Bioslurping | Wikipedia audio article
Groundwater. Remediation, as. The process, that is used to treat polluted, groundwater by. Removing, the pollutants, or converting, them into harmless, products. Groundwater. As water present, below, the ground surface that, saturates. The pore space in the subsurface. Globally. Between. 25%. And. 40% of. The world's, drinking, water as drawn, from bore holes and dug wells. Groundwater. Is also, used by farmers. To irrigate. Crops and, by industries. To produce everyday. Goods. Most. Groundwater, as clean, but, groundwater. Can become, polluted or, contaminated. As a result, of human activities. Or as a result of natural conditions. The, many and diverse activities. Of, humans, produce, innumerable. Waste materials. And, byproducts. Historically. The, disposal. Of such wastes have, not been subject. To many regulatory. Controls. Consequently. Waste, materials. Have often, been disposed. Of or stored on land surfaces. Where they percolate, into the underlying, groundwater. As a. Result. The contaminated. Groundwater. As, unsuitable, for use. Current. Practices. Can still impact, groundwater. Such, as the over application. Of fertilizer, or, pesticides, spills. From industrial. Operations. In filtration from. Urban runoff and, leaking, from landfills. Using. Contaminated. Ground water causes. Hazards, to public, health through poisoning. Or the spread of disease, and the practice, of groundwater. Remediation has. Been developed, to address these issues. Contaminants. Found in groundwater, cover, a broad, range of physical, inorganic. Chemical, organic. Chemical, bacteriological. And. Radioactive. Parameters. Pollutants. And contaminants can. Be removed, from groundwater, by, applying, various, techniques, thereby. Bringing, the water to a standard. That is commensurate. With various, intended. Uses. You. Topic. Techniques. Groundwater. Remediation, techniques. Span. Biological. Chemical, and physical, treatment. Technologies. Most. Groundwater. Treatment, techniques, utilize. A combination, of, technologies. Some. Of the biological. Treatment, techniques, include, bio, augmentation. Bio, venting, bio, sparging. Bio, slurping. And phytoremediation. Some. Chemical, treatment, techniques, include, ozone, and oxygen gas. Injection. Chemical. Precipitation. Membrane. Separation. Ion, exchange, carbon, absorption, aqueous, chemical. Oxidation, and, surfactant. Enhanced, recovery. Some. Chemical, techniques, may be implemented. Using. Nanomaterials. Physical. Treatment, techniques, include, but, are not limited to, pump.
And Treat air sparging. And dual, phase, extraction. You. Topic. Biological. Treatment. Technologies. You. Topic. Bio. Augmentation. If a. Treatability, study. Shows, no, degradation, or, an extended, lab period, before, significant. Degradation as, achieved, in contamination. Contained. In the ground water then, inoculation. With, strains, known, to be capable of degrading the contaminants. May be helpful. This. Process. Increases. The reactive, enzyme, concentration, within. The bioremediation, system. And subsequently. May increase, contaminant. Degradation, rates. Over, the non Augmented, rates at least initially, after, inoculation. You. Topic. Bio, venting. By, oh venting, is an in-situ. Remediation. Technology. That uses. Microorganisms. To biodegrade. Organic. Constituents, in, the groundwater, system. Bio. Venting, enhances. The activity, of indigenous. Bacteria. And archaea, and stimulates. The natural, in situ, bio. Degradation of. Hydrocarbons. By inducing, air, or oxygen flow. Into, the unsaturated. Zone and, if necessary. By adding, nutrients. During. Bio, venting, oxygen may. Be supplied, through, direct, air injection. Into residual. Contamination, in. Soil. Bio. Venting, primarily, assists. In the degradation of. Adsorbed, fuel residuals. But also assists. In the degradation of. Volatile, organic, compounds. Box as vapors, move slowly, through. Biologically. Active soil. You. Topic. Bio, sparging. Vo sparging. Is an in-situ. Remediation. Technology. That uses indigenous. Microorganisms. To biodegrade. Organic. Constituents. In the saturated. Zone in. Bio. Sparging. Air or, oxygen, and nutrients. If needed, are injected. Into the saturated, zone to increase, the biological. Activity of. The indigenous. Microorganisms. Bio. Sparging. Can be used to reduce, concentrations. Of petroleum. Constituents. That are dissolved in groundwater. Adsorbed. To soil below, the water table and within the capillary, fringe. You. Topic. Bio, slurping. Vo slurping. Combines, elements, of bio venting, and vacuum, enhanced, pumping, of free product, that is lighter than water light, non aqueous phase. Liquid or, l in APL, to recover free, product, from the ground water and soil and to bio remediates. Oils. The. Bio slurper, system, uses, a slurp, tube that extends. Into the free product, layer. Much. Like a straw, in a glass draws. Liquid, the pump draws, liquid, including. Free product, and soil, gas up the tube in the same process. Stream. Pumping. Lifts Ln APL's. Such as oil off the top, of the water table and from the capillary, fringe, ie, an area, just above the saturated, zone where. Water is held in place by capillary. Forces. The. Ln APL, is brought, to the surface where. It is separated. From water, and air, the. Biological. Processes, in the term bio, slurping. Refer, to aerobic. Biological. Degradation of. The hydrocarbons. When air is introduced. Into the unsaturated, zone. Contaminated. Soil. You. Topic. Phytoremediation. In the phytoremediation. Process. Certain, plants, and trees are, planted whose, roots, absorb, contaminants. From groundwater, over. Time. This. Process. Can be carried, out in areas, where the roots can tap the groundwater. Few. Examples, of plants, that are used in this process are, Chinese, ladder fern. Terri's Vitara also. Known as the break fern, is a highly. Efficient, accumulator. Of arsenic.
