Biomimesis | Wikipedia audio article
Biomimetics. Or biomimicry. Is the imitation of the models systems, and elements, of nature for the purpose of solving complex, human problems, the. Terms. Biomimetics. And. Biomimicry. Derived. From ancient Greek this BIOS life, and meme assist mimesis imitation. From my mice type my mice die to imitate from memos memos, actor, a closely. Related field, is bionics, living organisms, have evolved, well adapted, structures, and materials over, geological, time through natural, selection. Biomimetics. Has given rise to new technologies, inspired, by biological. Solutions at macro and nano scales. Humans. Have looked at nature for answers to problems throughout, our existence. Nature. Has sold engineering, problems, such as self-healing. Abilities, environmental. Exposure, tolerance, and resistance, hydrophobicity. Self-assembly. And harnessing, solar energy. Topic. History. One, of the early examples of would be biomimicry. Was the study of birds to enable human flight although. Never successful. In creating a flying, machine. Leonardo. Da Vinci, 1452. To 1519. Was a keen observer of the anatomy and flight of birds and made numerous notes, and sketches on his observations, as well as sketches, of flying. Machines. The. Wright brothers who succeeded, in flying the first heavier-than-air, aircraft in, 1903, allegedly. Derived inspiration, from observations. Of pigeons in flight, during. The 1950's. The american biophysicist. In polymath otto Schmidt developed, the concept, of biomimetics. During. His doctoral research he developed the Schmitt trigger by, studying the nerves in squid attempting, to engineer, a device that replicated, the biological, system of nerve propagation. He. Continued, to focus on devices that mimic natural systems, and by 1957. He had perceived the converse, to the standard view of biophysics, at that time a view he would come to call biomimetics. Biophysics. Is not so much a subject, matter as it is a point of view it is, an approach to problems, of biological. Science utilizing, the theory and technology, of the physical sciences. Conversely. Biophysics. Is also a biologists, approach to problems of physical, science and engineering, although this aspect, has largely been neglected, in. 1960. Jackie Steele coined the similar term bionics, at wright-patterson, Air Force Base, in Dayton Ohio where, Otto Schmidt, also worked, still. Defined, by onix's the, science, of systems, which have some function, copied, from nature, or which represent, characteristics. Of natural systems, or their analogues. During. A later meeting in 1963. Schmidt stated. Let. Us consider what bionics, has come to mean operationally.
And What it or some word like it I prefer, biomimetics. Ought to mean in order to make good use of the technical, skills of scientists, specializing or, rather I should say to specializing. Into this area of research in. 1969. Schmidt used the term biomimetic. In the title one of his papers and by, 1974. It had found its way into Webster's, dictionary, bionics, entered the same diction earlier, in 1960s. A science. Concerned, with the application of, data about the functioning, of biological. Systems to the solution, of engineering, problems. Bionic. Took on a different connotation, when Martin, Caidin referenced, jack steel in his work in the novel cyborg, which later resulted in, the 1974. Television, series, the Six Million Dollar Man and it's spin-offs, the. Term Bionic, then became associated, with the, use of electronically. Operated artificial. Body parts, and, having. Ordinary, human, power is increased, by or as if by the aid of such devices. Because. The term Bionic took on the implication, of supernatural. Strength the scientific, community, in english-speaking countries largely, abandoned, it the term biomimicry. Appeared as early as 1982. Biomimicry. Was popularized, by scientist. And author Janine, Benyus in her 1997. Book biomimicry. Innovation. Inspired by nature. Biomimicry. Is defined, in the book as a new, science, that studies nature's. Models, and then imitates, or takes inspiration from, these designs, and processes to solve human problems. Benyus. Suggests, looking to nature as a model. Measure and mentor, and, emphasizes. Sustainability. As an objective of, biomimicry. Topic. Bio-inspired. Technologies. Biomimetics. Could in principle, be applied in many fields, because. Of the diversity and complexity, of biological systems. The number of features that might be imitated, is large. Biomimetic. Applications. Are at various, stages of development from technologies, that might become commercially. Usable to prototypes. Murray's. Law which in conventional form, determined, the optimum, diameter, of blood vessels, has been read arrived to provide simple equations, for the pipe or tube diameter, which gives a minimum mass engineering, system. You. Topic. Locomotion. Aircraft, wing design, and flight techniques, are being inspired by birds and bats bio. Robots, based on the physiology and methods of locomotion of animals include bi'ness kangaroo, which moves like a kangaroo saving, energy from one jump and transferring, it to its next jump cam. Egami robots, a children's, toy mimic, cockroach, locomotion. To run quickly and efficiently over indoor, and outdoor surfaces. Topic. Construction. And architecture. Researchers. Studied the termites, ability, to maintain virtually. Constant temperature. And humidity, in the termite, mounds in Africa despite outside, temperatures, that vary from 1.5, degrees Celsius, to 40 degrees Celsius, 35, degrees Fahrenheit, to 104. Degrees Fahrenheit. Researchers. Initially, scanned the termite, mound and created, 3d images, of the mound structure, which revealed construction. That could influence human, building design the. Eastgate Center a mid-rise office complex, in Harare Zimbabwe stays. Cool without air-conditioning and. Uses only 10%, of the energy of a conventional, building of the same size in. Structural. Engineering the Swiss Federal Institute of, Technology, EPFL.
