3D Printing and Augmented Reality with Aurasma, Sara Russell Gonzalez
Hi. Everyone I'm, good morning hopefully, this. Was designed to be kind. Of a natural progression from. Learning, about 3d scanning and how. To obtain, models, -, now, what do you do with the models and. So. The two kind. Of techniques I'm going to talk about our 3d. Printing where you can take that digital, 3d model and create a physical copy of it and augmented. Reality, where. You can put as arty. You've already seen this with the hololens you can put the 3d model over, the the real world. So. Kind of an outline of how this sections. Going to go can talk about what is 3d printing I'm. Talking about how you can use it in your research and teaching or talk about how to 3d print I'm, kind, of hoping that this. Is both a kind, of a broad overview. Kind. Of get, a bird's eye of what can you do with these technologies but, also since this is this is a workshop I want to get into the weeds so, that when you leave if you don't have experience with these technologies, you'll. Know where to start and what software to use and where to go if. You've already used the technologies, please, you know jump in always, ask questions but. Also share, your own experiences if. You use 3d printing or augmented, reality after. We talk about how to 3d print we'll go into a our, talk. About what, uses you know especially here at UF saying, in research and and teaching, and. Then we're going to do kind of a hands-on. Demo. Using, Erasmo, which is now as of, a few months ago called on HP. Reveal so. Hopefully you've had a chance to install that on a smartphone, or a tablet if you want to follow along i'm otherwise, i think, i figure out how to Mir my phone, to. The projection, system so you, can at least see what I'm saying otherwise a our is kind of boring. Okay. What is 3d printing um it is a form of additive manufacturing so. This is the concept, that you can make physical models layer by layer by layer. We're. Going to talk about a variety of technologies, and and. It. Uses a variety of materials so, it's not just the plastic which. Is what you're gonna see um there's. Also metal, and nylon, and, multi. Rasa, and, it seems like every, month or two there's new, materials coming out that you can use in 3d. So. Here's a here's. A schematic that shows right now kind of the the landscape of 3d printing it's, it's really all over the place we have sheet, lamination, where. You, can actually make 3d models out of pieces.
Of Paper glued, together mixed. Tyrael extrusion, where. You're heating up something and you're you're. Squirting it out. We. Have powder. Well. I'm going to go into these in a bit but you can see that there's a large variety of different, types of technology for making these these 3d models. So. The most common kind that. You're, gonna see in magazines you, can see in TV probably, you. Might have one in your office we. Have them in the library I mean you can actually down in Australia, they're selling it at all these I'm, around Christmas time so, these are they're known as FFF, fused. Filament fabrication. You, might also call them hear. Them called FDM fused. Deposition modeling, that's, actually a trademarked, term by stratasys so, we like to use FFF. This. Is the, way the technology works is I would basically describe, it as a, robotic, glue gun where, you have your your spool of filament now. Come over here to this. Is one of our library printers. We. Have our spool kind. Of thread. Goes. In the printer. It. Goes down here we have some cooling fans because, it's. Gonna get very hot right at the bottom of the nozzle it gets - this. Is printing at around 210. Celsius. So that's in the mid 400s for, Fahrenheit, so, it gets very hot but. You don't want you. Don't want that heat creeping, up the tube because, then a clog so we have a bunch of a fans right there to keep it cool and then, we have this build plate and, I. Am. Going to try to start it and. This. Is a fairly slow process. All, right so, I'm printing out probably. Can't see it quite there but it's a tiny octopus. Just for a demo they, tend to print really well. We. Have blue painters, tape here, on the bed this is a cool bed some. Of the printers also have heated beds to. Facilitate. Adhesion. Okay. So you can see it's starting to heat up and, in. A few minutes it's, gonna kind of beep at us and it's gonna start printing so. We'll, let that go for a bit. I'm. Another type of Technology is stereo, lithography and, this, is known as SLA and the. Way it works is that you, have. Is. Not the video um, you have a. Vat. Of liquid rosin, and you. Have a laser and a laser shines, up and it. Cures the the liquid rosin and. It. Pulls it out layer. By layer by layer and so, again. It. Is building up a 3d model it's, similar, in, its. The same type of 3d model that you give the software. But. Of course it has being, made out of rosin. Cured, rosin it has different material properties I mean, it tends to be very high resolution, so, unlike the the plastic, FFF, style printers, down. Here in the bottom you can see this. Is an example that I would say this is actually a very badly, printed, so, not perhaps, the most accurate but, this would be an FFF style where. You, have kind of plastic, strings that's coming out and, this. Would be an example, from an SLA. Type. Of printer. So. SLA. That they're very popular museums, for, people who need to make replicas. Very, small, very. Finely, detailed objects, so, people who are are casting, say miniatures for games they. Like this, type of a 3d. Printer the. Most popular ones are made by formlabs, they're up to the form to I think I might have to form three out soon and they. Run approximately, three, thousand dollars this. Is a really, messy, type of 3d process, because. You're. They've tried to make a fairly self-contained, but when you take out the model its dripping with rosin you want to have a sink nearby. So. For, those reasons we don't have them in the library. All. Right another type of technology is known as SLS, selective. Laser sintering so, this is where you have a powder and it. Could be metallic, and nylon so different types of materials, but it's a powder base and it, uses a laser to, just. Again, it's fairly slow but, you're centering, you're hardening, this powder layer, by layer by layer and you're building it up. One. Of the the major advantages, of this technique is that this. Model is is. Still. Encased in its powder and the powder access support material.