Genetically-altered. Cottonwood. Trees, are good absorbers. Of mercury, and transgenic. Indian, mustard, plants, soak up selenium. Well. You. Topic. Permeable. Reactive. Barriers. Certain. Types of permeable. Reactive. Barriers, utilize. Biological. Organisms. In order, to remediate, groundwater. You. Topic. Chemical. Treatment. Technologies. You. Topic. Chemical. Precipitation. Chemical. Precipitation. As, commonly, used in wastewater, treatment to. Remove hardness. And heavy metals, in general. The. Process involves. Addition, of agent, to an aqueous waste. Stream, in a stirred reaction. Vessel, either batch, wise, or with steady flow. Most. Metals, can be converted, to insoluble. Compounds. By chemical, reactions. Between the agent, and the dissolved. Metal, ions. The. Insoluble. Compounds. Precipitates. Are removed, by settling, and/or filtering. You. Topic. Ion-exchange. Ion. Exchange for. Groundwater, remediation, as. Virtually. Always carried. Out by passing, the water downward, under, pressure through, a fixed, bed of granular. Medium either, cation. Exchange media. And anion, exchange. Media, or spherical, beads. Cations. Are displaced, by certain, cations. From the solutions, and ions are displaced by. Certain, and ions, from, the solution. Ion. Exchange media. Most often, used for remediation, are, zeolites, both natural. And synthetic and, synthetic resins. You. Topic. Carbon. Absorption. The, most common, activated. Carbon, used for remediation. As, derived, from bituminous, coal. Activated. Carbon, absorbs, volatile. Organic. Compounds. From groundwater, by, chemically, binding. Them to the carbon, atoms. You. Topic. Chemical. Oxidation. In this, process, called, in-situ. Chemical. Oxidation, or East Co chemical. Oxidants, are delivered, in the subsurface, to destroy, converted. To water and carbon, dioxide or. To non-toxic, substances, the. Organics. Molecules. The. Oxidants. Are introduced. As either liquids, or gases. Oxidants. Include, air or oxygen ozone, and, certain, liquid chemicals. Such as hydrogen, peroxide. Permanganate. And, persulfate. Ozone. And oxygen gas. Can, be generated. On site from. Air and electricity. And directly, injected. Into soil and groundwater. Contamination. The. Process, has the potential, to oxidize. And, or enhance, naturally-occurring. Aerobic, degradation. Chemical. Oxidation. Has proven, to be an effective technique, for dense, non aqueous phase. Liquid or, DNA, PL when, it is present. You. Topic. Surfactant. Enhanced. Recovery. Surfactant. Enhanced, recovery, increases. The mobility and, solubility. Of the contaminants. Absorbed, to the saturated. Soil, matrix, or, present, as dense non aqueous phase. Liquid. Surfactant. Enhanced, recovery injects. Surfactants. Surface, active, agents that. Are primary, ingredient. In soap and detergent. Into contaminated. Groundwater, a. Typical. System uses. An extraction, pump, to remove groundwater. Downstream. From the injection, point. The. Extracted. Groundwater. Is treated, above-ground, to separate, the injected. Surfactants. From the contaminants. And groundwater. Once. The surfactants. Have separated, from the groundwater, they, are reused, the. Surfactants. Used are non-toxic, food-grade. And. Biodegradable. Surfactant. Enhanced, recovery, as used most often when, the groundwater, is contaminated by. Dense non-aqueous. Phase, liquids. DNA. Pls. These. Dense, compounds. Such as trichloroethylene. TCE. Sink. In groundwater, because, they have a higher density than water. They. Then act as a continuous. Source for, contaminant. Plumes that can stretch for miles within, an aquifer. These. Compounds. May biodegrade. Very, slowly, they. Are commonly, found in, the vicinity of the original, spill or leak where, capillary. Forces, have, trapped them. You. Topic. Permeable. Reactive. Barriers. Some, permeable. Reactive. Barriers, utilize. Chemical. Processes. To achieve groundwater. Remediation. You. Topic. Physical. Treatment. Technologies. You. Topic. Pomp, and treat. Pump, in treat as one of the most widely, used, groundwater.