Has Incorporated, biomimetic. Characteristics. In an adaptive deployable, 10th, Segretti, bridge. The, bridge can carry out self diagnosis. And self repair, the, arrangement, of leaves on a plant has been adapted for better solar power collection, analysis, of the elastic, deformation happening. When a pollinator, lands on the sheath like perch part of the flower strelitzia, reginae known, as bird of paradise flower, has inspired, architects. And scientists, from the University. Of Freiburg and University, of Stuttgart, for the creation of hingeless shading, systems, that can react to their environment, these. Bio-inspired, products. Is sold under the name flecked, ofen one, other. Hingeless bio-inspired, system. Includes flector, fold, flector. Fold has been inspired, from the trapping system, developed, by the carnivorous plant, Aldrovandi, vesiculosus. Topic. Structural. Materials. There, is a great need for new structural, materials, that are lightweight but offer exceptional, combinations. Of stiffness strength, and toughness. Such. Materials, would need to be manufactured, into bulk materials, with complex, shapes at high volume, and low cost and would serve a variety of fields such as construction transportation. Energy. Storage and conversion in, a. Classic design problem, strength and toughness are more likely to be mutually, exclusive ie. Strong, materials, are brittle and tough materials, a weak, however. Natural, materials, with complex, and hierarchical, material. Gradients, that span from nano to macro, scales are both strong and tough, generally. Most natural, materials, utilize limited, chemical, components, but complex material, architectures, that give rise to exceptional. Mechanical, properties. Understanding. The highly diverse and multifunctional. Biological. Materials, in discovering, approaches, to replicate, such structures, will lead to advanced, and more efficient, technologies. Bone. Maker abalone, shell teeth the dactyl clubs of stomatopod, shrimps, and bamboo are great examples of, damage tolerant, materials, the. Exceptional, resistance, to fracture of bone is due to complex deformation. And toughening mechanisms, that operate at spanning, different size scales nano, scale structure, of protein, molecules to macroscopic, physiological. Scale maker. Exhibit, similar mechanical, properties, however with rather simpler, structure nature. Shows a brick-and-mortar kikes, structure, with thick mineral layer, 0.2. 0.9. Um, of closely packed aragonite structures. And thin organic, matrix 20, nanometer, while. Thin films and micrometer. Sized samples, that mimic these structures, are already produced, successful. Production, of bulk biomimetic. Structural, materials, is yet to be realized, however. Numerous, processing. Techniques have been proposed, for producing, naica like materials, biomorphic, mineralization. Is a technique, that produces, materials with morphologies, and structures, resembling those of natural living organisms, by using bio structures, as templates, for mineralization. Compared. To other methods of material, production biomorphic. Mineralization. Is facile, environmentally. Benign and economic, freeze casting, ice templating. An inexpensive, method, to natural, layered structures, was employed by researchers. At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. To create a Lumina LC and IT have proposed a layered composites, that match the mechanical, properties, of bone with an equivalent mineral, organic, content. Various. Further studies, also employed, similar methods, to produce high strength and high toughness composites, involving, a variety of constituent. Phases. Recent. Studies demonstrated. Production, of cohesive, and self-supporting. Macroscopic, tissue constructs, that mimicked living tissues by printing, tens of thousands, of heterologous pickly, to droplets in software-defined, 3d. Millimeter, scale geometries. Efforts. Are also taken, up to mimic the design of nature in artificial composite, materials, using fused, deposition modeling, and, the helical, structures, of stomatopod, clubs, in the fabrication, of high-performance. Carbon, fiber epoxy composites. Various, established, and novel additive manufacturing, technologies. Like poly jet printing directing, writing 3d. Magnetic printing. Multi material magnetically. Assisted, 3d, printing, and magnetically, assisted, slip casting, have also been utilized, to mimic the complex, micro, scale architectures. Of natural, materials, and provide huge scope for future research spider webs silk is as strong as the kevlar used in bulletproof vests.