So. Supports, this is one of the limitations of 3d printing. With. This type of a printer you know, it's laying out this layer of plastic. And. It. Has to have a base to, to lay out lay. Out each layer on I'm so, imagine you're printing on a tree and you have a branch. Without. Support, material holding it up the printer would shoot out a string of plastic and come back now if it's a short distance it might, be okay because the plastic does does, cool very quickly I'm at hardens I would say almost not. Quite instantaneously, but very, close but. You're still gonna have some droop and, maybe. The droop isn't so bad so you can bill the next layer and the next layer that's okay but. If it droops too much or it just doesn't really. You. Know form that that solid, solid. Branch you, know it's going to fall and your. Model is going, to be worthless because. There's really no way to recover at that point and so, the, way we get around this with this type of printers is that we have support material and that. Is is. Beta. The same, the. Same type of plastic but. It's designed it's, kind of this waffling material that the software adds and it builds up from, the. Build. Plate upward and so when it gets to that branch there's, already something there it can build the branch. Having. Fun trouble and. Then. You can remove it with say pliers. And. So you can see advantage of having something like this SLS where, you can just take an airgun and you can blow off the powder and you release this pristine model, that's, a real advantage. All. Right a different, yeah. A fourth type of 3d printing this is a poly jet so. In this we. You. Have a liquid, liquid. Photo. Polymer and. It's. At. The same time it's it's spraying, out very minut particles, of this. Liquid it. Has a laser and it's it's. Hardening, it and so, again it's it's doing the layers so it's, somewhat similar to the SLA, that. You have a liquid rosin, but here you're actually spraying it out and you're hurting at the same time, these. Printers they're very expensive and hundreds, of thousands but, we do have some of them on campus that. Are use, accessible. To the UF community and. They're capable of printing multiple materials, and. Multiple colors and. So if you're trying to create a replica. You. Know and you you. Want it to be you. Look as realistic as possible, rather, than having to paint plastic, you, know this is a great solution for both high resolution, and. Making. It making. It look accurate. So. In the video you can see it's it's spraying out these. It's. Liquid and it's. Harding and instantaneously, and it's. Building it up, these. Are very strong models. Very. High resolution, and. Very expensive. Okay. So going back to our FFF, style a 3d, printer how many people have have used 3d printing on campus. Okay. It was great it was a good number how. Many people have used something. Other than the. FFF style. Okay. So pretty much everyone's experiences, with this type. And. That makes sense because, these. Are very affordable, at these this point you know I mentioned that they're selling about all these in Australia. I saw one, for sale and I'm, not saying it was a good, 3d printer but it. Was $187. Which. Is getting very you know very inexpensive up, to the ones that we have in the library they're around five thousand, so.
That's That's I would say kind of range if you get above five thousand you're probably gonna want to look at other types of technologies, that are, perhaps you. Know faster, or have higher resolution but, looking in the in the price range what, what, we're discovering is that. Spending. More on printers that doesn't necessarily get you a faster. Or a better, better, printer, what. It probably, does get you is that it's a larger build volume. It. It. Might be more reliable more accurate, so, you it was, machined better, you. Don't have to tinker with it so much when, you get down to the the, printers that cost several hundred dollars they, might be in kit form so you're having to put them together yourself. You. Probably start to learn your printer really well and, replacing. Parts. Or upgrades, and so, you. Know you have your. Your plug-and-play ones or you don't to think about it versus the ones that you can care and so you have to think about you, know what are you willing to do. But. We have had ones that are well. Actually so these, Printrbot plays these, are around three hundred dollars and, we. Are finding that assuming. It's all set up well and calibrated, well that, the models look just as good as they do on our three, to five thousand dollar 3d. Printers they, just take a little while to produce and they're smaller. So. Talking about the filament in these type of printers and there's, two major types. Abs. And PLA, there's. Actually, other types of a, filament now that. Are becoming, more, more popular there's ptg, there's. Hips. There's. Dissolvable, filament, like, PVA, polyvinyl. Alcohol. Which. If you, think about, you. Know the need for support material if you, can have a printer that has dual extruders, so, that you have one type of material in one and your dissolvable, support. Material on the other then. If you can dissolve support materials you've taken away kind, of one of the main main, issues with this type of technology, we're having to clean off the model becomes. An issue, but. Going back to kind of the traditional two types ABS versus PLA everyone. Probably here is familiar with ABS because it's, the plastic that's used in Legos so it, has tons have a glassy exterior, it's very strong.
It's. Also petroleum-based. So. When, we talk about printers, and we talk about emissions coming from the printer I'm being. Petroleum-based. It's. Tends, to produce fumes that are very noxious and. Unless you have extremely good ventilation you, know ideally in a. The. Base came off Oh. Drat. All. Right I'm gonna stop it because I don't want to debug this in front of you. Okay. Hunters. Also fail a lot. Especially. When you're doing a live demo. Um. So. So. Talk about the noxious fumes, you know emissions, are an issue with 3d printing I recommend. You, always having, adequate. Ventilation I, would, say it was a BS you want to stay far away from it PLA. Is. The. Sense, for poly lactic acid, this, is derived from a plant starch so people. Consider it green although. You know it so does it, is biodegradable although. It's over many, many many years is. Also, fair your, the strength is is. Fairly good maybe, not quite as strong as abs but, unless, you're putting lots, of stretch and pressure pressure, on the models you might not really, need. Those properties, um. It extrudes. At a slightly lower temperature so your, printer can you. Don't have maybe have to have quite such a high-end printer, to, do like you do, for abs and. You. Can sand both of them but, abs, has the ability to be dissolved in acetone and. People. Like that because you, can create what's called an acetone, vapor wash, where. You can put your model either you can dip it in acetone or you can put it in something where there's a, stone, fumes and it, tends to what. I'll do is it'll kind of I'll. Use the word melt but, it'll it'll, soften the, exterior of your model, and so, you, know instead of having a model with you you can see the lines perhaps, from the layers now, you have a glossy. Model that, looks like you. Know it came from a mold ejection system. PLA. You can't do that it doesn't dissolve in I'm. I know there's chemicals that it does it's all been but they're they're not ones that you would have access to. So. You can stand it you can paint it with a you know an epoxy. But. So. That's. That's kind of one trade-off. The. Other thing about PLA is that, you. Have to be aware, of is that it does, because. It extrudes it'll lower slightly over temperature, at. Around. Like. 100. 120. Degrees Fahrenheit it starts, to soften so. You know for most applications, and that's not a big issue but if say you're printing out something to hold your phone in your car in the. Hot Florida summers that's, an issue sometimes it'll, start to droop so. These are all properties, that you have to think of, when. You're 3d, printing so. Why, would, you why. Do you want to print. What are some what, were some reasons you, know we hear. The criticism about 3d printing is that it's only for producing trinkets, and you. Know obviously we, have some trinkets up here after. This you know during lunch I hope you have a chance to come up and look at the models but.