Remediation. Technologies. In this process, groundwater. As pumped, to the surface and as coupled, with either, biological. Or chemical treatments. To remove, the impurities. You. Topic. Ere sparging. Err, sparging. Is the process, of blowing air directly, into, the groundwater, as. The. Bubbles, rise the, contaminants. Are removed from, the groundwater, by, physical, contact with the air ie stripping. And are carried, up into the unsaturated, zone, ie, soil. As. The. Contaminants. Move into the soil a soil, vapor extraction, system. As usually. Used to remove vapors. You. Topic. Dual, phase, vacuum. Extraction. Dual, phase, vacuum. Extraction, DP. Ve also, known, as multi, phase extraction, is, a technology. That uses a high vacuum, system to. Remove both, contaminated. Groundwater, and, soil vapor, in. DP. Ve systems. A high vacuum extraction. Well, as installed, with it's screened section. In the zone of contaminated. Soils, and groundwater. Fluid. Vapor extraction, systems. Depress, the water table, and water flows, faster. To the extraction, well. DP. Ve removes. Contaminants. From above, and below the water table, as. The. Water table, around the well is lowered, from pumping. Unsaturated. Soil, as exposed. This. Area, called, the capillary, fringe, is often, highly contaminated, as, it holds undissolved, chemicals. Chemicals. That are lighter than water and vapors, that have escaped, from the dissolved, groundwater. Below. Contaminants. In the newly, exposed, zone, can be removed, by vapor, extraction. Once. Above-ground, the, extracted. Vapors, and liquid, phase organics. And groundwater, are, separated. And treated. Use. Of dual phase, vacuum. Extraction, with, these technologies, can. Shorten, the cleanup, time at a site because, the capillary, fringe is often, the most contaminated, area. You. Topic. Monitoring. Well oil skimming. Monitoring. Wells are often, drilled for the purpose, of collecting, groundwater. Samples. For analysis. These. Wells, which, are usually six, inches, or less in diameter, can, also be, used to remove, hydrocarbons. From the contaminant. Plume within, a groundwater, aquifer. By using a belt style, oil skimmer. Belt. Oil skimmers. Which are simple, in design are. Commonly, used to, remove oil and other floating. Hydrocarbon. Contaminants. From industrial. Water systems. A monitoring. Well oil skimmer, remediates. Various, oils, ranging. From light fuel, oils, such as petrol, light diesel, or kerosene, to heavy products. Such as number, six oil creosote. And coal, tar. It. Consists. Of a continuously. Moving, belt that runs on a pulley system driven, by an electric motor. The. Belt material. Has a strong, affinity, for hydrocarbon. Liquids and, for shedding water. The. Belt which can have a vertical, drop of 100. Plus feet is lowered, into the monitoring. Well past the L n APL, water, interface. As. The. Belt moves through, this interface, it picks, up liquid, hydrocarbon. Contaminant. Which is removed, and collected, at ground level as the belt passes, through a wiper, mechanism. To. The extent, that DN, a PL, hydrocarbon. Settle, at the bottom of a monitoring. Well and the lower pulley of the belt skimmer, reaches. Them these contaminants. Can also be, removed by a monitoring. Well oil skimmer. Typically. Belt skimmers, remove, very, little, water with, the contaminant. So simple, weird type separators. Can be used to collect any remaining. Hydrocarbon. Liquid, which often, makes the water suitable, for its return, to the aquifer. Because. The small electric, motor uses. Little electricity, it, can be powered from solar panels, or a wind, turbine, making. The system, self-sufficient. And eliminating. The cost of running electricity, to, a remote, location. You. Topic. See, also. Toxic. Torts. Brownfield. CERCLA. Groundwater. Pollution. Hydrodynamics. Groundwater. Remediation. Applications. Of nanotechnology.