a round white blood cell popping, up from below, just. Like in a real lung infection, the white blood cells which, are now colored red and Delft, and killed the Queen bacterial. Invaders. The. Lung-on-a-chip can, also mimic the toxic, effects, of airborne, nanoparticles on. The lung in fact. Experiments. With the device led to the prediction that breathing, increases, their absorption, into the blood stream and this, has been confirmed in animal, studies, bio-inspired. Micro, devices that can mimic whole human, organ function such as the lung-on-a-chip could. Potentially, replace animal testing, and bring new therapies to patients faster, and at lower cost in the future. So. This, kind of device has a lot of different names you can put your organs, name in, front of on a chip, so. This was long on a chip you can make heart, on a chip bone. On a chip, brain. On a chip so so. Far we, have more. Than 15 different, organs. On a chip in. The world including. Eye. Presenta.
And. Uterus. Which. Mimicking, woman's. Period, of 28 days. So. It. Also has different names like, some, people call it human ownership, patient. On a chip or. Lot. Of different names or human. Emulation. System, something. Like that and. This. Was possible, thanks. To the micro, fabrication technology. Just, like, semiconductor. Production, so. So. This, is, basically. Layer by layer bonding. Fabrication. In. Now. People are trying to integrate. Multiple. Organ, on chips in one. Single system so, that we can test. Toxicity. In the food cosmetic. And dietary. Supplements, or something like that and. This. Can be personalized, because, it. Uses patient's, own cells. That. Means also. We. Can create if, let's, say you have brain tumor and I, was told that. A. Lot of different combinations, of medication. Are out there for brain tumor in. Each. Patient, have have each, patient's, have. Respond, responses. From. The medication. So. If. You can create your, own, tumor. Model. Several. Of them you. Can test different drug. Competitions, right, before. Treating, yourself. So. Since. This is very promising research, area. Major. Government. Funding. Agencies, such, as NIH. And FDA. Are. Playing, a leading. Role in, this research area for. Example last year FDA. Announced, that. Multi-year. Research, and development, agreement, with accord, with. A company, called. Emulate. Here. Which. Is a sub company, at Harvard University, where, the longer chip was developed. The. The goal is that to. Integrate, more. Than ten. Individual. Organ. On a chip in a single system. So. With that let, me summarize, my. Talk. So. There, are certain. Situations. Where you need to replace your own. Tissues, and organs and, thanks. To the robot arms now, you. Can have better. Mobility. And. Thanks. To the computational. Simulation. Techniques. Now. We can predict. Patient's. Own. Situations. In. The, body. And. It, can be recreated, in vitro. Also. Imaging, technologies, enabled. Us to, mimic.
Patient's, Own. Structures. And. With. Micro fabrication, technologies. Now. We, can. Personalized. Medicines. In. Lastly. 3d. Printing, 3d, bio printers, can. Eventually. Enable. Us to have, our own. Doctors, depending. On the size and. Sight. Or. Weird effect. That's. It.