There Are real. You know academic teaching research, real. Reasons to to. Use 3d printing and, we'll. Kind of go through your I've categorized them into visualization, sharing. Preservation. And then creation. So. 3d, printing is is fabulous. For for, visualizing, especially things. That are difficult, to. To. Comprehend, otherwise so, for. Example and Natasha. Vidiq and she is. She's. With the museum she, was a grad student here I'm not sure if she's graduated at this point this was several years ago but, she was creating lesson plans to, help, fourth. Graders understand. Differences. In scales of objects and. She. Printed out a. Virus. Tardigrades. Which are you know minut, um. Loud, lice. And. I'm not going to try not that um, and what she did is that you, especially with the virus is that she, printed it out at different scales until. You. See this upper one that's actually that's. This. Virus, I think multiplied by a thousand, and, she had to pronounce pieces, because it was so large but. You, she probably heard, of this to the the class, so. They could they could see the differences in scale and kind of get a sense of, how. Small things actually are. We're. Seeing it more and more in the medical fields. Allowing. Surgeons. To visualize. To, even practice the, surgery before they go and actually, do it on people, this. Was an interesting case these. Were this. Was back in 2016, in Houston. At the Texas Children's Hospital, this, was a conjoined. Twins and you, can see this. Is they, had a CT, scan and they they 3d printed the organs and the. Ribs and you can see this was a very very complicated situation. And. Of course you know they this this whole process took months of preparing. For the surgery but, by by. Printing it out by actually seeing how things were and they. Were able to plant out and the surgery was a success that. You, want to have you want to make sure that your 3d printer is very accurate. It's. You. Know producing, the. Princess, you, know at. A high, enough quality well, we are actually contacted. This was a couple years ago by. The the, vet school and they were they, had a 3d model of a tumor and it, was a dog and they were gonna do surgery in the next couple days and they wouldn't know if we could print it for them so that they could look at the tumor and you. Know think you better hurt well we have nicer printers in this but you, know I had to decline because and, send them over I referred, them to the fab lab because, I didn't want to take the chance that our 3d model just wouldn't quite be accurate, and, they'd go to do surgery on these dogs. But. I think this is a really, excellent application I'm something else that we've been working on and, library is and, this is over several years we've. Been printing out models for, researchers. In SC zoology and they. Are developing, a training device and I've, only seen pieces, so I haven't seen it in the full, all. Together. But. It's going to be a training device to, allow. Simulation. For giving, injections through, the ribcage. So. Again something that you want people to practice on before they actually do, the real thing. I'm. Also talking. About concepts, that are difficult to comprehend otherwise.
Mathematics. So, you can print out functions, here's. A Klein bottle up, there in blue this. Is a Golgi, apparatus, so. This was about seven layers and this was printed out by, a, biology. Professor here, at UF and he, wanted to you, be able to pass this out to, his students so they could see how it all I looked, and I have to say that that was a quite, a challenge, to print we, have some one specific colors we've. Done we've, printed human, proteins. So. This was actually, when. We started our service back in this, would've been about early. 2014. This. Was one of our our guinea pigs I'm a. Researcher. In. Who. Is, starting to understand how human proteins interact and he. Thought that if he could hold them in his hands and you know physically manipulate, them and try to get them together he that would give him insight and so, he you, know his whole research lab came to library and we all you, know watched our brand-new printer you're printing out these human proteins and. They were so excited that he. Went back he purchased his own 3d printer and we, really haven't seen him since although. We've seen other people come for mr. apartment saying you know hey Brian stuff is over to you and you, know let's and that's, kind of the the pathway, to getting into 3d. Moving. On beyond, visualization, talking, about preservation and sharing this. Is something I find really exciting because, there's so many you, know fragile, and rare things in the world that. You know especially in, research and teaching that, you want you, want to have access to you want your students to be able to hold and experience. But. For whatever reason they, you. Know they won't be able to otherwise. So now with with, 3d printing if, you can retain the 3d model you, can print it out or. You, can you. Look at it digitally and, you can you. Can see what it's like without having to, go. To the object or to acquire it, many. Museums now are are. Scanning in their specimens, their objects and making. Them available these. Are from, the. Sony ins. X3d. I think, website um so. It's, your, website they're freely available, you, can download some of the models and you. Can not all of them are suitable for printing like obviously, Amelia Earhart's soup probably, won't do so well in the printer but. You could try to print the bust. I'm. Paleo, teacher org this, is a NSF. Funded project, with the Florida Museum of Natural History and, I, think it's a partnership with Duke University, and. They. 3d. Scanned a full, set of Megalodon teeth and also. A paler. Paleolithic. Equine. Teeth and. What. They they did they scanned it and they. Provided those models, both. Digitally, and 3d. Printing so there was a whole summer a couple years ago where you just printed out shark teeth and I.
Have One of those here. Of. Course you know kids see this and they instantly know what this is and this is real size which. You, know it's pretty amazing and, then. Along, with these these models or, the files um if they have access to a 3d printer and they, came also within lesson, plans and so, you know for example with the equine teeth students. Could measure the. Size they could look at. You. Know how the tooth the. Wear on the tooth and. By. Making different measurements, that would, tell them about the. The climate at the time because you could tell you, know what were the what were the horse is eating when. It was a grass, were. They showing on branches because, that would have different wear on the teeth and then that once. You know what they're what. They were eating that would give you a sense of what. The vegetation was like and that would tell you about, the. The temperatures at the time so. It's kind, of a proxy so. Looking at how the climate, has changed. And. Then of course if you make measurements on shark teeth and then it, can tell you the age of the shark I know. There's other things involved, but very. Popular. And. Actually I was Adam Gainesville high school about a year or so ago and there. Had one of the teeth there and I went to see Jen you know we printed that out so, I know that they're being used at you. Know K through 12 schools not only in Florida but also across, the United States. Another. This. Was about maybe two, years ago how evil heard about this the homeowner lady discovery. So. A few this was, very. Exciting down. Deep, in the the base of a cavern, or a cave system in South Africa, they. Discovered, just. A large, amount, of fragments, of bones. And. It. Was very difficult to traverse well. They went in and they actually, 3d scanned the entire site so, they have that preserved, before. They remove some of the fragments and. Then when they came out actually in the field they, 3d scanned and they made these these. Models available it's. A website called Morpho source and it's. Hosted by Duke and you can go there after this and you can download. The. Scans some of their in CT scans some of them have been converted to the. Type of file format that you need for, the 3d printer, so, we. Did this when they were available this. Is a picture showing the, printing of progress so you can see that we had a lot of support material. Printing. Halfway and then one. Of my colleagues Dan. Robertson, he's. African, Studies librarian, and, he. He, painted these and that. Was kind of his first experience painting. Plastic, models but, he used he went to I think was do ants and acrylic. Paint and sponges, and. They. Turned out I would say very they. Look very realistic, and. So. Those, have been passing. Around and and as. I this isn't my field but as I understand it a lot. Of times you know there's more researchers than there are our, bones, to actually, analyze. And so, for, the first time. These, were, made very quickly publicly, available and the, paper was also open access and so, it's a case where you're making you.