Engineers. Could in principle, use such a material, if it could be re-engineered, to have a long enough life for parachute, lines suspension. Bridge cables artificial. Ligaments for medicine and other purposes, the. Self sharpening teeth, of many animals have been copied to make better cutting, tools new ceramics, that exhibit, giant electric hysteresis, have also been realized. Topic. Self-healing. Materials. In, general, in biological, systems, self-healing. Occurs via chemical signals, released at the site of fracture, which initiate, a systemic, response that transport, repairing, agents to the fracture site thereby, promoting, autonomic, healing to. Demonstrate, the use of micro, vascular, networks for autonomic healing, researchers, developed a microvascular, coating, substrate, architecture. That mimics human skin. Bio-inspired. Self-healing. Structural, color hydro gels that maintain, the stability of an inverse opal structure, and its result in structural, colors were developed, a self. Repairing membrane, inspired, by rapid self sealing processes, in plants was developed, for inflatable, lightweight, structures, such as rubber boats or tents arity, constructions. The. Researchers, applied a thin soft, cellular, polyurethane. Foam coating, on the inside of a fabric substrate. Which closes the crack if the membrane is punctured, with a spike. Self-healing. Materials. Polymers, and composite, materials capable of mending cracks have been produced based on biological. Materials. Topic. Surfaces. Surfaces. That recreate, properties, of sharkskin, are intended, to enable more efficient, movement through water, efforts. Have been made to produce fabric, that emulates sharkskin, surface, tension biomimetics. Of being researched for technologies, such as hydrophobic, or hydrophilic coatings. And micro actuators. Topic. Adhesion. Topic. Wet adhesion. Some, amphibians such as tree and torrent frogs and arboreal, salamanders, are able to attach to and move over wet or even flooded environments, without falling, this. Kind of organisms, have toe pads which are permanently, wetted by mucus, secreted, from glands that open into the channels between epidermal.
Cells, They. Attach to mating surfaces, by wet adhesion, and they are capable of climbing on wet rocks even when water is flowing over the surface, tire. Treads have also been inspired by the toe pads of tree frogs marine mussels can stick easily and efficiently to surfaces, under water under the harsh conditions of the ocean, mussels. Use strong filaments, to adhere to rocks in the intertidal, zones, of wave swept beaches, preventing, them from being swept away in strong sea currents. Mussel. Foot proteins, attach the filaments, to rocks boats and practically, any surface, in nature including other mussels, these. Proteins, contain, a mix of amino, acid residues which, has been adapted specifically, for adhesive, purposes. Researchers. From the University. Of California. Santa Barbara borrowed. And simplified, chemistry's, that the mussel foot uses to overcome, this engineering, challenge, of wet adhesion, to create Co polyfill, like sand one component, adhesive, systems, with potential, for employment in nano fabrication protocols. Other. Research, has proposed, adhesive, glue from mussels. Topic. Try adhesion. Legg, attachment, pads of several animals including, many insects, eg beetles and flies spiders. And lizards eg, geckos, are capable, of attaching to a variety of surfaces and are used for locomotion even, on vertical, walls or across ceilings. Attachment. Systems in these organisms, have similar structures, at the terminal elements of contact, known as set I such. Biological. Examples, have offered inspiration, in order to produce climbing, robots boots, and tape. Synthetic. Set I have also been developed for the production, of dry adhesives. You. Topic. Optics. Biomimetic. Materials are. Gaining increasing attention, in the field of optics and photonics, there. Are still little-known bio-inspired, or, biomimetic. Products, involving, the photonic properties, of plants or animals, however. Understanding. How nature designs, such optical, materials, from biological resources. Is worth pursuing and might lead to future commercial, products. Topic. Inspiration. From fruits and plants. For, instance, the chiral self-assembly. Of cellulose, inspired, by the poly a condenser, to Barry has been exploited, to make optically, active films. Such. Films, are made from cellulose which is a biodegradable and, bio based resource obtained, from wood or cotton the. Structural, colors can potentially, be everlasting, and have more vibrant, color than the ones obtained, from chemical, absorption of, light poly. A condenser is not the only fruit showing a structural, colored skin other berries, such as Margaret Aria noble Esther's, these. Fruits show iridescent, colors in the blue-green region of the visible spectrum, which gives the fruit a strong metallic and shiny visual, appearance, the. Structural, colors come from the organization. Of cellulose chains in, the fruit Sepik are a part of the fruit skin each. Cell of the epic arp is made of a multi-layered, envelope, that behaves like a Bragg reflector. However. The light which is reflected from the skin of these fruits is not polarized unlike, the one arising, from man-made replicates, obtained, from the self-assembly, of cellulose, nanocrystals into. Helicoil, which only reflect left-handed. Circularly, polarized, light the fruit of Ely okapis angustifolia Saul, so show structural, color that cam arises, from the presence of specialized, cells called a ribosome which have layered structures. Similar. Era disowns have also been found in de la berry amici on of fruits in plants, multi-layer, structures, can be found either at the surface of the leaves on top of the epidermis, such as insulation, Ella will dean away or within specialized, intracellular. Organelles, the so called urado clasts which are located inside the cells of the upper epidermis. For. Instance, the rainforest, plants begonia, Pavone ena Javie Rhodope lasts located, inside the epidermal, cells structural. Colors have also been found in several algae, such as in the red alga congress Christmas Irish moss. Topic. Inspiration. From animals. Structural. Coloration, produces. The rainbow colors of soap bubbles, butterfly, wings and many beetle scales, face. Separation. Has been used to fabricate ultra, white scattering, membranes, from polymethyl methacrylate mimicking, the beetle cipher Kilis Morpho butterfly wings, are structurally, coloured to produce a vibrant, blue that does not vary with angle this. Effect can be mimicked by a variety of technologies. Lotus. Cars claim to have developed to paint that mimics the Morpho butterfly structural. Blue color in. 2007.
