ARC/ORNL 2018 High School Summer Math-Science-Technology Institute Final Presentations
Good. Morning. Morning. How. Is, everyone this morning are you sleepy. Wonderful. Have, you had a fun two weeks and one case one week. Do. You want to come back. Okay. There's lots of opportunities, to come back, we. Are certainly, delighted to have you here today I'm. Marie Westfall, with our EU and, we're. The first thing we're going to do is do what we always do it our au is we're going to give you a safety message so you know all the safety procedures. If anything, happens which we don't expect it to but just in case of. An. Emergency. Those. Of you sitting in the front of the auditorium. I. Normally. Do these very informally, but. I understand, they're live streaming, this I've got to go on script this morning but, I did want to, say. You all look very nice all of these students ties dressed. Up very well your parents should be very proud, so, welcome hope everything went well this week hope, you had a good time I'm. Really happy to welcome you to the final presentations. And, recognition. Ceremony, for the Oakridge Science Academy and, the a RC or an L high school summer math science, technology Institute, that's a mouthful I'd. Like to take the opportunity to recognize the. Participating, students, teachers. And welcome, their families, mentors, and, officials. Of AARC. We. Really appreciate the value, and our partnerships with AARC, and obviously. Oak Ridge National Laboratory who, we, work very closely, with to. Provide these opportunities for, the students, and the teachers also. Students. And teachers you represent, the 29th, year, for the Summer Institute and, the 10th year for the middle school science. Academy, we. Have common goals for students and teachers basically, to motivate, you to stay in stem, professions. We're, looking for stem people at our national laboratories, once, you get through college that. Might be an opportunity for you keep that in mind, so. That's a common goal for the program. Our. Goal for the teachers is basically to expand their knowledge, in. The science, fields and actually take it back and apply, them back in your classroom. At. This time I wanna, welcome mr., Tim Thomas Appalachian. Regional Commission Federal, co-chair. Tim. Was sworn in as the appalachian regional, commissioner, the. 12th federal co-chair, on april 3rd this year as. Federal, co-chair Tim. Works directly with AR sees 13, member governors their. State alternates, and program managers, Tim. Has more than 20 years experience in, public infrastructure. Workforce. Training. Which. Is we're heavily involved in regulatory, issues, he. Was previously the director of external. And regulatory affairs, for swift and Staley tim. Has a bachelor's, degree from. Murray, State Kentucky. And, a law degree from the University of Louisville please. Join me in welcoming mr., Tim, Thomas to the stage. Good. My name. It's. Great to be here I can assure you that so, much my. Office is in Washington, DC. It. Really makes my day and. The. Appalachian, Regional Commission. State. Governments, the. Thirteen states that touch upon the Appalachian, region. And. Our role. Is. Why. We are here with. You today, and, why the, AARC has been a sponsor of this program since. The year 2000. Each, year AARC, collaborates, with the Oak Ridge National, Laboratory to bring high school and middle school students. To, our summer. Stem, programs, for. Students, and teachers from the Appalachian region, since. 2000. When AR c became a partner. Has. Successfully, graduated. From the program. Why. Do we do this because. We are investing. In the future of Appalachian and, you. Are. Part of that future and, we. Believe that helping today's students, become interested, in future studies and careers, in science technology. And. Math will. Help the region grow, and thrive in, the years to come. Creating. More opportunities. For all of us and the. Journey does not end here today if. You are a middle school participant, you, can come back as a high school student if. You are a high school student the, lab provides internship. Opportunities. For college students, and. If perhaps you are interested, in working at ORNL. In, the future there, are various, career pathways, that. You are able to enter into as an adult for. The. Teachers in the audience, please. Share the knowledge, you. Have obtained, over, the past two weeks with other teachers in your school system. Today's. Events, would not be possible if it for the hard work of all of the participants. And teachers. You. Have not only spent, time working on some really interesting. And exciting stimulated. Projects. But. I also hope you have made a few friends from. Other parts of the Appalachian, region during your, time in this program and. I, hope you were able to keep in touch with those friends in the future.
Remembering. Your days at, Oakridge together, and, I. Would note that it. Is a lot easier to keep in touch with the friends you made at summer camp today than when I was your age you have social, media and text, and emails. And when I was your age it was pretty much you wrote a letter, or. You made a phone call and, I. Was not allowed to make too many long-distance, phone calls. But. I wonder how many of you even know what a long-distance, phone call is. Back. In the day they were fairly. Expensive. But. We actually do rely on all of you to keep this program running, please. Spread the word about the program to your parents, your. Teachers, your friends and, your community. Teachers. We count on you to recruit students, and other teachers for. Next year's program and, to. Parents, thank. You for entrusting, your children to us. And. I would also like to extend, thanks to the staff of ORN, L & O RA you, especially. A special, thanks to jennifer marie and pi and to. The mentors for all of your work to make this program a success on. Behalf. Of the Appalachian, Regional Commission. Congratulations. On your hard work and on, your dedication to this program we. Are looking forward to what the future holds for all of you and thank. You for allowing me the privilege of speaking, to, you today. Thank. You for having us. Okay. At this time I'd like to introduce David. Chyme from, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is, a communication. Director, in. His job as a communication, director, David. Is responsible, for internal, and external communications. Community. Relations, protocol. Visits with arnhem, mr.. Kyne holds a bachelor's degree in journalism from, the Honors College at Ohio University, please. Join me in welcoming David, Camm. Everybody. I. Hope. You had a good camp. Good time yes, not amazed. That you're awake at this hour I've I have a 12 year old rising. Seventh grader and I have a 18. Year older just graduated, from high school who's. Gonna go study mechanical engineering, and. I'm, really glad to see so many students, here and so many teachers every, year it's really important, to Oak Ridge National Laboratory. That. We. Have folks like you that are interested in, science. That. Are interested in technology, and. That, are. Going. To pursue that while. You're students, and, hopefully into college and. Hopefully beyond, and maybe you'll come work for us someday. Oak. Ridge is a really cool place and, I. Want to talk, to you briefly about. Where. You've been, in. Hawaii here, and and what's next the. Laboratory, kind. Of illustrates, how, science, works. You. Know in the 1930s. Scientists. Were figuring out how, how. The world works they were figuring out the periodic, table, they're. Figuring out atoms. When. I talk about an ad does, any image come to mind. Maybe. Like, a proton, and a neutron and, the little bands around it some heads are nodding, in. The. 1930s. That that's, not people, didn't know that they. Didn't confirm the Mitra until 1932. And.