Know These researchers, decided. That it was very important for the entire basically. The entire world to, have access to their research immediately, rather than holding, on kind of hoarding it and. Making. It difficult to access and. They've. Continued, to release, you know more 3d models and. So. It's, it's. Really quite something. Really. And then moving into creating. With 3d which of course is what people you know mostly think about with 3d printing this. Is a student organization called grip this is at UF and the. Library sponsored, them over the last few years and they. They. Design, and 3d, print prosthetics, for children. And teenagers with upper limb differences. Mostly. Their their. Local youth but. They've also worked with with, children I. Know. There was there was a child in Arizona they've also worked with a child down in South, America I forget, exactly which country. But. They have these different projects and it started off with 3d. Printing, kind. Of this basic, hand it sort of works off puppetry, where you bend your wrist and it curls the fingers and. And. That was great and all but then they just they realized after working closely with the children and this is always in partnership, with a child the child gets us you know they talk about what they they, want their hand to look like what color they want what, designs they want, they. Realized that you, know the five finger hand might not really be what. A child once they. Might what, they're moving towards is kind of a modular so depending on the task that they're doing they. Attach, a different device. And it, lets them. Let's. See I don't have the picture here this, is one of their detachable, ones so there's the five hand but there's also an attachment that lets let's. This boy I'm kayak. Also. They. Have a marshmallow shooter. They're. Developing all sorts of different and that's driven, by, by. The child or the teenager you know I want to be able to do this and then the undergrads here they brainstorm, how can they work how, can they make this work and it's it's.
Not Just with the undergrads they're not just engineering majors there's also majors. Coming from art. Psychology. And so it's really an interdisciplinary, I'm, group, and this, year they've. Actually doubled in size over, 200. Students attended, the first meeting and they, have ten different projects, going on so. It's a really, really. Exciting group. And. Here's. Another case was several years ago this, is an undergrad and he. Wanted to study. How, Predators. Go after baby go gopher, tortoises and gopher. Tortoises are endangered. And. His. His plan was he wanted to have a model. Of this and he wanted to put it in a city area and then. He wanted to film how the Predators go after it he. Only had one specimen, though and was preserved in alcohol and. So. He needed to you, know figure out how could he help, me make. All these models and you want to be as accurate as possible and so, you. Probably heard a little earlier there was an app a while ago called 1 2 3 D catch that. Used photogrammetry. Taking. Images of something and then converting into a model that's. What Gabriel used, turn. On the video here. And. So. He came to the library and you, know he's a poor undergrad he didn't have the funds to, do something expensive but, for, just a few dollars he could print out this model what, he discovered was that the model being out of plastic was too hard to record the predator bite marks and so, he ended up taking the model turning, into a mold and then I'm creating, lots, of different you, know baby, tortoises. Out of plaster, and then he painted them he scented, them and he buried them and this. Is a study area. Down. Near the Cape so. Apparently. He, fooled a lot of the Predators. We. Have a raccoon. Come by he. End up winning award for this research, he. Went down to Disney and presented at something. He. Also had a night camera. No. No that's a, these raccoons. And. So this would this is research that we've been very difficult to do without. Having 3d scanning and 3d modeling, and printing. They're. Trying to get at it a. Second. We have a bear I like to. Possum. I. Think. One of these the, Predators actually, does get the. There. It is. Open. There's the bear. Something he was able to retrieve it and look at the bite marks and. Yep. It's buried. So. These are the kind of projects that we get really excited about in a library you know students seeing students enabled to to create these you, know the prosthetics, and do their research that, they wouldn't be able to do otherwise. There. It is on the printer. Okay. So. Now. That I've inspired you um how, do you 3d print. So. The first thing you have to do is you have to have a 3d model you, know and you've. Already heard a couple hours now how you can scan in an actual, object and create, a model, so, that's one of the ways but. There's also websites, that. You. Can download 3d. Models that are free to use. We. Mentioned the Smithsonian website and I'll talk about a few others in a second and then the third way is that you can you can make your own model. Using. Modeling software, but. First this.
Should Look familiar talk. About file. Formats now for 3d files, there's all different types, of formats and for. 3d printing an STL, file that's the most common. Some. There's different. Different. Words people say for STL sarah lithographic, is is one it's. A grid, and, the. Grid is made up of triangles, that. Hopefully, are not missing, and so this is one of the things I want to point out is that, if you have a model, file that, has errors, in your grid where, you're missing triangles, that. Basically. Renders it you, can't print it it's not a printable, say. It's in it it's. Not manifold, it's not watertight so. It's the concept, that for 3d printing what we care about is the surface we. Don't care about what's inside the model it's. Not a CT scan. So if you think about the model as being an egg, you know the shell has, to be has. To be whole it can't have any cracks I can't have any holes it. Needs to be watertight. There. Is software that, you can use to repair models so if you find a model that you really like but. It. Has, you know gaps in the grid and you if you're scanning you're, always going to have to clean I mean you're never going to have a perfect 3d, model. But. There is, so. Much lab was mentioned meshmixer. By Autodesk that's, another solution, there's. Other other, software, but. You can put, your model in and you can heal it you can clean it off and then, hopefully you can 3d print it. So. For downloading, kind. Of one of the the major ones at this point is called Thingiverse like universe but with things there's. Probably, over a million models. There at this point and. Hopefully. There's instructions and, there's. Photos, if. Say. You download, a model and you print out you have the ability to upload. Your photo to it and make comments you know this was a good model this is a bad model and it's important to look at those because. Thingiverse. Is like, wikipedia where anyone, can, can. Upload a model and you don't know if it was someone very skilled or my. Eight-year-old doing, it and, you can and you. Know which one you want to print and so you've never printed before you don't want to select a model that has no, actual, photographs, and you have to look at it really closely because people, are getting very good at creating. Computer-generated, images. Where it looks realistic but, it's actually not you, want to make sure that someone has printed out before, you spend your money and your time your effort to print out your own version. You. Imagine is another, one. There's Smithsonian's. X3d. There's. My mini factory there's. A there's, a large number of repositories, out there and there are overlap, and models between the two so. You know if you're looking for something very specific take a look. But, I would start probably with Thingiverse, what, you want to do though is make sure that the, STL, file that's, what you download, you.
