Computing technology | Wikipedia audio article
Computing. Is any activity, that uses computers, it, includes, developing, hardware, and software and, using computers, to manage and process information, communicate. And entertain. Computing. As a critically, important, integral, component, of modern industrial, technology. Major. Computing. Disciplines, include, Computer Engineering software. Engineering. Computer Science Information Systems, and information, technology. Topic. Definitions. The, ACM, computing curricula. 2005. Define. Computing. As follows. In a general, way we, can define computing. To mean any goal-oriented. Activity. Requiring. Benefiting. From or creating, computers. Thus. Computing. Includes, designing. And building hardware, and, software systems. For, a wide range of purposes, processing. Structuring. And managing, various, kinds, of information doing. Scientific. Studies, using computers, making, computer, systems, behave, intelligently. Creating. And using, communications. And entertainment media, finding. And gathering, information, relevant, to any particular purpose. And so on the. List is virtually. Endless and the possibilities. Are vast. And it defines five sub disciplines of the computing, field computer, science, Computer Engineering Information. Systems, information. Technology, and software engineering. However, computing. Curricula, 2005. Also recognizes. That the meaning of computing. Depends. On the context. Computing. Also, has other meanings that are more specific based, on the context, in which the term is used for. Example an information. System specialist. Will view computing, somewhat, differently, from a software, engineer. Regardless. Of the context, doing computing, well can be complicated. And difficult, because. Society, needs people to do computing, well we must think of computing, not only as a profession. But also as a discipline. The. Term, computing. Has. Sometimes been narrowly, defined, as in a 1989. ACM. Report, on computing, as a discipline. The discipline, of computing, as the systematic, study of algorithmic, processes, that describe, and transform, information their theory analysis. Design, efficiency. Implementation. And application. The. Fundamental. Question underlying. All computing, is what. Can be efficiently. Automated. The term, computing. Is also. Synonymous with, counting, and calculating. In earlier. Times it was used in reference to the action, performed by, mechanical, computing, machines, and before, that to human computers. Topic. History. The, history, of computing, is longer, than the history of computing, hardware, and modern computing, technology. And includes the history of methods intended, for pen and paper or for chalk and slate with or without the aid of tables. Computing. Is intimately, tied to the representation. Of numbers but. Long before abstractions. Like the number of rows there were mathematical. Concepts, to serve the purposes, of civilization. These. Concepts. Include one-to-one.
Correspondence The, basis, of counting, comparison. To a standard used, for measurement, and the three four five right triangle, a device, for assuring, a right angle. The. Earliest known tool, for use in computation. Was the abacus, and it was thought to have been invented in Babylon, circa, 2400. BC, its. Original, style of usage, was by lines drawn, in sand, with pebbles a, basi. Of a more modern design are, still used as calculation. Tools today, this. Was the first known calculation. Aid preceding. Greek methods, by 2,000. Years the, first. Recorded, idea of using digital electronics. For computing, was the 1931. Paper, the, use of thyratrons. For, high speed automatic. Counting, of physical, phenomena. By. Seee wynn Williams, Claude. Shannon's. 1938. Paper a symbolic. Analysis. Of relay and switching, circuits, then. Introduced, the idea of using electronics. For boolean algebraic. Operations. Topic. Computer. A computer. Is a machine that manipulates, data according. To a set of instructions. Called a computer program, the. Program has an executable, form, that the computer, can use directly, to execute, the instructions. The. Same program, in its human readable, source code form enables, a programmer, to study and develop a sequence, of steps known as an algorithm, because. The instructions, can be carried out in different types of computers, a single, set of source instructions. Converts, to machine instructions. According, to the central processing unit, type, the. Execution. Process carries. Out the instructions, in a computer, program. Instructions. Express the computations. Performed, by the computer, they, trigger sequences. Of simple actions, on the executing, machine those. Actions, produce effects, according to the semantics, of the instructions. Topic. Computer. Software and hardware. Computer. Software are, just, software. Is a, collection, of computer, programs, and related data that provides the instructions for, telling a computer, what to do and how to do it, software. Refers, to one, or more computer, programs, and data held in the storage of the computer, for some purposes, in other. Words software. As a set of programs, procedures. Algorithms. And it's documentation, concerned. With the operation, of the data processing, system. Program. Software performs. The function, of the program it implements, either by directly, providing, instructions. To the computer hardware or by serving, as input to another piece, of software, the. Term was coined to, contrast, with the old term Hardware, meaning, physical, devices in.