Scientists. Were working on physics, and working, on chemistry, and understanding, the elements. And. In 1939. 1938-39. Some. Tight scientists. In Germany. Threw, a neutron, at a uranium atom and it split, in half and it released a bunch of energy. And. That was unexpected. Typically. When you split an element. It splits into sort of two chunks. And one's a lot bigger than another like if you're chipping off a rock and get a little shard of a rock but. It split just about evenly into and released all this energy and the chemists, in Germany that. Did this Otto, Hahn and Fritz Strassmann. Called. A colleague of theirs. Lisa, Meitner. Who. Was in Sweden. What. Was happening in Germany in the 30s. Adolf. Hitler was taken over, and. Scientists. Like Lisa Meitner had had, fled. Because. Of a Jewish heritage because. Of the persecution. That they saw happening, in Otto, Hahn he was a chemist said, to Lisa Meitner who was a physicist. What. Just happened here and, she. Said well. Your result is correct she, went out walked in the woods sat on a rock and thought about it I love that this is a woman, theorist. Who. Figured out fission, who confirmed, fission. She. Goes and walks in the snows she sits on a log with her nephew otto frisch. And. She says what if it's this, way, and, they, thought. About it literally. Just thought about it and they did some calculations. And, they. Told Otto Hahn. Your, experiment, is correct. We've. Discovered nuclear, fission, and the. Word spread. Throughout, the scientific community. Around the world and, the scientists. Are the ones who, told the politicians. Would. I do something about this. Because. Whoever can control this power is going to have. An. Inexhaustible. Just, about source of energy. And. They can also build a really big bomb. And. The scientists. Are the ones. Who. Went to the president, and said. This. Is what we discovered and, the. President started the Manhattan, Project and. The military, and American. Industry, and, scientists. Came together. In. A way they never had before and. They. Started. The Manhattan, Project to.
Harness. The. Atom, to. Build a bomb. And. The, science was so new that they didn't know what would work the, best so they built four, plants in Oakridge, they. Built y12. To. Try to generate. Uranium. There were uranium, isotope, that was needed using. Electromagnets. And they. Built the k-25 site to do it using a series, of filters that, would. Defuse the gas through the filters to capture. Uranium-235. And, they. Built the s50. Plant to, do thermal, diffusion. And. They. Built the x10, graphite, reactor. So. You try to produce see if you could produce plutonium from, the nuclear reactor, it was the first nuclear reactor. That. Operated. Continually. Less. Than a year before it started, the. Very first nuclear. Reactor at, Chicago. Turned. On for a few, minutes and turned off and they took. It apart. That. Was it they just wanted to see if it would work the Chicago, pile, and. The graphite reactor the, x10, site became. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. An. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, went, on to. Study. Nuclear power. To. Produce isotopes. For medicine, if you, have. Undergone. Cancer, treatments, if. Your parents, your grandparents. Have. Been diagnosed, with. Radiological. Medicine or instruments. If they've received, radio. Isotopes, to treat their cancer that. Work. Almost. Certainly traces, back to Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Oak. Ridge National Laboratory began, exploring. Materials. To, see what would work in a nuclear reactor they began exploring, the effects, of radiation on. Living. Systems. Came. Up with the safeguards. Came. Up with the environmental, regulations, to. Protect, the world from the. Chemicals, and the, radioactive materials. That. Were doing so, much good but left waste behind. They need to be dealt with. Raw. Materials, now make, cars. With, 3d, printed, a. Car. An. SUV. A. Submarine. An. Excavator. It's. Just kind of crazy. We've. Made metal, alloys, that make your, vehicles run better and lighter and save you gas how many of you are driving now do. You like things that save your gas money yes. We. Have the fastest, computer in the world because, you need computers, to take, a lot of this data that, exists. Now and to, make sense of it because you can't do it on. A slide rule like they did with the first nuclear reactor. The. Summit supercomputer. That we just, announced. In, June. Can. Do. 200. Trillion. 200. Quadrillion, calculations. A, second. I get those numbers are too big for me so here's how I think about it. There's. Seven billion people in the world. Think. About what you were doing at the beginning at a school year last. September. If. Every person in the world started. Doing one calculation, per second, one plus one equals two two. Plus two equals four two. Times two equals four, I'm. Not go much beyond that because I'm just an old journalist. If. Every person in the world did one calculation, per second, starting. The beginning of the school year right about, now. Everyone. If you didn't eat you didn't sleep you just did that, 24/7. You'd. Finish calculating, what sumit can calculate, in one second. These. Supercomputers are, as big as this room. And. What. We're doing now is trying to advance science, that. Improves. The. Technology, that y'all use the, materials, that we used to build stuff the. Medicine, that we use to treat disease, the, energy, that we use to. Keep the lights on to power our industry, to help our military the nuclear Navy came out of Oak Ridge, the. Aircraft carriers and submarines, that keep us safe. We're. Trying to make that better because. As. Mr.. Thomas said. Well it's different now that even I mean he's. Younger than me and I'm not that old and, the, world is radically, different. Just. In 10 20 30, years. China. Is rising. India's. Rising. We're. In a global economy, and you, are. Gonna keep America, competitive. Whoever. Masters, the materials, whoever, leads. In the technology. Is, going to lead. In, economic. Competitiveness, and in national security. The Manhattan, Project was, about making sure that, our scientists. And engineers got, there first. Who's. Gonna get to quantum computing first. Who's. Going to get to lightweighting, materials. That. Will allow you to take. Electronics. And just stick them on the wall where no one even notices, them. That's. What's next and, that's why I'll leave my comments. You're. Next. You. Guys are next.