Can Do also OBJ's, but STL. For. The 3d printers that's, that's the easiest. And. Just, remember that if you do find something you like you, can clean it up with mesh lab meshmixer. There's. Actually an online tool Microsoft. Has a partnership or they own net. Fab and it's, a website where. It's free and, you. Upload the model and it. Tries to fix it and then you download it and it actually, does. A fairly good job most the time you always want to take a look at it to make sure it hasn't just covered up something that's, very important but, if you just have a small few you. Know a few holes in your mesh, it does, work fairly well it's free it's fast. Ok, the second one 3d scanning you've already heard quite a bit about that I. Do, want to mention that, with the structure scanners that they showed you we, circulate, them in Marsten so. We have them for checkout and they. Are free to use you take them out library for three days and. We. Also or, if you need longer you come talk to me. We. Also check out iPads so. You, can walk out library with a scanning solution right there you can go there today and get them now and. And. Scan. We. Also have a 3d. Laser. Scanner so we have a next engine the, Wonder Marston right now is down we're, kind of moving it around trying to find a good spot for it but, the architecture and fine arts library has, one as does the Health Science Center library so. These. Are. See. It's this picture up there it's. About the size of a cereal box and it has a turntable, and is attached to a workstation, and. You can put your object there and it. Produces a very high resolution and um scans, it does, take some work to clean it up so this isn't you know a fast scan. You got your model you, know the structure is fairly fast the. Next engine is going to take you at a time, but. Those are free to use you, can have their own walk-up basis so you don't to make a reservation you just go in and ask where the printer or the scanner is and you, can use it for as long as you need to. And. So then the third way is that you can create your own model. Using. Modeling software there. Are many, different. Kinds. Of software out there our, engineers. They. They're. Required to learn SolidWorks. So. That's if you're making something that needs to be very precise and geometrical. SolidWorks. It's kind of Engineers choice. For software. Tinkercad. Is. This is free it's a another, Autodesk product it's web-based, it, looks very childish, but. It's, very easy to learn and it. Produces, models. That do really well in the printer, it's. Also very fast to use and so. You, can even import models, into Tinkercad, you, can modify. Them you can slice things off and you can export them for printing you can add text to it which, for, a lot of people that's what they want to do is add you know words to whatever model they have and. You can export it and that's ready for printing so if I need to do something that's very simple like cutting, things off or, merging, models, together I'll just put it into Tinkercad because, it's so fast and, then, if we talk about more organic shapes we. Have blender, there's. Maya there's, 3ds, max, so. Definitely. Software, that has a bit of a steeper. Learning curve. But. You can produce some really amazing, models, I. Do. Want to mention the, Sketchup. Doesn't. Export models. Very well for printing so, STL's. Maybe. Some of the new versions have fixed it but the. Models that we see coming out of Sketchup they. Tend to I, don't. Know gaps or something, about it makes, it very difficult to print so I would, just advise. Using another product. We. Also have if, you're, interested in SolidWorks, but, you don't want to figure. Out the license there is a free academic license. For. Students but. Take. A look at on shape, it's. It's, a web base and it's free and. It's. It's. Created, by people who used to work at SolidWorks so it has some of the same capability. But. Just remember that not all 3d. Modeling software is designed for 3d printing that, just because you have a 3d, representation, of a model doesn't, mean that it's going to do well on the 3d printer and. It, might actually work on one type of 3d printer you're thinking about those different types of technology but not work on other types so, you have to think about your model and, use.
The Technology that is best suited for that. So. Then what makes a good printable model. This. Is actually we. Had an exhibit recently. With um insects and entomology, has been CT scanning some of their specimens, and then, printing them out and so, obviously. The dragonfly is not actual. Replicas but these other ones are made, from CT scans, so. That was also kind of a challenge to print out spiders. So. Things that you you're gonna care about obviously. The design has. To be has. To be well done you need to be structurally sound so, say. You're printing, out a box we, print out lots of boxes I don't, know why the. Sides of your boxes have to touch and they, have to touch well. May have to overlap they, can't just you, know you're modeling when you just get them to kind of touch, a little bit because when you print them out if they're. Not solidly, connected. They. Might not be attached. And. Of course you don't want any unintended, holes. You. Think by the appearance, you're gonna care about the scale because this will be a physical object make. Sure that things are proportional, and make. Sure that the walls are thick enough so I, kind, of give a rule of thumb it needs to be at least one, millimeter thick, if, you're using this type of printer. Otherwise. There just isn't really enough plastic, to, to hold it together. You. Think about this the limitations, of your printers um you're. Gonna have a, size, a maximum, size of the plate so for, the Printrbot play here it's, about four. By five and, then about. Five inches height so, that's the largest model, that you can print on that printer and maybe, even, with some printers you don't want to go to the very full extent the plate because, the plate not be fully level and so it's tilting slightly your, cave, your model stays in the center but if it gets out to the the. Edge of the plate, some. You, can see maybe it doesn't adhere like. You saw the octopus, pop off and. Then you have problems if. You need to print out something that's larger than what your printer allows then, you can slice it up into different, different. Portions and then later glue it together and that's a way to get around it and that's what you saw with the virus. Again make sure that your your, features are at least one millimeter thick that's, kind of a rule of thumb, think. About the supports, if you. Need supports, maybe there's a way that you know when, you give us a model for printing or you're printing out yourself, in the. Software you can rotate it and you. Can decide which way you want it to print, and. Maybe. There's a way that you can print it that you're gonna minimize support, material and so you want to keep that in mind or maybe, just by designing it slightly different you remove the need for support, material. Because, it, does take a while to do support material to remove it so, this is a molecule. That was, made by a student. Chemistry, this is what her research is on she went to give a copy to her her advisor so.