Qualcomm, Commercialized. An interferometric. Modulator, display, technology. Mirasol, using. Morpho like optical, interference in, 2010. The dressmaker, donner SG auro made a dress from tasian, fibres more foatx and undyed fabric, woven from structurally, colored fibers mimicking. The microstructure. Of Morpho butterfly wing, scales. Topic. Agricultural. Systems. Holistic. Planned grazing, using fencing, and/or herders, seeks to restore grasslands. By carefully, planning movements, of large herds of livestock to, mimic the vast herds found in nature the. Natural system, being mimicked and used as a template, is grazing animals, concentrated. By pack predators, that must move on after eating trampling. And manuring, an area and returning, only after it has fully recovered. Developed. By Allan savory, who in turn was inspired, by the work of Andre Voisin this method of grazing holds, tremendous potential, in building soil increasing. Biodiversity. Reversing. Desertification, and, mitigating, global warming similar, to what occurred during the past 40 million years as the expansion, of grass grazer ecosystems. Built deep grassland, soils sequestering. Carbon and, cooling the planet permaculture. Is a set of design principles centered. Around whole system's thinking simulating. Or directly, utilizing, the patterns and resilient, features observed in natural ecosystems. It. Uses these principles, in a growing number of fields, from regenerative. Agriculture, rewilding, community. And organizational. Design and development. Topic. Other technologies. Protein. Folding has been used to control material, formation, for self-assembled. Functional, nano structures. Polar. Bear fur has inspired, the design of thermal collectors, and clothing the. Light refractive, properties of, the moths eye has been studied, to reduce the reflectivity of solar, panels. The. Bombardier, beetles, powerful, repellent, spray inspired, a Swedish company to develop a micro. Mist spray. Technology. Which is claimed to have a low carbon, impact compared, to aerosol, sprays, the. Beetle mixes chemicals, and releases its spray via a steerable, nozzle, at the end of its abdomen stinging, and confusing, the victim most viruses have an outer capsule, 20 to 300, nanometers, in diameter. Virus. Capsules, are remarkably, robust, and capable of withstanding temperatures. As high as 60, degrees Celsius they are stable across the pH range 2 to 10 viral. Capsules, can be used to create nano device components. Such as nano wires nanotubes. And quantum, dots. Tubular. Virus particles, such as the tobacco mosaic virus, tmv, can be used as templates to create nano fibers, and nanotubes since both the inner and outer layers of the virus are charged surfaces, which can induce nucleation, of crystal growth this. Was demonstrated through. The production of platinum, and gold nano tubes using tmv as a template. Mineralized. Virus, particles, have been shown to withstand various. PH values, by mineralizing, the viruses, with different materials, such as silicon, PBS, and CDs, and could therefore serve as a useful carriers, of material, a spherical. Plant virus, called cowpea chlorotic mottle, virus c CMV, has interesting, expanding, properties, when exposed to environments. Of ph higher than 6.5. Above. This ph 60, independent, pools with diameters, about 2 nanometers, begin to exchange substance. With the environment the. Structural, transition, of the viral capsid, can be utilized, in biomorphic, mineralization. For selective, uptake and deposition, of minerals by controlling, the solution, pH. Possible. Applications, include using the viral cage to produce uniformly. Shaped incised. Quantum, dots semiconductor. Nanoparticles through. A series, of pH washers, this. Is an alternate, to the appo ferritin cage technique, currently, used to synthesize uniform. Cadmium, selenide, nanoparticles. Such. Materials, could also be used for targeted, drug delivery since. Particles, released contents. Upon exposure to specific, ph levels. Topic. See also artificial. Photosynthesis. Artificial, enzyme artificial, enzyme section, and zaimes bioinspiration, and, biomimetics. Bio-inspired, computing. Biomimetic. Synthesis, reverse engineering, synthetic, biology.