And. Your willingness, to. Follow. Where your curiosity leads. You and, your willingness now to discipline, yourself to learn how to do science and to, learn how to do development. Is. Going to dictate what, happens in, the future for our country and for the world. Take. Yourself seriously. Don't. Let anyone say. Well. You're just a kid. You're. Gonna be grown before you know it can I get an amen from the parents. And. You teachers. Let. Me thank, you for what you do I. Know. You don't get paid much I know, you got a bureaucracy wearing. You out I know you got smart alkie kids and none of these children, I'm sure I. Know. You got parents that are criticizing you. I. Know. You have the pressure of standardized. Test scores but. Thank, you for. Being here, and thank, you for. Teaching, students. And, thank you for. Loving. Those, kids. And. Giving. Them a place where they can learn and. Sharing. Your knowledge and, growing your own knowledge so you can be better. I'll. Tell you as the, spokesman. For Oak Ridge National Laboratory, that, your. Success is, directly linked to our success. And. Whoever wins. Science. And. Whoever wins technology. Is. Going to lead in the world. And. The, last thing I'll say to you is. We. Had a speaker at the lab recently Thomas, Friedman, who. Writes, for The New. York Times kind, of writes books and I kind of whatever he wants now. And. He points out that the, technology's changing the world incredibly. Rapidly. That. The. World is changing faster than we can kind of keep up and. Technology's, making people mean in, some cases. You. Guys are grown up in a world where you can keep track of your, friends that you meet here through social media and, and. You can also be. Experienced. Really, ugly, stuff. Through social media. Technology. Has an, upside, and a down side, and. This technology allows. Us to. Reach around the world in an instant. As. Technology. Allows. Bad. People. Terrorists. To, use the extreme example, to send a note to their followers on the other side of the world that says go drive a van down, the Tower Bridge in London and kill people. That. Same technology, can. Be used to. Share knowledge. And. To share kindness and to share goodness, and why am i talking about that in a in this discussion. Because. As you pursue. Your sides and you pursue your technology as you guys are smart kids. And. As you do what you do. Thomas. Friedman said and this was a remarkable talking, to a roomful of PhDs, at the lab he. Said has never been more important, to follow the golden rule. It's. Never been more important, we have strong communities. And strong. Institutions. Of faith and. Civic. Service. That. We teach one another how, we're supposed to behave. When. Our behavior, can so instantly, reach so many people. You. Guys are. Leaders. If. You're here. Be. The kind of people you want people to be. Thank. You for your time here thank you teachers. Oak. Ridge National Laboratory was, thrilled to have you here, and we. Certainly hope that you, teachers come back and that, another group of students, comes, back and y'all come back if you want to if, you allow to you that's Jim's decision, eating sides all that stuff but. Thank you very much and I look forward to hearing about your work and maybe. Get to meet some, of you afterward, but thank you very much. Good. Morning I, am, Karen REO and I am the project lead for the middle school summer, science, Institute. And we're, pretty excited that we just finished up our 10 year in this project which is a big deal so I, want to just kind of start things off with presentations, we're gonna start with the middle schoolers but first I just want to tell you all about the. Amazing week we had, we. Honestly. I think that we may have had the. Easiest. Group of kids that we have ever had in this program. Parents. It. Is really, hard to put a 12 year old on the airplane, to go spend a week across the country with. A bunch of people you've never met so. We really. Appreciate your, willingness to do so because I. Think it's made a big difference for, your kids to be here this week so thank you and. Thank you for sending us great kids, Thank. You students, for having a great week for being enthusiastic for. Being excited and for. Being extremely well, behaved but also interested, and willing to learn I. Want to thank also of, course. The. Representatives, from AARC, from R&L from. Everybody. From ru, who does so, much work to pull this program off every year and. Lastly, I just want to mention our master. And resident teachers who spend a great. Deal of time preparing and, making, sure that parents feel comfortable putting, their 12 year olds on an airplane across the country to stay with teachers, they don't know so.
I Will introduce our, teachers individually, as they come up with groups but. We in the middle school program do three research, topics, and they will come up as a group and tell. You what they learn in this week so. We'll start off with our, 3d. Printing group so, this is master, teacher Brant Lee and assistant. Teacher hailey Evans and. Some. Of our kids. Something. Things, that. Have 3d. Printing include six printed buildings a printed office building printed. Chinese villas and those are only some of the things that have been going. Another. Way that thirty printing, can be used practically is with, surgery, and transplants. Some. Cases can include having a. Skull. Implant, a new skull printed, and implanted, a new, job. Printed. And implanted, and then the new, heart. Printed. And implanted. Another. Way that it can be used practically. Is with, clothing you. Just have to scan the, part of body you want. And. Then. You. Place the. Clothes on. The, model and then, you have. Clothes. From. Accident, Maryland and. Today we'll be talking to you about college. Paths and career opportunities in, 3d printing, we. Will also be showing the degrees needed to go into these fields. Biological. And scientific, modeling. 3d. Printing can be used in biological modeling, to make cells, DNA, strands, etc. 3d. Printing can be used in scientific modeling, to make to. Scale up or down larger. Or smaller objects. To see them in greater detail. Biomedical. Technology, 3d, printing can be used in biomedical technology. To, make bones. Ian's muscle. Tissue etc. Architecture. Modeling in this, specific, example the. 3d. Printing, was used to make a smaller, version of a building that would be too large to, make in real life without a prototype, first. Product. Design 3d. Printing can be used in product design to make a prototype of a product, that will later be made for manufacturing. Special. Effects. 3d. Printing is used, in special effects to design and execute, characters. Animation. 3d, printing, can be used in animation, for, to. Create, a more realistic version. Of, a character, from, a TV series. Or a, video. Game. Here. Are some examples, of 3d. Printing designers, using 3d printing in their everyday lives 3d. Printing, can be used for, pretty much everything, under the Sun from new body parts to fun video game characters. Manufacturing. 3d. Printing can be used for manufacturing. To create, products. That would be. Too hard to create using. Machining. Or molding. Hi. My name is Keira white and I from Richland Virginia. My. Name is Leah Agron I from Alabama. Today. I'll be talking to you about the design cycle, of 3d printing so he's, starting off with the blue section where. We. Were started, off with fighting. An everyday problem, and creating. A solution I made. A little product that helped, organized ear buds. And. I made a phone holder after. You figure, out what you want to make you sketch out your design and you add the measurements, after, you add the measurements, you add it to the.