This. Thing was covered in support material and it took me about two hours with my pliers and a couple band-aids to, get it all out which. Was doable and she was happy to do it on her own. But. It was it was work and there's some things that your imprint that you're just not gonna be able to get in and actually, removes the support material here's. A case. So. You might have you. Might recognize this and we didn't actually even plan it out you saw, the digital model of the statue this was scanned and so we printed it out and this is a while ago this. The print actually isn't very good. But. It had lots of support material, in it and. Later. On you can come down and you can look at it's kind of the, waffling material that's hanging, hanging. Off and, actually, this this Ridge there support material in there and it's, just it's not gonna be possible to remove. So. There's in some cases where, you can't remove it and so you have, to think about is that is, this the type of printer that you want to use for printing out your object or maybe you want to find a printer that has the dissolvable support material. And. Then you want to think about is the printer material is it appropriate for what you're using do. You need to be waterproof. Are. You gonna be putting in your car in Florida in the summer. You. Know the if, you think about the formlabs the rosin printers the. Models are they're just gorgeous you know they're high-resolution, and they're lovely but, I saw one at a museum in New York City and and it, was it's, kind of a 3d printing display and it was out for lots, of people heads had held them and they, were kind of sticky at that point so like moisture had, affected the the model and I, don't know if it was you. Know sticking for another reason but it, just was kind of tacky and, I, don't, have experience with that type of printer but I suspect there was a way to to. Preserve it I'm some, sort of material you could paint over it to keep it from getting like that but, you have to think about you. Look at the material properties, of you. Know the filament for example you know i mentioned not just abs and PLA but there's also ptg, and nylon, and. All. Different types of material and the material properties are available online that you can look at say their tensile strength and, see is that what you need. I'm. Talking. About supports. Are difficult to remove and this. Is I. Think. This is Hubble telescope. So. This this material down here that support material that's holding up and, you. Can see how how. Thin, the. Solar. Collectors I'm pretty sure that's what that is and they're. So thin that they're smaller they're, thinner than the actual support material so one of the things you're gonna see is, it's. Possible to print it out but when you remove that support material it breaks off the actual model. And. So, that would, be a failure. Also. Models, can just be too thin the, printer is gonna try to print it out and I mean it does say you know I can't print this out it does its best, we. Had a request to print on a feather and you, see this the center is edge on this, was too thin different. Software. Thought I could print it out but it couldn't, and, they. Course wanted to print it up right because they wanted both sides you, know preserved but we couldn't do that, and. So. Have your model so to get ready for printing there, is software then that's, separate from all the modeling software there's printer software that, takes a 3d model and they, prepare it for printing so we call this slicer and it slices it into, different you, know the different layers and you tell it the thickness so. Most of the printers that we have in the library they're, printing at point, two millimeters, so.
It's Very, very thin and that's a single layer so, you can even go down to point one on our printers of course, you know the more expensive commercial, 3d printers will do even higher resolution. You. Go from point 2 to point one that doubles the print time and, we so we we even at point two you have models that will take 36 hours 40. Hours so. Doubling it. That's. A long time, there's. Free software, for controlling the printer sokurah. Andhra, petit a if you, end up. Using. One of our library, 3d printers and I'll talk about that Kyra would, be software that you would download. There's also proprietary, software and. If. You really into 3d printing I just want to put a plug out for simplify, 3d, which. Is 149. For 2 licenses, but, Bar, None is the best printer, control software out there. We. Decided it was worth it. So. We're, on campus how can you print the libraries how many people had printed at the libraries. This. Is great okay, well, I'll just go. Through a few things anyway. So. We. Have, 3d. Services at three, of our branch libraries we actually had four over here in education, but as you know they're closed right now so. When they reopen hopefully we'll add them to the list. Marcin, we have the, the. Largest number of printers so. We offer 3d printing we, have our scanner and we're. Circulating, technology so out of Marston next, to the front flies. Over. An AFA we, have a 3d scanner and. Then. Down the Health Science Center they, have several 3d printers and they, have a scanner you can use so depending where you're on campus there's, an option for you and. The. Way our service workflow goes is that, we have a website, 3d. Print UF Lib dot, UofL de deo right. Now we have about 10 color the filament including, glow-in-the-dark and. You. Can go to the website and you can upload the, 3d model to the site and. We. Then look at it our. 3d. Desk is open from 9 to 4 you're also welcome to come in person and we. Can look at the model with you and you, know talk about whether or not it's going to be doable for printing. We, slice it and. We. Then send you a quote or if you're in person will tell you there if. For. Whatever reason you want to be a certain size or you want to keep it under a certain dollar amount you tell us that and we, can resize as necessary, our. Charge, is we, charge fifteen cents a gram and you. Can you prepay either with a credit card or a P card and then. It goes in the queue and. When. It finishes printing we pull it off we send you an email and you, come to library during our business hours and you pick it up at the Service Desk so. We try to make it as easy as possible and, as affordable as possible. Here's, some of our printers, here's. Our new fusion, 400, this is our largest, actually. We, just got a slightly, larger one now I think about it the, fusion 400, is 14 inches by 14 inches by 12 and a half now, if you print out something that takes that entire build volume that, is days worth of printing it's.