Contrast. To hardware, software is, intangible. Software. Is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense meaning, application. Software only. Topic. Application. Software. Application. Software also. Known as in, application. Oran, app, is a, computer. Software designed. To help the user to perform specific, tasks. Examples. Include enterprise. Software, accounting. Software office. Suites graphics, software and, media players. Many. Application. Programs, deal principally, with documents. Apps, may be bundled, with the computer, in its system software or, may be published, separately. Some. Users are satisfied. With the bundled apps and need never install, one. Application. Software is contrasted. With system, software and middleware which manage, and integrate, a computer's, capabilities. But typically, do not directly, apply them in the performance, of tasks, that benefit, the user the. System software serves, the application. Which in turn serves the user. Application. Software applies, the power of a particular, computing, platform, or system software, to a particular, purpose, some. Apps such as Microsoft. Office are, available, in versions, for several different platforms others. Have narrower requirements. And are thus called for example a geography. Application. For Windows or an Android application for. Education, or Linux gaming. Sometimes. A new and popular application. Arises, that only runs on one platform increasing. The desirability. Of that platform, this. Is called a killer application. Topic. System. Software. System. Software or system, software is computer, software designed. To operate, and control the, computer, hardware and to provide a platform for, running application. Software. System. Software includes. Operating, systems, utility. Software, device, drivers, Windows systems, and firmware. Frequently. Development, tools such as compilers. Linkers and, debuggers, are classified, as system software. Topic. Computer. Network. A computer. Network, often, simply referred to as a network, is a collection, of hardware components. And computers, interconnected. By communication. Channels, that allow sharing, of resources, and information. Where. At least one process. In one device is able to send receive data, to from at least one process, residing, in a remote device then the two devices are, said to be in a network. Networks. May be classified according, to a wide variety, of characteristics, such, as the medium used to transport the data communications. Protocol, used, scale, topology. An organizational. Scope. Communications. Protocols, define, the rules in data formats, for exchanging, information in a computer, network and provide the basis for network, programming. Well-known. Communications. Protocols, are Ethernet, a hardware, and link layer standard, that is ubiquitous in local area networks, and the Internet Protocol, suite which, defines, a set of protocols for, internetworking ie for data communication between. Multiple, networks, as well as host-to-host data, transfer, an application-specific, data. Transmission. Formats. Computer. Networking, is sometimes, considered a sub-discipline. Of electrical engineering. Telecommunications. Computer, Science Information Technology or, Computer Engineering since. It relies upon the theoretical. And practical application.
Of These disciplines. Topic. Internet. The, Internet, is a global system, of interconnected computer. Networks that. Use the standard, Internet Protocol, suite, tcp/ip. To, serve billions, of users that consists. Of millions of private public academic. Business and government, networks of local to, global scope. That are linked by a broad array of electronic, Wireless, and optical, networking technologies. The. Internet carries, an extensive, range of information, resources and services. Such as the interlinked, hypertext. Documents of. The World Wide Web ww. And the infrastructure, to support email. Topic. Computer. Programming. Computer. Programming, in general as the process, of writing testing. Debugging and maintaining. The source code and documentation, of computer, programs, this. Source code has written in a programming language which, is an artificial, language often, more restrictive, or demanding, than natural, languages, but easily translated. By the computer, the. Purpose, of programming, is to invoke the desired behavior. Customization. From the machine the. Process, of writing high-quality. Source code requires, knowledge, of both the applications. Domain, and the computer, science domain, the. Highest quality software, is thus developed, by a team of various, domain, experts, each person, a specialist, in some area of development, but. The term programmer, may apply to a range of program, quality, from hacker to open-source contributor. To professional, and a, single programmer, could do most or all of the computer, programming, needed to generate the proof-of-concept to. Launch a new killer. Application. Topic. Computer. Programmer. A programmer. Computer, programmer, or coder as a person, who writes computer, software, the. Term computer programmer. Can refer to a specialist. In one area of computer, programming, or to a generalist, who writes code for many kinds of software, one. Who practices or, professes, a formal, approach to programming may, also be known as a programmer, analyst, a, programmers. Primary, computer, language, C, C++, Java, Lisp. Python, etc. Is often, prefixed, to the above titles, and those who work in a web environment often, prefix, their titles with web the. Term programmer, can be used to refer to a software, developer, software, engineer, computer, scientist, or software, analyst. However. Members, of these professions. Typically, possess other software, engineering, skills, beyond, programming. Topic. Computer. Industry. The, computer, industry is made up of all of the businesses, involved, in developing, computer, software designing. Computer, hardware and computer, networking infrastructures. The manufacturer. Of computer, components. And the provision, of information technology. Services, including, system, administration. And maintenance. Topic. Software. Industry. The, software, industry includes. Businesses, engaged, in development, maintenance and, publication. Of software, the. Industry, also includes, software services. Such as training, documentation. And consulting. Topic. Sub-disciplines. Of computing. Topic. Computer. Engineering. Computer. Engineering, as a discipline, that integrates, several fields, of Electrical, Engineering, and computer science required. To develop computer hardware, and software. Computer. Engineers, usually have, training, in electronic. Engineering, or Electrical Engineering. Software. Design and hardware, software integration. Instead, of only software, engineering, or electronic, engineering. Computer. Engineers, are involved, in many hardware, and software aspects. Of computing, from the design of individual, micro processors, personal, computers, and supercomputers, to, circuit design, this. Field of engineering, not only focuses, on how computer, systems, themselves work, but also how they integrate into the larger picture. Topic. Software. Engineering. Software. Engineering, se, is the application, of a systematic. Disciplined, quantifiable. Approach to the design development. Operation. And maintenance of, software and the study of these approaches, that is the application of, engineering to software in, layman's. Terms it is the act of using insights to conceive model, and scale a solution.