Had Interviewed them about their, shoe. Type pets, pin and job. Jess. How's Nancy perform, was chromatography. Fingerprinting. School. Classification, here if I were analyzed, blood. Typing and shoe print I had. Research each of the Clemens strong Renier Nixon, is a veterinarian. Vendian. Also known as a vet is an animal physician, they take care of animals health see. You next Clement is Bailey England she's, in chemists and expert, chemistry. Helene. And Thomas is a herpetologist a, person, who said these things, Zoe. On him and, zoologists. Works with animals, our, last climate Elizabeth, Alicia, that's, it studies. Insects, now, Aven will tell you about the tests we did on the inks using chromatography. I. Was, in charge of the section, on chromatography. Chromatography. Is the separation, of a mixture by passing it through a solution, in. The lab we use samples. Of ink from, the pens and markers the, claimants used. Pieces. Of paper with a dot of each of the inks that the claimants used in a solution and let it sit overnight so that the colors could police separate the. Next day we. Consisted. Of as, you, can see on the screen. Some. Of them I think yeah. Okay. We. Use. Found. At the crime scene to each of the claimants writing utensils, this. Exposed, to false claimants leaving us with three potentially, true claimants. Hi. My name is Sofia Moss and I'm a freshman at Northern Garrett high school in Garrett County Maryland, I'm, gonna give it a presentation. One finger than us finger. Prints or trace of impressions, from ridges in your finger there, are three types of finger prints loops rows and arches 60, to 70 percent of people have fingerprints, with loops 25. To 35 percent of people have fingerprints, with whirls and 5, to 7 percent of people have fingerprints, with arches it is an important clue in investigations, in crime scenes, investigators. And scientists only need 10 percent of a fingerprint to identify it in. Our group we do a series of tests to bring the skull to its rightful owner one, of these tests was a look at fingerprints on a note left at the crime scene with this goal first, we brush LaRosa powder with a magnetic, brush over the note to reveal fingerprints, next, we looked at the note under an ultraviolet flashlight, then, we took clear tape and placed it on the note then pulled the fingerprint, tape off and placed, it on the clean paper after. The fingerprint, tape was on the clean piece of paper we use the ultraviolet, flashlight again to get a better look at the fingerprints, lastly.
Be Compared the fingerprints, on the note to the possible suspects fingerprints, and we're able to narrow it down now. I will turn it over serena, force. Hi. My name is Serena Geary and I'm from Cuba Rushford, Central School located in western New York I'm currently, a freshman I will be discussing school, identification. Using. It. Economist, key IBM, is by using features of the school. Consist. Of questions to lead you to the correct answer in, this case we'll do this goal which is. Behind. At the crime scene solve, this crime we identify, animal, here and, the type of fiber both, of these were found at the crime scene we, hear both of these under a microscope and compared, them with samples of the claimants, clothing and samples, of their pets hair the. Fiber turned out to be cotton from, the claimants, clothes the animal hair turned out to be cat hair. This. Means that it could've been Zoe since she's the only climate that has a. Hello. My, name is Gracie Cole I am from Alabama this year I will be a freshman in high school I'm. Presenting, the part of the investigation, that is blood typing and unknown substances, the, blood evidence we found at the scene of the crime was used to match find, and identify the, correct claimant, of the skull there. Are four blood types only B a B, and O after, testing, the blood types of the claimants, blood and comparing, it with the, type of blood found at the crime. Scene. We. Found. Different. Tests on five different types of substances that were found in the claimants blood samples after, further testing we compared, and maradona narrowed, the list down to three claimants, next, we have chase presenting, shoe prints. Hello. My, name is chase bender and I am a student of Northern High School in Garrett, County Maryland, I'm also a part of the forensic, science group. Shoe imprints, in our, investigation. We found shoe, imprints, on the floor of the crime scene to. Investigate the, shoe imprints, we decided, to make casts, of the prints to. Make. The cast we mix two cups of plaster, with one cup of water then we put it on the print and waited for it to dry when. The cast ride we took it out of the clay mold and inspected, the markings and sizes of the shoes I found.
A Nike symbol, on the arch of the outer sole of the shoe this. Left only Zoey Bailey. And Helena, since, they said that they were wearing Nike that day. After. Examining, all of the evidence we came to the conclusion that Zoe was the rightful claimant, the. Interviews. Chromatography. Blood, fingerprints. And shoe prints all pointed. To Zoe being the rightful claimant of the skull. Special. Things to Marcella. And KC for, being our amazing teachers, this week and Marlon. Newport, at Tennessee, Bureau of Investigations. Finally. Thank you from all of us in the AR cor. Au Science, Academy to. Caleb, noe oh. I'm. Sorry if I pronounced he's wrong. Tim, Thomas, and dr.. Thomas Zechariah, and all of the k-12 staff. Sponsors, and supporters. Okay. So that concludes our presentations. We also, have an eighth, grader who is a student, videographer. For us she's not here today but, her name is Sophie. Bruce and she, put together a video of our week and we'll watch that video while, the students, line up accordingly, for. The, certificate, presentations. Yes. Issues. Inside. It was really crossing. Spring. Music. Good. Morning who are you all good. My. Name is Emily Levitch and I'm a program analyst, at the Washington, DC office, so. I really, want to start out by giving a special thanks to Kayla, thank you so much for taking the time to. Work. Greasy. Cooler. Alexis. Pleasure. And. Solomon. Some, of them. Okay. If. We can get a picture a little. Bit further in over here. Next. State Kentucky. We, have a stain great. Enjoy. Next. We have South Carolina. Joseph. Moody. Next. We have Tennessee. Charlie, combs and, Dixon, Morris. Next. We have Virginia. Okay. And now we're going to take a group picture with. The. Middle school students. And if we can get whoopsy, Jennifer. And. John. I'm, good thank