Gonna Cost a pretty penny so. We've. Had one person take advantage of the entire height. We. Have a slightly smaller fusion, f3o six with. 12 inches cubed, we. Did just get an Ulta maker 3 that. I think, the build plate is slightly smaller, but. It's higher I think it's a 16 inch so. If you wanted to put on something that's very tall and skinny. Um that would be the way to go and, then. We have these, Printrbot plays. That. We, are checking out. And. The way that works is. We. Have Oh. Between. 10 to 15 but. They break so it's hard to say how many we have at a given time, but. At some point hopefully we have all 15 in circulation you can check them out for 3 days this is free to you so if you want to get into 3d printing and you pay anything this, is the solution because. We're gonna give you 250. Grams of filament it's white at this point but. I have a secret for you we had you have a box behind the desk where, when these spools kind, of get down to the point where it's not worth our time with the bigger jobs we'll, take off kind of the drugs of this and we'll put it in a box so you come and say you know you, have some orange filament we'll, get the box and we'll give you you know whatever color you want. They. Come in these Pelican, cases here and wheels, so. This is really sturdy and. You. Will it out of the library I would. Advise you know not printing, it in your bedroom next to your bed with the windows closed you know make sure you have adequate ventilation at home, but. You can print for three days as much as you want if you run out of fill in you come back to the library and we'll, give you more filament. So. You can really print whatever you want, um you do need to have it's heathered to a computer, so. Unlike say our larger printers where you can just put an SD card and it goes you, know by itself you. Need to have a laptop connected, at all times to, run them I'm. Just kind of a heads up if you are doing this make sure that you don't have a screen saver or your, computer go to sleep you know after an hour or two because. That's really unfortunate it. Shuts. Down the printer and there's no way to recover once it stops. There. Are a few other options on campus and, then there. Are online, options for 3d printing so over. At an Infiniti residence hall I'm so, just actually slightly north east, of us a few blocks there's. The Fab Lab and they're located on the first floor and they. Have. They. Have plastic printers, like the ones that we have in the library they, also have rosin, I don't know if it's a formlabs one or two and. They're one of those and they also have a powder based and that. Can do multiple colors so. Those are good options if. You get into something that you. Really want high resolution. Go. Visit the nano scale research, facility, let's locate it on Center Drive they're. Very friendly there it's not, quite, set up to make it easy where you just walk in and you pay and you. Have to go through kind. Of using chartfields, and have it attached to a grant but. They have a poly jet printer so, do you remember the one that was showing where it's spraying out the. The liquid droplets, and curing that's. A poly jet and, it. Can do multiple serials in the same model and so they've been printing out specimens, from the Museum, of Natural History and we had some of them on display in Marcin recently, but. They were CT scans of say a lizard and you, could see the inner organs and, the, you, know the skeleton inside and the exterior so. Really. Beautiful prints. They. Also have a CT scanner and so these are things that you'll. Need to pay, a bit of for but they're available to the community, and they're they're really great to work with there. Are some other options online so shapeways sculpt, do i materialize. These, are online services, that say you want to have something, print out in gold or silver or, or. Plaster. Or whatever, they. Have about you know 20 25 different types of materials that you can then you. Again you upload a model you tell them what you want and they'll mail it back to you so there's. A lot of options out there. Is. There any questions about 3d printing, yeah. Pla. In. Transit designing your own filament, is, that what your. Yes. And there. Are people definitely. Developing. New new. Filaments, mixtures. New. Formulations. You. Know with this type basically, if it, can soften at. 180. To. 280. Degrees celsius. Then. You, can use it in that type of printer. At. Poly lactic acid. Yeah. So it's dried from plant starch. Close to. Well. There are concrete 3d, printers. And. Those are beyond large scales, I haven't seen anything that's. This. Design for kind of a smaller scale 3d printers I mean there's there's, people who are 3d printing houses. So. Over in um over.
In Fine arts. They. Have a clay. 3d printer. Play. Yes. Where it's you, know the slip. This. Is actually extruding it and then they fire it. There. Is. And. Bronze. Right. And so there that's another thing they're doing is that they're taking so even just PLA, and they're mixing it with different additives so. We do have some wood filament still and Marsten that's kind of one of our secret filaments from a, project that you, can ask about now. That you know. Difficulty. With things like that no woods not so much but say bronze and I've held a bronze 3d, print a conference. And it's I mean it feels like bronze is very heavy you can polish it and it. Tends to destroy your nozzle because, of the abrasiveness, of the particles coming through and so you. Know it eats up your 3d printer. Since. You know we're, trying to keep down costs. Right. But. On your own 3d printer that would be something, to try and it, is pretty amazing. Yeah. Right. Right so I you know in essence. You. Know first of all these are being subsidized by student technology fees so, at some point perhaps a free filament runs out we, have a lot of it still. But. The 15 cents grams you know pays for the wear on the machines and our labor. Well. So, we. We. Are willing to work with you in making the model it's. Very time-consuming in, a lot of cases to go through and fix a model for printing, but. What, we do is when we see something come through or that either. The person says you know it's okay for printing or just you know we can tell it's not going to work out we'll, get back to, the patron and you. Know we'll kind of show you screenshots, this is why isn't working or come in everything's. When things are really bad we'll say you come in and we'll we'll talk about this and I'll, show you some software and you, know if if, we can do it within you, know thirty minutes we'll do it together otherwise, you. Know, sorry. Has. It turned off, and. Then. We'll help you you'll go through it we also do teach workshops. We. Have a workshop coming up in another month or so on meshmixer. I don't. Um, but. Let me show you. Where. You can jump. To web. Yeah. You're saying that if. You go to the Science Library. That's. Where I work. We. Have a link here to 3d printing. Here's. All the information so we, have a guide. And. Then this, is the website I was telling you about. And. You. Can contact us here. So. We do have a three dollar minimum. See. If I can think about so. I want to say that this was. Was. About five dollars. And. This, was actually even, though it doesn't look you, know too much different perhaps in size. This. Was I think a smidge over twenty because. It was covered in a support material and that's. Another reason you want to try to minimize your support material because it minimizes cost and. Time. Any. Other questions, yeah. So. For. The majority of our printers they're just a single extruder and so that would just be a single color. We. Do. Now have. You. Have at least two, dual extruders, so, they can do two materials at the same time so you do two colors um, we. Are still playing around with it so. This. Is I, have a I. Have. An example here this is actually my home printer. But. It's a frog. I don't know if you can see it well it's two colors green and pink and so. When you're doing a dual color or, it. There's even printers with Forks jurors. Using. Ffs tile if you're doing say powder based you, can do almost full color, you. Have to have a model. Per color and then. They're co-located. And so, we're the pink is the green can't be if that makes sense and so, the way it prints is it still doing the same you know layer by layer but, it'll do the pink color first and then, in that same layer it will go through and it'll do the green and it, moves, up and it does that over and over again so, your suitor nozzles they have to be very well calibrated, because, if they're even off just a bit as the, one color goes through it can you knock your model it can actually you know push it off the bed or, damage the print and.