To A problem the. First reference, to the term as the 1968. NATO, software. Engineering, conference, and was meant to provoke thought regarding, the perceived, software. Crisis, at, the time software. Development, a much used in more generic, term does not necessarily. Subsume, the engineering, paradigm, the. Generally, accepted concepts. Of software, engineering, as an engineering, discipline, have been specified in the guide to the software, engineering, body of knowledge SWE. B okay the. SWE, B okay has become an internationally. Accepted standard. Iso/iec, TR. 19,000. 759. - 2005. Topic. Computer. Science. Computer. Science, our computing, science, abbreviated. CS, or comps I is the scientific. And practical approach, to computation in, its applications. A computer. Scientist, specializes. In the theory of computation, and, the design of computational. Systems, its subfields. Can be divided into practical, techniques, for its implementation. And application. In computer, systems and purely theoretical areas. Some. Such as computational. Complexity, theory which studies, fundamental, properties, of computational. Problems, are highly, abstract, while others such, as computer, graphics, emphasize, real-world. Applications. Still. Others focus, on the challenges, in implementing, computations. For. Example, programming. Language theory studies approaches. To description, of computations. While the study of computer, programming, itself, investigates. Various, aspects, of the use of programming, languages, and complex, systems, and human-computer. Interaction. Focuses, on the challenges, in making computers, and computations. Useful, usable and universally. Accessible to, humans. Topic. Information. Systems. Information. Systems, is is, the. Study of complementary. Networks, of hardware, and software see, information, technology. That people and organizations. Use to collect filter, process, create, and distribute, data, the. ACMs. Computing.
Careers Website says, a. Majority. Of as degree, programs, are located in, business, schools however, they may have different, names such, as management. Information systems. Computer. Information systems or. Business, information, systems. All. As degrees, combine, business and computing, topics, but the emphasis between, technical, and organizational. Issues varies, among programs. For. Example programs. Differ, substantially in. The amount of programming, required. The study bridges, business, and computer science, using, the theoretical. Foundations, of information, and computation to study various, business, models, and related algorithmic. Processes, within, a computer, science, discipline. Topic. Computer. Information, systems, sis. This, field studies, computers, and algorithmic, processes, including. Their principals their software, and hardware designs. Their applications. And their impact on society while. As emphasizes. Functionality. Over design. Topic. Information. Technology. Information. Technology it, is the application of, computers, and telecommunications equipment. To, store retrieve transmit. And manipulate, data often in the context, of a business, or other enterprise. The. Term is commonly used as a synonym for computers. And computer, networks, but it also encompasses, other, information. Distribution, technologies. Such as television. And telephones. Several. Industries, are associated. With information. Technology such. As computer, hardware software. Electronics. Semiconductors. Internet, telecom, equipment ecommerce. And computer services. Topic. Systems. Administration. A system. Administrator IT, systems. Administrator. Systems, administrator. Or sysadmin, as a person, employed to maintain and, operate a computer, system, or network, the. Duties of a system, administrator are. Wide-ranging, and may vary substantially from, one organization. To another, sis. Admins, are usually, charged, with installing, supporting. And maintaining, servers, or other computer, systems and, planning, for and responding, to service, outages, and other problems, other. Duties, may include scripting. Or light programming. Project, management, for systems, related projects. Supervising. Or training, computer, operators, and being the consultant, for computer, problems, beyond the knowledge of technical, support staff. Topic. Research. And emerging, technologies. DNA. Based computing. And quantum computing are, areas, of active, research in, both hardware and software such. As the development of quantum algorithms. Potential, infrastructure, for future technologies. Includes, DNA, origami on, photolithography, and quantum, antenna for transferring, information, between ion, traps, by. 2011, researchers, had entangled, 14, qubits, fast. Digital circuits, including, those based on Josephson. Junctions, and rapid single flux quantum technology. Are becoming more nearly realizable. With the discovery, of nanoscale superconductors. Fiber-optic, and photonic, optical, devices, which, already have been used to transport data, over, long distances. Have started, being used by data centers, side-by-side, with CPU, and semiconductor. Memory components. This. Allows the separation of RAM from CPU, by optical, interconnects. IBM, has created. An integrated, circuit with both electronic. And optical information. Processing. In one chip this. Is denoted CMOS. Integrated, nanophotonics. Or. Cin. P one. Benefit, of optical, interconnects. As that motherboards. Which formerly, required, a certain kind of system, on a chip SOC, can, now move formerly, dedicated. Memory and network controllers. Off the motherboards, spreading, the controllers, out onto the rack this. Allows, standardization. Of backplane, interconnects. And motherboards. For multiple, types of SOC, s which allows more timely, upgrades, of CPUs.
Topic. See also. Index. Of history of computing, articles. List. Of computer term etymologies. Scientific. Computing. Electronic. Data processing. Creative. Computing.