you. We're. Going to have a 10-minute break come. Back. So. Midterms. We have mentors, here from our groups those, teachers and students so the, mentors. Those. Facilitators, just, really spend a lot of time and. At. This time. From. 7 a.m. to 10 p.m. for, 14 straight days. And if. I can give them in the bird we're going to get down here all, right first up Basu. Kelly cable. As. You can see there isn't teachers are huge type everything they. Do. Navigate. Their surroundings. We. Used, robots, to navigate, through a maze using, two different methods with varying. Success but, the two methods that we used were infrared, and touch sensors, a. Hypothesis. Was made that the infrared, sensor would be the most effective, for getting through the maze the fastest, analyst, reliably, as in making it through without failing. Two. Sensors we use for a touch sensor, and the infrared and the way the touch sensor worked was there would be two metal, pins, protrude. Hang out and, when. They, would hit a wall or something it would knock that pin. Back, into. Another metal pin which would break. The circuit and which, we would have instructions, that we've coded. For the robot to do where, I would turn left or turn right or back up and the. Infrared sensor were similar, but it used light so, in the light reflected, back and they got close enough and into range it, would then act so there was no contact, with any obstacles, when the infrared if it worked. So. This, project consists of using infrared, touch. Sensors, and we. Put it on a board also programmed it to go, through me which is it was the same name each time and. We timed. It using a timing, system. The. First graph which. Is. Shows. The times of the. Robots. That used, the. Touch. Sensors, the. We. Use two robots, to collect the data from and the first one gave. Us an average time of. 25.8. Seconds. And a, standard deviation time. Of 30. Not. 30 G's, of, 3.2. Seconds, standard. Deviation, is a number that is used. To tell how far something is from the average and. A. High deviation, means. That, it will be farther. Away from the average while the low is closer to it and. The. Second robot. Its. Average was, a, time. Of 20. 7.5. Seconds, and a, standard, deviation of, 2.4. The. Second graph which, is the bottom one. Represents. Both robots using, navigating. The maze and infrared sensors, the. First robot got. One, had. A standard, average time of sixteen. Point five. Tenth, of a second the, second robot bought, two had. A standard. Deviated our nasty deviation, set average time of. Nineteen. Point three. Tenths of a second their, standard deviation was. Zero point eight seconds. We. Were now do a, visual. Representation. Of what the maze lip-lock. Roger. Will be representing, our bow bot. This. Is the demonstration. He's, using the sensors. As you. Can see me touch. As. You can see he ran into many different obstacles using.
The Touch sensors, and now he will demonstrate using the infrared sensors. That. Was much faster than having used the touch sensors. The. Purpose of the experiment is to test the difference between impaired, and touch sensors, in efficiency, and speed for the touch sensors bought one has a standard deviation of 3.2. Seconds, while, bot 2 has a standard deviation of 2.4, seconds, these. Standard, deviations, are fairly high as the data is inconsistent. And there, is no predictable, time the bot will get. And. That the infrared. Sensors navigated, the maze, very efficiently, and faster. And potentially. With more time which, I would like to have at this camp because it was a great time we, could use more tests, more advanced sensors, and possibly. Get a better faster. Times and be even more efficient than. Maybe. Watson from North Carolina. I'm. Roger Dixon, from Dare County, I'm. Engagement, from the Pennsylvania. For. Years, now work has been proceeding, in order to bring perfections, the crudely conceived, idea of a transmission, that. Does not only supply inverse, reactive, currents and usov you don't want all face detractors, but it's also capable of simultaneously, synchronizing. This. Such an instrument is known as though. Okay. Do you need to speak so people know what you're saying. Yeah. No one's gonna listen to you if you just spout incomprehensible, jargon. You, need to tone it down a little bit now. You can see from inferring people on certain, scientific topics, you have to simplify them so people can understand, them better. That's. Exactly, what we've been doing for the past two weeks. We. Challenged, ourselves by, trying to answer the question in what ways can we improve. The. Principles. Of climate literacy for, high school students. Comment, science literacy is the, understanding. Of your influence on climate and climate on society. Today's. American society the topic of climate change has become a highly polarized clinical, debate. And. Not you want service no not, on weather what to do on climate change but what are the facts that it actually exists. It's. Always the same you turn on the TV to see a debate equivalent. To a boxing match in one corner you have a politician, or businessman, representing. The percent of scientists, who believe climate change is not, caused by humans. In. The other corner coming, out a hundred, and forty one pounds in six foot oh my the Science, Guy Stan. Standing. Up for the other ninety seven percent that do. Boxing. Ring we took the time to learn a little more about climate, change science. We. Talked with Melissa Allen an atmospheric, scientist who taught us how to use a program, club, MATLAB which. We took real-life, temperatures, to show, climate, change. We. Went to a meteorology. Tower called Matadi and were able to see real-time data, in. Temperature. Precipitation. And. Wind speed. Such. As co2 detectors. And light sensors. And. We looked at a lot and I mean a lot, of graphs, here. Are some of the graphs that, we. Analyzed. As, you. Can see by their first graph on the top this, graph is showing people's, political views and their views, on climate science. The. Second, graph shows the, co2, emissions, from 1870. And on the. Temperatures, it. Also shows, the temperatures. Associated, with. The co2 changes. While. The black is our, historical, data and colored. Lines are the. Projected. Data for future. After. Learning all of this we begin our main objective, to communicate, complex ideas and simpler terms, we. Decided, that the best way to do this was to design a brochure that could be easily read by high. School students and everyone to, show, what climate change really is about.