Then Also. They. Need to be again. Calibrated, well enough that, the two colors, will merge together so. They're not you know this, they're. In the same space but they're separate, separate. Lines if you, look at this some of it's fairly, well merged and some of its kind of separate. Yeah. We. Were hoping to get this paper based 3d printer. Where. It's, sheet of paper and, it's, full color cuz it's ink you know like for me inkjet printer and then it has, a carbon or a diamond blade where it slices the parts and, it glues it together like with Elmer's glue and stacks, up together and produces, what. You know the websites look like beautiful models. And. We we try to get one for about two years and they, just had distributor problems and we were never able to get one in the, the, money just disappeared, so I'm hoping for another tech fee cycle that I can request it once they're available I don't. There's. There, are other possibilities, out there. Yes. We have an under under if for uninterrupted. Power, supply attached. To our large printers because that happened to us to where we, were having a renovation and electricians, came and they accidentally cut the power to the room and we, lost some, jobs. We. Have a UPS. Yeah. And again. You know with these types, of printers you, even. Two hours in you don't want to lose your model and so make sure your computer doesn't go to sleep or it's, not a battery powder. Any. Other questions about. 3d. So. If it's if, it's two vertical, colors that's. When you need to have to tune the. Two nozzles because. It's doing layer by layer up if, you, can rotate it so, it's two horizontal like it like a birthday, cake for example layer, cake there. Actually is a trick and. And. You have to babysit the printer but when it gets to the point where you want to change the color you can pause the printer unload. Reloading. The new color and then, continue, we've. Also done it where we. Timed it really well and we snipped off the the filament and we just followed it in with a new color. It's. Not easy no, um but. If, you really care about it and you're doing a small model then it's worth it there, there is something called the mosaic palette that, was on Kickstarter, a couple years ago and it's, a device that you'll have multiple colors and feed, into and then. Depending. On what color. Your layer is it'll. Feed in the right color. I've. Seen an action but we don't have one of those but. Again it's really finicky, and it's a lot of work and, your. Model you have to specify your you, know it so at that point you have to specify, the color of that particular, part of your model so that's, added information you have to have.
Painting. Works really well too. Any. Other questions. Yes. Have you seen that done. Make. Your name afterwards because I've seen it in magazines but I've actually never seen in person. Is. That just texture, or can you actually do features. As well, does it preserve. It. Does really well I mean if it's not handled too much I mean we're, creating art with it. So. Yeah. We're, experimenting, with, textures. But. Yeah it's pretty. Neat. There. Another comment. Okay. So. Drop. 3d printing now and we're gonna move into augmented, reality. Just. Perhaps the more technically challenging part of this presentation if. It works out. So. How have you all had a chance to download HP, reveal. Great. Ok, so, you. Want to open that up I'm. Gonna talk about it start, off you know give an introduction to augmented reality, kind. Of some uses here at UF but, then we're gonna jump into HP reveal, and and. Play around with creating your own aura. Okay. So I've been in reality. As. We discussed earlier that's when you you, overlay, digital media on, top, of the real world and so, as a user you're seeing both things in the physical world and whatever. Digital media that is and that can be it, can be an image it can be text it could be a video it, can be sound. It doesn't have to be an actual image so, sound is considered augmented reality as well. This, is not this is different, of course from virtual reality where, VR, is that user is transported, entirely into general world and so. AR is both. The, real and the digital together. There's. Different types of augmented reality, I'd. Never actually, before, preparing, this presentation thought about the different categories but. There. There. Are distinct types marker. Based this. Is when there, is say an image that you know precisely and, your software knows, exactly what that image looks like and when it sees that image that, it then, knows to trigger. This new digital content, and you. Know in terms of software that's the easiest because you're recognizing, something exactly, and you may be you know there's different shading it to be concerned with different angles but. That, image is the same. Then, there's markerless, so, this is now, more taxing, for your software because. It's. Looking for features it's not looking for an exact replica, necessarily, so, it's using. Object. Based recognition, to try to understand, to map out what it's looking at and when, it sees something it recognizes, you. Know features, of it knows how to -. So. Then correlate, it with whatever overlay. Whatever digital media you, want to show in the real world you. Can also use this with location-based. Information, so. So, say you have your tablet you have maybe GPS, enabled. Or the. Accelerometer. And, so not only does it see something it, can figure out what it is but. It's also in the right location, to, put over that content I'm, super. Position now, this is this is a very, closely related to the marker list but. This, is when then. Digital objects, are. Overlaid. Entirely, even, entirely, obscuring. Things. In the. Real world so, for example, IKEA. Now has a virtual catalogue, app that. You can send your room and you can put furniture in different, places and it makes it look different like your room you know is populated, with IKEA, furniture. And. Then there's projection, based and I'm. Not gonna go into this too much but it's really interesting this. Is when you're. Gonna project a light. You're, forming, some sort of an interface onto, the real world so, say an. Augmented. Reality keyboard. Where, the keyboard would be there and the. The software can, can. Sense your finger movement and, that's. Then triggering a, response in the software. So. When you think about.
Research. And teaching and you talk, about here at UF what. Are you sister a are it's. Not, all entertainment, just like 3d printing isn't all about printing out Yoda heads. Talked, about several examples there using English is anyone here from English trace okay. I'm gonna talk about their research because, they're doing some really neat things with social. Criticism and augmented reality, it. Just, says Angela showed you with the Holland's, it lets, you put digital objects into the real world and manipulate them, and. That was pretty cool I thought and we, oh and we have Holland's, that you can check out at Marston as well along. With HTC, vive and, oculus. Rifts so. That's downstairs it made at us. Unless. You are you can augment of reality to put, information at point of need so I don't know if you've seen you, know advertisements, for the hololens where the person is trying to fix their their, sink and they're, able to put say a YouTube video right next, to it or even. Point out you know fix this part fix this part and so, that information is, right there um I've heard of factories, now where, they're. Using augmented reality to. You, know you're looking at a machine, to. Indicate what, parts are which and so that's going to reduce. The need for for, training necessarily. If that information is always there. Also. You, know I don't know it's called word lunch at this point probably google translate, I think, absorb, word lens but, who. Had a chance to use Google's app where, it translates. Is superimposes. The. Translation, of text so. It'