For. A person to go from idea to action the process, follows, this way a person. Is aware of a scientific, consensus, whatever, that topic may be interest. In this consensus, causes, the person to in further investigate, the topic thus, increasing. His or her knowledge with. New knowledge he or she can accept the consensus, and eventually, take action that's, what we intend for this brochure to accomplish. For. Guidance we look to an article posted by various, government, organizations called. The essential principles, of climate literacy. Such. As the National, Oceanic, and. The. National Oceanic and, Atmospheric Administration. The National. The. National Air and Space Association. And also we have the no. You're being too complicated again. We. Took each page of the document, and, we used, it and we since, we were. Able to simplify it down to less than a hundred words and put, it into our brochure, I believe, above is. Number. One that's example what we had beforehand, and, then, principle. As. The. Right over there has the condensed version and. Then here's our hope we're sure. We. Named. It the. Future, as. We. Considered, the original document. And its purpose and from there we deleted added and rearranged words to make them easier for anybody to understand. We. Hope this brochure will better educate, people about climate science and simpler terms so they can understand, it better thank. You. Thinking. To our mentor. Bill. Cabbage, Melissa Ellen, andraste, tea thank, you. All. Right so I'm trendy. I'm. Destiny Hughes from western Pennsylvania, I'm, hashanah Howell from Starkville Mississippi. I'm. Charlie, Wade from Ohio. And. We, have had the honor privilege. And pleasure to work with the thin thumbs and nanostructures, group at Oak Ridge for the past two weeks on, developing. Low-cost, versatile. Sensors for, complex applications. So. These sensors are based on the Arduino, program, board which, is basically a microcontroller, which. The, robotics, group is already explained you can connect it to any computer through this port right here and. It allows you to program the board to do whatever you needed to do really, you, can control nearly anything off of that board in the breadboard and the, reason we chose to do Arduino for our sensors is because it's versatile and it's easy to using it's cheap you, can find like.
Knockoffs, For, about. $30, on Amazon that, allow you to do everything that the real system does, the. First sensor that we made, basically. As a demonstration, is the, photo, light sensor. These. Diodes right, here. So you can use this to detect the red and blue light this needed to. Grow. The plants. Okay. So the, next sensor that I will be showing you is actually around my neck as we speak this, sensor is called the tilt sensor this. Sensor consists. Of LED lights wires. The breadboard in the Arduino board. The. Battery is here and, as. You can see these are the LED lights, the. Resistors, the jump riders in the, battery. This. Sensor could be used for, anything. Such as. Inside. The house outside. And much more, it. Works, by plugging in the battery and. The. LED lights will come on in a certain pattern using. This inside your house will be as. Simple, as a simple, movement. Or. Any such. And it. Will alert you as soon as possible, as, of now I will now give you a demonstration of, this. The. Black water goes here. Which. Is really hard to see char and then the red wire goes here. See. The. Lights come on in a very orderly. Pattern. And. As, I move the board. They. Turn off. And. They, stay on for about a couple seconds, and then afterwards, they start right back over. This. Project was very. This. Project was very simple, to make it's, very, easy. That. Straiten said knock, off for like 30 bucks and. It. Was really fun being able to experiment with this and being able to, see. How you can make something so. Small and, so interesting. Out. Of something, this. Small. Okay. So up next this is the light theremin, also. Known as a sculpture, which I'm not going to demonstrate it, because it. Will break your ears, this. Is. Very versatile, because it can also be used as a motion sensor. So. I'm going to demonstrate. How it works so this is the Paizo and basically from. These jumper, wires the. Electricity. Goes through and, there's, supposed to be. This. Light. Sensor, because, this is very bad so we just use this and. It, displaces. Air. Waves. Around it and causes. A sound. In. A real-world situation. It would be used. As an alarm system or anything like that. So. Up next we have the touch. Sensor, to, where when. You. When. You. Whatever. You touch, like, if you touch this it on. Okay. So. This touch sensor, can then be used for, like a sink, if you wanna like touch the sink and turn the water on you can touch it again turn it off anything. Like that's very versatile. Pretty. Easy to make. So. In conclusion on these projects, our sensors we designed weren't for any particular, application in, mind as of, yet because we really just wanted to demonstrate the versatility, this.
Was. Oh what, was it like a radio case or something you pulled some kind of radio out of it right. And. The starter kit and it's, a functioning, bail loop system, there's. A box that we found laying at the side of the lab and one. Of the lanyards, and it's. A functioning, like wearable, tilt sensor so, we really wanted to demonstrate that, you could use these. Arduino, boards, for nearly any application and. Some, other ones that we came up with were, doggie. Door which, would allow you to put a sensor in your dog's collar that, unlocks, the doggie door when it gets close to that raccoons or snakes or whatever can't sneak into your house and. Another. Economical. Lab right now actually is, a turbo pump interlock system. So. They have these pumps they, run about twenty thousand dollars and. These. Pumps are contained in a vacuum pressurized, system so if the pressure gets too high it blows out the pump twenty, thousand dollars is a lot of money to lose, so. Why not take a thirty dollar board make. A pressure control, system out, of it and save. Your pump and. In. Conclusion these. Things fun, to play with easy to use can, be used for nearly anything and really everybody should try one. And. As you can see we are now at the end of our presentation, we would now like to give our thanks to everyone, who made this, opportunity. Possible for us we've. Really enjoyed being here and we would recommend anyone to come again, we. Would also like to give a special thanks. To our, Mentors. Sam. Dustin. Chang met, and our, main mentor, Zach who was not able to be here right now but, he is watching, so. Thank you guys so, much, for, making this possible, for us. Then. Next we had a miss Cinna Lockhart, she's, a college, freshman follow, us around for last two weeks to all of our external events, she. Has taken pictures, everywhere we've been so she, put together this little video for a bedroom June. Next. I'm. From. New York. So. You might know where. The fiber optics, group so. It's. Past two weeks we've been working with an interferometer, a show. Of hands how many you know what an interferometer, is. Guys. In the back yeah. Yeah. Basically. They. Study. But. More. Specifically, wave interference so. Basically. We use a Mach, Zehnder interferometer, and. We. Use this to find the coherence of some waveforms, and, also, decipher, a. Original. Waveform from a vibration. Waveform, so. Fiber, optics, they can be used in. Hazardous. Areas with a lot of radiation. They. Also use it at the SNS, which is a facility, we were at the whole week and, also. And. They use it to first detect gravity, it's, pretty neat, they. Can also be, used to transmit. How. We, know how to galaxies, are seven hundred light years apart they. Use interferometers. For that. So. This is our setup over here and, then scroll. Down. So. Those two pictures in the bottom left they're basically, the same thing but, the one on top is just easier. To understand so, I started off with our laser that's our license light source it's, sent into the fiber circulator, that sent into the. Fiber. Optic sensor and that's, reflected, back into the circulator it goes into this coupler. One by two coupler, and that's. Sent to a waves. Are split, one. Of them sent to the fiber delay line which is what we use to cause some interference. And. Then the other one goes into the polarization, controller, which is just another calibration. Tool we use but we. So. All those are sent back into the 3x3 coupler, and, there's. More interference involved in there those. Are sentences some circuits, which, sends. Data to the digital, oscilloscope, which, is what we used to collect all of our data and view.
The Waves, so. Now I'm gonna hand it over to our physicists, that know what they're talking about. I'm. Melissa and how, did our first experiment. And, first. Experiment. We did, coherence. And we observe interference, signals and we. Use the fibre, delay line and by tuning that we. Found that it was there, are three circumstances. For. Interference, that occur three conditions and they. Are l1 equals L 2 L 2 minus, L, 1 and L 1 minus L 2 equal, to s and s, is that gap in the, sensor. Over there and it, has to do with length so depending, on the lengths that the waves travel, different interference, occurs and, then, for our second, experiment we measured this coherence, and. We did this by finding, the coherence, range and we did that with a bunch of math that I won't bore you with use a lot of excel sheets a lot of calculations. But. That's the coherence, range and in, that coherence, range is a bunch of waves up and down up and down up and down and counting, them would take a long time so we use math to find out how many there were and each. Oscillation. Or each waveform, is one wavelength apart. And by, calculating. The number of waves and multiplying, that number by. The wavelength we found the, coherence. Length and coherence. Is a correlation. That exists between the different phases in a wave and it's, important, because finding. Different, coherence, lengths, on the same waves means, that the phase is not consistent. The phase shift is consistent, and our. Coherence. Length ended up being. 45. 46.4. Plus or minus two point eight eight micrometers. Next. Part of the experiment. We. Retrieve. An original waveform a vibration, waveform so, obviously we need something vibrating, hence the vibrator, attached to the fiber. Sensor. We. Just applied voltage to the vibrator, which made, the vibration, waveform and then. After. That we tune, the. -, the 2s, mentioned, this, made it so that we got interference, from the reflected, waves and also the original waveforms so that we could, determine, the. Vibration. Wait for him after. That it goes into the 3x3 coupler, and it's split into three, lines I've shown all. Phase-shifted, 120, degrees apart that's. To make sure that like we, have a full, cycle because three, shifted, 128. Adds up to 360, so it's. We. Obviously have, up, there for the measurements. Retrieved. Vibration. Waveforms for different. Voltages applied which. We were supposed to get a linear, representation, for. Like, what voltage we applied for what amplitude we would get for the vibration we. Got more. So. I, guess. That's. Basically. Makes it so that you don't have to like normalize, each of the waves each time and then, use. Each other to remove the disk i-news which then the, other ones and a whole bunch of calculates and that you can just. Did. You get applied, to that function and know what amplitude you should have and. Okay. So we use the, interferometer. To, study, interference. We, went and, we. Found coherence. And we. Found. The original vibration waveform. And. We graphed amplitude. As a function, of voltage. So. Now it's, time for us to. Goodbye. I. Just. Like to quickly thank our mentor, dr., Lu and Dillon Smith who helped, us a great deal on this project and. This. Was an extremely. Fantastic. Opportunity, and I want to thank everyone involved, that made this possible. To. Come back. Stage. Oh, Megan. Presentation. Is from the German Institute for computational science. Since the supercomputing, of mentor mr. Bobby, Witten facilitator, J shade. Hi. Guys I'm Hanna little from Virginia, hi. I'm anali from, to East or North Carolina. From. Spring City Tennessee, I'm. A minion, from Arcade New York I'm. Dakota toto from Edmonton, Kentucky, I'm. Austin Myers from Millersburg, Oh Ohio. Lea. Evans from tine nester Pennsylvania, and we are your super, 8 supercomputing, group. We. Did our project on understanding. And improving today's, supercomputers. The. Question we asked ourselves at the beginning of these two weeks was what.
We Can do to improve them and what happens when a problem arises when. Supercomputers. And the technology, in them cannot overcome, problems. On themselves so. Computing. Technology, allows us to connect with one another through. Social. Media you. Know technology, is a big part of everyone's lives these days I'm, sure everyone, in here has a smartphone, of some sort hi. Jerry I saw you shaking your head I know. In. Medicine. Technological. Growth and. This. Also allows us to break down computers, networking. Coding, languages, and different, types of servers and also allows us to understand, the fundamentals, of computers, themselves. Ok. So I'm just gonna give you a little background on the project, super, here's allow us to do many things however, for, most of us who don't understand the full spectrum of super computers, all. The questions remain, however. One. Thing does remain the same in any instance so. Your computers are used to, generate. Solutions. To. Problems. Or. Generate. Solutions to mathematical, equations. Some. Of the main questions that we had going in this project was what was your computer how, do they communicate and, how are they advancing in, modern, day society. Community. Computers. Communicate, using a system called binary which, instead of using place value charts, of 10 such, as going from one to to 100's like you use in elementary school it uses one two four eight sixteen, and so on so, for instance if you take the number thirty seven in decimal, which, decimal, numbers range from zero to nine you would have zero, zero one zero zero one zero one instead. Of thirty seven if. You add all those numbers together with the place values it equals the same thing. All. Right I'll speak of the materials, that helped us complete our project, some. Materials, that helped us were the RSA, tokens we used the, cat5, Ethernet cables, we used and also, a switch which is a networking device these, I'll, start off with a cat5 cables, we actually made these cables ourselves. In. Our class we had to cut, this wire you. Would pretty much take a little device and it'll cut this Jack it's called a jacket, and then it'll expose these wires on, the inside, and. Then you have two one these, wires up in a certain, color combination, that, color combination we used was the, t568b. Combo. Or the. Code. And that. Goes white, orange, orange. White. Green blue, white, blue. Green, white brown. Brown, so, it's very difficult to be able to get all those wires in this little pen. You. Have to make sure you, take a crimper, it's cold and then you'll crimp all of these down and then, that was how you heat your wires to work these, wires are used in everyday, business and homes if. You ever see a blue wire running through the wall this is most, likely an Ethernet. Cable the. This, is what we had to connect our computers. To our, to. The switch, which I'll continue on to say the. Switch allowed. Us connect our computers, to the supercomputer, it allowed us to get on the network of the supercomputer, and then, from there we were able to take the RSA, tokens, and then, connect to the supercomputer, itself after connecting, to the supercomputer, we were able to run programs. And write programs on the supercomputer. So. What, exactly is a supercomputer. It's. Basically, a, super. Powerful computer. These. Machines have free and, and extremely, rapid speed for mostly scientific. And engineering purposes. It. Can handle extreme. Amount, of computation. And a large amount of databases. Supercomputers. Are not without flaw for, example sike consumes. Up. To 16, megawatts, of power which, should be enough to power a small city it. Also produces, a lot of heat in order, for it to work properly it, must be cooled properly so. Currently there's a water. Cooling system that, is, constantly circulating. Water. In. Addition to this water system there are fans that are in place, but. They have their own problems they. Produce sound pollution which can be damaging, to your hearing if you stand - in Sumit's room for an extended amount of time and. Supercomputers are not exactly user-friendly. It took us almost, two hours just to log in with those RSA, tokens. Some. Future, solutions, for the supercomputers, would be one way to dispel, the heat that's created by the cooling fans or created. By the supercomputer, itself would to, be the, supercomputers, are now powered by electrons, which, are the what.
Power The supercomputer. And what powers most things now but we can use in, the, future if there was a way to use photons, instead. Of electrons, photons are, actually little particles of light that. Create no heat and they can move in any direction so. To make the supercomputer, not only faster, but it'll make it not require not generate, as much heat little, to no heat at that and then, if we get rid of the heat we can also get rid of the cooling fans which cause the sound pollution and if we were able to get rid of the coin fans that means the. Workers would be able to work efficiently and without having to leave the room or wear ear, protection every, once in a while because they won't have a lot of sound. Supercomputers. Allow society. To understand. The problem, and to solve them more efficient. Effectively. By. Supercomputers. They. Develop. Better to receive human, commands a good, the. System. In the processing. Power it allows the supercomputer, to reach the summit of, its, potential. This. Was the size of our brains before we got here and now that we're on our way home from. All, of us at super 8 we would genuinely like to thank you all for making this possible for us and we especially, want to thank Oak. Ridge National Laboratory Oh, coach, associated, University. And. I've. Got some original Commission, and pepper gelée can you stand up please. We. Love you and thank you so much. 300. Fires and, they say all them and Jacob you guys need to head out Melvin's, got your notions gonna load you guys up. Magnetics. For me computational. Science and agender division, with, mr. Luger. Mr., Rossi Liberty. Okay, Sabah question for everyone in the audience. Who. Like, chick-fil-a. Yeah. Do. You ever wonder how, they choose where to put their locations. Well. We have a show for the very few of you. We. Would like to thank all of you for coming out today to our game show. Contestant. I had with me today represents.
A State that may accept the new chick-fil-a franchise. So. Now let's meet our contestants. The. State that has the most correct answers. Eating. More chicken. Okay. I. Guess. It's a good thing I know the answer to that question off, the top of my head I'm, like Colton. Over here. New. York has approximately 8.5. Million, people. I. Would. Like to phone a friend. The. Population. Of Maryland is approximately. 6 million people. Now. Whose state has the most income, well. Has. The most people I think it's okay to say that we probably have the greatest income. Fifty, thousand dollars. Fifty. One thousand. Dollars a year per house I. Got. Y'all beat we, have the. Average household, income about 69 thousand, dollars per household. Now, since the ten essential questions have been answered let's, consider one more factor, does, your home, county already have a chick-fil-a. We. Do we don't have a chick-fil-a, in there hours away from our home County. Well. I guess, Colton just thinks he can beat me at everything. I just, want to let you know that we should get the chick-fil-a because, I have to travel hours. For, that luxury. Okay. Well thank you contestants, so much for being a part of this game and answering these questions to. The best of your ability. Marilyn. For the name chick-fil-a. So. You guys are probably wondering that. All of that nonsense was about, but. We. Created, a computer, program, with the help of dr., Dalton lunga, and, Lofton. Gerber ding. The. Program is displayed by a poster, outside we highly encourage that you look at it but, essentially, what we did is we took the 2010, census, which, is a whole, lot of data and we turned it into a computer program so. That you guys could understand, it. We. Use the computer programming language, called R which is used for analyzing, statistics, by mystic scientists, it's, three essential, elements to the program the user interface. Where we code what you will see as a user and make it easy understand, well, there's also the server where I put the math and all the logic behind the user interface and there's. The running the app which is applying. The server to the user interface and creating, an app. Okay. Well I'm gonna go ahead and show you all our graphics, or our pictures that we have up here when. You screw up just a little bit. So. This, one I Bubb my head as she mentioned earlier you have the user interface, the server and run the application so. We. Use the, user interface is what you see on an application, that. Can be all, kinds of widgets all kinds of tools all. Of, that sort of information, and, for. The server that, is how the application, runs you. Can change colors, in the server right, server, in the column whit's like if you want to have multiple columns, on application, and then, run the app it's literally two one line of code that just says run. Pull. It up and it runs as the whole program, and everything. For. Our project, screw, up to the top. Here, so as. We said our title. Of our project was decoding. And depicting, our nation's demographics, or a D D and D so. For the top picture, right here we have the whole stock whole, map of the United States it. Tells you the total population based, off of color so as the colors get lighter you have a less population, and as the colors, get darker you, have more. Population, a total population of the state, for. The second picture we chose Tennessee, - that's. Where we are you know it. Works it flows so it, shows you the, different, tie or the different, population, for each county, in Tennessee. So as I said earlier colors, mean lighter, colors mean you have less people or darker colors mean you have more people and, for. Our bottom picture we. Decided, to do the average income so. For household, so, we chose the which. Has Arizona, I believe to, depict and show on a graph the, averages, for every, house every, county. In Arizona to show the, prices that they make per year. Easier. Forgetting, what they had changed which, makes the process even, longer, just. As languages. Syntax. That. You keep working. For, it. In. Conclusion, an application. Was created with the sunny application. To interpret, the sentence information. Into. Visual format, use, of this app will be able to determine the next location, of